PAST DEDICATION
BAVA METZIA 102 - Dedicated by Eddie and Esther Turkel of N.Y. and family

[102a - 53 lines; 102b - 35 lines]

1)[line 1]בגובתא דקניאGUVSA D'KANYA- a reed tube

2)[line 9]ותוריTOREI- bulls

3)[line 12]ותורי דאתו מעלמא קמו בהV'TOREI D'ASU ME'ALMA KAMU BAH- bulls that came from elsewhere came into it (this yard)

4)[line 14]חצרו של אדם קונה לו שלא מדעתוCHATZERO SHEL ADAM KONEH LO SHE'LO MI'DA'ATO- a person's domain (Chatzer) acquires possession for him of an object that lies in it, even without his knowledge. (The Gemara concludes that this is only true if the Chatzer safeguards what is in it for its owner. If the Chatzer is not protected from outsiders, if cannot acquire an object of Hefker for its owner without the owner's knowledge. The Amora'im argue whether it can acquire a gift for its owner without his knowledge, see Bava Metzia 11b and Background to Bava Metzia 9:10.)

5)[line 15]מציאותMETZI'OS- [ownerless] items that are found

6)[line 19]בחצר שאינה משתמרתCHATZER SH'EINAH MISHTAMERES- a domain (Chatzer) that is not able to safeguard its contents and keep outsiders from taking them (i.e. it is not an enclosed garden or field) (see Background to Bava Metzia 9:10:e)

7)[line 20]יצא לו שם מציאה בעירYATZA LO SHEM METZI'AH BA'IR- the word spread in his city that he found and acquired an item of value

8)[line 24]מיבדל בדילי אינשי מינהMIVDAL BEDILEI INSHEI MINAH- people will stay away from it (even though his Chatzer is Einah Mishtameres)

9)[line 26]והקולט מן האוירV'HA'KOLET MIN HA'AVIR- one who collects from the air [before it lands on the ground]

10)[line 30]אויר חצרו הואAVIR CHATZERO HU- it is the airspace of [the owner's] Chatzer (which has the same Halachos as his Chatzer in terms of his acquiring ownerless items that enter it)

11)[line 31]בשולי פרהB'SHULEI FARAH- the [rear] end of the cow

12)[line 32]אויר שאין סופו לנוח לאו כמונח דמיAVIR SHE'EIN SOFO LANU'ACH LAV K'MUNACH DAMI- the airspace of a Chatzer is not capable of acquiring for its owner (through Kinyan Chatzer, see Background to Bava Metzia 9:10) things that merely pass through it without eventually landing in it; the airspace can only acquire objects that will come to rest on the ground of the Chatzer

13)[line 35]זרק ארנקי בפתח זה ויצאתה בפתח זה, מהו?ZARAK ARNEKI B'FESACH ZEH, V'YATZASA B'FESACH ZEH, MAHU?- If a person who wanted to give his wallet away (see Insights to Bava Metzia 12a) threw the wallet through one door of a friend's Chatzer such that it flew over the entire Chatzer and exited through the door on the opposite side, without landing in the Chatzer, what is the Halachah? (Has the owner of the Chatzer acquired it?)

14a)[line 42]יוני שובךYONEI SHOVACH- doves that nest in dove-cotes

b)[line 42]ויוני עלייהYONEI ALIYAH- doves that nest in an attic

15)[line 43]בשילוחSHILU'ACH (SHILU'ACH HA'KEN)

It is forbidden to take a mother bird that is sitting on her nest together with the eggs or baby birds; rather, one must first send the mother away as prescribed in Devarim (22:6).

16)[line 43]ואסורות בגזל מפני דרכי שלוםV'ASUROS B'GEZEL MIPNEI DARCHEI SHALOM (DARCHEI SHALOM: KINYAN KATAN)

(a)According to the Torah, a person who does not have intelligence cannot effect a Kinyan (a formal Halachically-binding act denoting his acquisition of an object). Therefore, a Cheresh (deaf mute), a Shoteh (see Background to Bava Metzia 80:14:a), and a Katan (minor), who have no intelligence with regard to Halachic matters, cannot effect Kinyanim.

(b)Nevertheless, Chazal instituted a Kinyan mid'Rabanan for a Cheresh, Shoteh and Katan because of Darchei Shalom, i.e. to maintain social justice (Gitin 59b).

17)[line 44]"כי יקרא""KI YIKAREI..."- "If a bird's nest chances to be [before you on the road, in any tree, or on the ground, whether they are young ones, or eggs, and the mother is sitting upon the young, or upon the eggs, you shall not take the mother with the young]." (Devarim 22:6)

18)[line 45]פרט למזומןPERAT LI'MEZUMAN- this excludes [the case of a bird's nest that is] available [to you, i.e. that is on your property and that you have acquired]

19a)[line 45]ביצה ביציאת רובה הוא דאיחייבה לה בשילוחBEITZAH, BI'YETZI'AS RUBAH HU D'ICHAIVAH LAH B'SHILU'ACH- when the majority of the egg has exited the mother bird, one is already obligated in the Mitzvah of Shilu'ach ha'Ken

b)[line 46]ומיקנא לא קניא עד דנפלה לחצרוU'MIKNA LO KANYA AD D'NAFLAH L'CHATZERO- but the owner of the Chatzer does not acquire it until it lands in his Chatzer

20)[line 52]נתעברה השנהNIS'ABRAH HA'SHANAH (SHANAH ME'UBERES)

A Shanah Me'uberes (a leap year) is one in which an extra month is added. The only month that is ever added is Adar, such that in a Shanah Me'uberes there are two months of Adar. The reason for adding the extra month is in order to be certain that Pesach falls in the season of Aviv (spring), as it states in the verse, " שָׁמוֹר אֶת חֹדֶשׁ הָאָבִיב וְעָשִׂיתָ פֶּסַח..." "Shamor Es Chodesh ha'Aviv, v'Asisa Pesach..." - "Observe the month of Aviv, and do the Pesach Sacrifice..." (Devarim 16:1). (For a further discussion of the topic of Shanah Me'uberes, see Background to Rosh Hashanah 7:2.)

21)[last line]בציפוריTZIPORI- a city in the lower Galilee, approximately midway between Tiberias and Haifa

22)[last line]מרחץMERCHATZ- a bathhouse

23)[last line]בשנים עשר זהב לשנה, מדינר זהב לחדשBI'SHNEIM ASAR ZAHAV L'SHANAH, MI'DINAR ZAHAV L'CHODESH- [stipulating the price as] 12 gold Dinerin for the year, which are one gold Dinar per month

102b----------------------------------------102b

24)[line 11]תפוס לשון אחרוןTEFOS LESHON ACHARON

(a)"Tefos Lashon Acharon" means, "The latter statement is the only one that we regard seriously." That is, if a person says two consecutive statements that have contradictory Halachic ramifications, we assume that he decided that the second statement should categorically revoke the first statement. Therefore, the second statement is valid and the first one is ignored.

(b)The term for the dissenting opinion is "Tefos Leshon Rishon," or "The first statement is the only one that we regard seriously." That is, if a person says two consecutive statements that have contradictory Halachic ramifications, yet he expresses no desire to rescind the first of the two, we assume that he decided to add the second statement only after having pronounced the first. Therefore, the first statement remains valid, and the second one is ignored.

25)[line 13]אסתירא מאה מעי; מאה מעיISTIRA ME'AH MA'EI; ME'AH MA'EI - [if a person quotes a price of one] Istira, one hundred coins (Perutos), [the Halachic ruling is that he must pay] one hundred coins (CURRENCY OF THE TALMUD)

(a)The relationship between the various coins mentioned in the Talmud is as follows:

1.1 Maneh = 25 Sela'im = 100 Dinerin

2.1 Dinar Zahav (gold Dinar) = 25 Dinerin

3.1 Sela = 2 Shekel

4.1 Shekel = 2 Dinerin

5.1 Dinar = 6 Me'ah

6.1 Rova Shekel (or Sela Medinah) = 3 Me'ah

7.1 Me'ah = 2 Pundeyon

8.1 Pundeyon = 2 Isar

9.1 Isar = 8 Perutah (or sometimes 6 Perutah - see Kidushin 12a)

(b)Another name for a Dinar is a Zuz. All of the coins listed above (including the standard Dinar) are silver, except for the Dinar Zahav, which is gold, and the Perutos, which are copper.

26)[line 16]בבא באמצע חדש עסקינןB'VA B'EMTZA CHODESH ASKINAN- we are dealing with a case where the Maskir came to claim the rent in the middle of the [leap] month

27a)[line 20]כור בשלשים אני מוכר לךKOR BI'SHELOSHIM ANI MOCHER LECHA- I am selling you one Kor [of produce] for thirty [Sela'im]

b)[line 21]יכול לחזור בו אפילו בסאה אחרונהYACHOL LACHZOR BO AFILU BI'SE'AH ACHARONAH- he (either the buyer or the seller) may change his mind and revoke the sale even at the last Se'ah (i.e. even if the buyer has made a Kinyan on all of the produce except for the last Se'ah)

c)[line 20]כור בשלשים אני מוכר לךKOR BI'SHELOSHIM ANI MOCHER LECHA - I am selling you one Kor [of produce] for thirty [Sela'im] (DRY MEASURES)

(a)The following is a list of measures of volume used in the Mishnah and Gemara:

1.1 Kor (= 1 Chomer) = 30 Se'in

2.1 Lesech = 15 Se'in

3.1 Eifah = 3 Se'in

4.1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin

5.1 Tarkav (= Trei v'Kav, or 3 Kabin) = 12 Lugin

6.1 Kav = 4 Lugin

7.1 Log (= 1 Rova) = 4 Revi'iyos = 6 Beitzim

8.1 Beitzah = 2 or 3 k'Zeisim, according to the varying opinions

(b)In modern-day measures, the k'Zayis is approximately 0.025, 0.0288 or 0.05 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. Thus, 1 Kor = 216, 249 or 432 liters, according to the various opinions.

28a)[line 22]כור בשלשים, סאה בסלע אני מוכר לךKOR BI'SHELOSHIM, SE'AH B'SELA ANI MOCHER LECHA- I am selling you one Kor [of produce] for thirty [Sela'im], [one] Se'ah per Sela

b)[line 23]ראשון ראשון קנהRISHON RISHON KANAH- he buys them one by one, i.e. as the buyer does a Kinyan on each Se'ah, the sale of that Se'ah becomes irrevocable

29)[line 23]משום דתפיסMISHUM D'TAFIS- since he has made a Kinyan on them (lit. seized)

30)[line 25]קרקע בחזקת בעליה קיימתKARKA B'CHEZKAS BE'ALEHA KAYEMES- real estate (lit. land) is in the possession of its owner, i.e. even if the Maskir claims the rent for the thirteenth month at the end of the month, the Socher must pay him

31)[line 30]מת האב בתוך שלשים יום, בחזקת שלא נפדהMES HA'AV B'SOCH SHELOSHIM YOM, B'CHEZKAS SHE'LO NIFDEH (PIDYON HA'BEN)

(a)The Torah requires that every Yisrael sanctify the firstborn male of his children, Kosher animals and donkeys, as it is written, " קַדֶּשׁ לִי כָל בְּכוֹר, פֶּטֶר כָּל רֶחֶם בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, בָּאָדָם וּבַבְּהֵמָה; לִי הוּא" "Kadesh Li Chol Bechor, Peter Kol Rechem bi'Vnei Yisrael, ba'Adam uva'Behemah; Li Hu" - "Sanctify to Me every firstborn that initiates the womb among the children of Yisrael, among both man and beast; it is Mine." (Shemos 13:2)

(b)The Mitzvah of Pidyon ha'Ben applies to a Yisrael and not to a child whose father or mother is a Kohen or a Levi. The first male born to a mother (who is the daughter of a Yisrael) must be redeemed by his father as stated in Shemos 13:13, "וְכֹל בְּכוֹר אָדָם בְּבָנֶיךָ, תִּפְדֶּה" "v'Chol Bechor Adam b'Vanecha, Tifdeh."

(c)The Bechor must be redeemed when he is one month old by giving five silver Shekalim of Kodesh (each of which weighs 19.2 or 17 grams; see Midos v'Shi'urei Torah, C. P. Benish, Benei Brak, 5760, pp. 487-488) to a Kohen, as stated in Bamidbar (18:16). This applies only if the son was the first issue (i.e. he was not preceded by a Nefel - stillborn) and was delivered through the womb (i.e. he was not delivered by Caesarian section). (Sefer ha'Chinuch #392)

32)[line 33]ביומא דמשלם זמניהB'YOMA D'MISHLAM ZIMNEI- on the day that his time is complete, i.e. on the day that the rental is finished

OTHER D.A.F. RESOURCES
ON THIS DAF