[54a -39 lines; 54b - 53 lines]

1)[line 3]כלל ופרט אין בכלל אלא מה שבפרטKLAL U'FRAT; EIN BI'CHLAL ELA MAH SHEBI'FRAT

(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael, who is Doresh Klalei and Pratei (see Background to Kidushin 21:15), lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is Klal u'Frat Ein bi'Chlal Ela Mah shebi'Frat.

(b)When a Klal (general term) is followed by a Prat (specification), without teaching any new Halachos that pertain to that Prat, then the Halachah of the verse is limited and applies only to the Prat.

2)[line 6]כלל ופרט וכלל אי אתה דן אלא כעין הפרטKLAL U'FRAT U'KLAL; IY ATAH DAN ELA K'EIN HA'PRAT

According to the approach that learns Klalei u'Fratei (see previous entry), when a Klal is followed by a Prat, which is followed in turn by another Klal, then everything belonging to the general category that is similar to the Prat is included. Anything that is not in the general category of the limiting Prat is not included.

3)[line 9]דבר שנבלתה מטמאה במגע ובמשאDAVAR SH'NIVLASAH METAM'AH B'MAGA U'MASA

A Neveilah is a carcass of an animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering. The Torah states, "You shall not eat anything that dies by itself (Neveilah). You shall give it to the stranger who is in your gates, that he may eat it, or you may sell it to a Nochri, for you are a holy people to HaSh-m, your Elokim" (Devarim 14:21). The flesh of a Neveilah is prohibited to be eaten, and a k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes an object Tamei through Maga (contact) and Masa (carrying). The Neveilah of a bird, though, does not make an object Tamei through Maga and Masa.

4)[line 15]קדוש בבכורהKADOSH BI'VECHORAH (PETER CHAMOR)

(a)There is a Mitzvah to redeem each firstborn male donkey, as the verse states, "v'Hayah Ki Yevi'acha HaSh-m El Eretz ha'Kena'ani... v'Chol Peter Chamor Tifdeh v'Seh, v'Im Lo Sifdeh va'Arafto" - "And it shall come to pass that when HaSh-m brings you to the land of the Kena'ani... And every firstborn donkey must be redeemed with a sheep [that is given to a Kohen]. If it is not redeemed, you must decapitate it" (Shemos 13:11-13).

(b)The Kedushah of Bechor rests on every firstborn male of an ox, goat or sheep when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for a person to sanctify it himself (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.

5)[line 16]כל דבר מיתהKOL D'VAR MISAH- anything which can die (i.e. any living creature)

6)[line 22]בחדתיB'CHADTEI- new ones

7)[line 23]דמיפקעי מהבלאD'MIFKE'EI ME'HEVLA- they break/crack from the Hevel in the Bor

8)[line 34]ושה דאבידהV'SEH D'AVEIDAH- the word "Seh" written in the verse (Devarim 22:1, "Seyo") that discusses the Mitzvah to return a lost object

54b----------------------------------------54b

9)[line 10]מין בן דעתMIN BEN DA'AS- a type [of living thing] that has intelligence (i.e. a person, even though the specific person being damaged might be a Shoteh and does not have intelligence)

10)[line 16]ולהפרשת הר סיניUL'HAFRASHAS HAR SINAI (HAGBALAH)

At the time that the Torah was given, Har Sinai was off limits to all people (except for Moshe Rabeinu) and even to animals and birds. Any animal or bird who stepped on the mountain was to be stoned, as described in Shemos 19:13 and in Sanhedrin 15b. This only applied during the year that the Torah was given; it does not apply today.s

11)[line 17]ולהשבת אבידהUL'HASHAVAS AVEIDAH

The Torah (Devarim 22:1-3) commands that a person who finds a lost object must return it to the owner. This Mitzvah applies at all times and is not limited to any particular time, and therefore a woman is obligated in this Mitzvah, as in all Mitzvos Aseh she'Lo ha'Zeman Geraman.

12)[line 17]לפריקהPERIKAH- the Mitzvah of unloading and helping an animal that has fallen under its load, as commanded in Shemos 23:5

13)[line 17]לחסימהCHASIMAH- the prohibition against muzzling an ox when it is threshing grain - "Lo Sachsom Shor b'Disho." (Devarim 25:4)

14)[line 17]לכלאיםKIL'AYIM (CHARISHAH / HARBA'AH)

(a)The word Kil'ayim means "forbidden mixture," which refers to two items, each of which is permitted, which the Torah prohibits to combine. Many different types of forbidden mixtures can be referred to by the term "Kil'ayim." Three types of Kil'ayim apply to plants: Kil'ei ha'Kerem, Kil'ei Zera'im and Harkavas ha'Ilan. Two types of Kil'ayim apply to animals: Harba'ah, and Charishah b'Shor va'Chamor. One type of Kil'ayim applies to clothing: Sha'atnez. (It is also prohibited to cook meat and milk together, but this is not referred to as "Kil'ayim.") Our Gemara refers to Kil'ayim of animals.

(b)HARBA'AS BEHEMAH refers to the prohibition of mating together any two different types of animals or birds (Bava Kama 54b), as the Torah states, "Behemtecha Lo Sarbi'a Kil'ayim" (Vayikra 19:19). One who intentionally transgresses this prohibition is liable to Malkos.

1.Animals that are produced through Harba'as Behemah are permitted to be used (see Tosfos Chagigah 2b DH Lisa).

(c)CHARISHAH B'SHOR VA'CHAMOR refers to the prohibition of doing any type of work with two different types of animals, as the Torah states "Lo Sacharosh b'Shor uva'Chamor Yachdav" (Devarim 22:10). One who intentionally transgresses this prohibition is liable to Malkos.

1.Some rule that the Torah prohibition applies to doing work with any two types of animals together (see Mishnah Kil'ayim 8:2, and Rishonim). The RAMBAM (Peirush ha'Mishnayos ibid., Hilchos Kil'ayim 9:7), however, rules that the Torah only prohibits doing work with one kosher and one non-kosher animal together, such as an ox and a donkey (Shor v'Chamor). The Rabanan prohibited doing work with any two types of animals, even if they are both kosher or both non-kosher.

15)[line 17]ולשבתUL'SHABBOS (SHEVISAS BEHEMAH)

"Shevisas Behemah" is a positive commandment. One is required to allow his animals to rest on Shabbos as it states (Shemos 23:12) "Lima'an Yanu'ach Shorcha va'Chamorecha" - "so that your ox and your donkey may rest." If one causes his animal to do work (i.e., one of the 39 categories of Melachah) on Shabbos, whether or not he is present at the time, he transgresses a positive commandment.

16)[line 17]חיהCHAYAH- (a term usually used for wild animals) non-farm animals, e.g. deer and gazelles. (No Korban is brought from a Chayah (but only from domesticated animals, such as oxen, sheep, and goats), and a Chayah may not be offered on the Mizbe'ach.)

17)[line 18]שדבר הכתוב בהווהSHE'DIBER HA'KASUV BA'HOVEH- the verse discusses that which is usual and normal to occur

18)[line 20]"אם בהמה אם איש לא יחיה""IM BEHEMAH IM ISH YO YICHYEH"- "... whether animal or man, he shall not live." (Shemos 19:13)

19)[line 21]בהמהBEHEMAH- farm animals; livestock, e.g. cows, sheep and goats

20)[line 21]"על כל דבר פשע...""AL KOL DEVAR PESHA..."- "In every case of liability..." (Shemos 22:8)

21)[line 22]כלל כל דבר פשיעהKALAL KOL D'VAR PESHI'AH- it includes all subjects of liability (even non-living items, in the obligation for one to pay Tashlumei Kefel)

22a)[line 26]בדברות הראשונותB'DIBROS HA'RISHONOS- the first set of the Aseres ha'Dibros (in Parshas Yisro)

b)[line 26]ובדברות האחרונותUV'DIBROS HA'ACHARONOS- the second set of the Aseres ha'Dibros (in Parshas Va'eschanan)

23)[line 39]מעשרMA'ASER (MA'ASER SHENI)

(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.

(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been removed, and it is known as Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim.

(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.

(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.

(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.

24)[line 40]"ונתת הכסף בכל אשר תאוה נפשך בבקר ובצאן וביין ובשכר ובכל אשר תשאלך נפשך""V'NASATA HA'KESEF B'CHOL ASHER TE'AVEH NAFSHECHA, BA'BAKAR UVA'TZON UVA'YAYIN UVA'SHECHAR UV'CHOL ASHER TISH'ALCHA NAFSHECHA"- "And you may spend the money for anything that your soul desires, for cattle, for sheep, for wine or for other intoxicating beverage, or for anything for which your soul desires." (Devarim 14:26)

25)[line 42]פרי מפריPRI MI'PRI- an object that has been produced from something that has been produced

26)[line 49]אלמה תנןALAMAH TENAN- why was it taught in the [following] Mishnah

27)[line 50]פפונאיPAFUNA'EI- the scholars of Pafunya, a town in Bavel, presumably Epiphania on the Euphrates. Specifically, this refers to Rav Acha bar Yakov

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