[14a - 42 lines; 14b - 37 lines]

1)[line 7]והפונדקPUNDAK- an inn

2)[line 14]והבקעהBIK'AH- a plain [of open fields], valley

3a)[line 15]הנגיחהNEGICHAH- goring

b)[line 15]הנגיפהNEGIFAH- striking or pushing; injuring

c)[line 15]הנשיכהNESHICHAH- biting

d)[line 15]הרביצהREVITZAH- purposefully collapsing upon an object

e)[line 16]הבעיטהBE'ITAH- kicking

4)[line 23]מיוחדתMEYUCHEDES- designated

5)[line 26]"[כי יבער איש שדה או כרם ושלח את בעירה] ובער בשדה אחר [מיטב שדהו ומיטב כרמו ישלם]""[KI YAV'ER ISH SADEH O CHEREM, V'SHILACH ES BE'IROH,] U'VI'ER BI'SDEH ACHER, [MEITAV SADEHU U'MEITAV KARMO YESHALEM.]"- "[If a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten, and shall send in his beast,] and it shall feed in another man's field, [of the best of his field, and of the best of his vineyard, shall he make restitution.]" (Shemos 22:4)

6)[line 29]ובפירוקאPEIRUKA- the answer

7)[line 32]משונה קרן בחצר הניזק נזק שלם משלםMESHUNEH KEREN B'CHATZER HA'NIZAK, NEZEK SHALEM MESHALEM

The characteristic which defines Keren is that it is "Meshuneh" - it is an irregular activity. Rebbi Tarfon holds that the special Halachah that one pays only half-Nezek (Chatzi Nezek) for damage caused by Keren only applies in Reshus ha'Rabim, where one is completely exempt for damage caused by the other Mazikim (Shen and Regel). If, however, the animal enters the Nizak's domain and causes damage there, then, according to Rebbi Tarfon, the owner of the animal must pay the entire value of the damage (Nezek Shalem).

8)[line 38]שיננאSHINENA- well-learned person!

9)[line 38]שבוק מתניתין ותא אבתראיSHEVOK MASNISIN V'SA A'BASRAI- leave our Mishnah, and come after me (i.e. explain it the way I do)

14b----------------------------------------14b

10)[line 2]שום כסף שוה כסף בפני בית דין ועל פי עדים בני חורין בני ברית והנשים בכלל הנזק והניזק והמזיק בתשלומיןSHUM KESEF, SHEVEI CHESEF, BIFNEI BEIS DIN, V'AL PI EDIM, BENEI CHORIN, BNEI BRIS, VEHA'NASHIM BI'CHELAL HA'NEZEK, VEHA'NIZAK VEHA'MAZIK B'SASHLUMIN- the Gemara explains each one of these expressions

11)[line 5]שום זה לא יהא אלא בכסףSHUM ZEH LO YEHEI ELA B'CHESEF- the assessment of the damage should be made only in terms of money

12)[line 8]שמין אותה בדמיםSHAMIN OSAH B'DAMIM- we assess the damage in money (and do not say that the Nizak should take the article that did the damage)

13)[line 10]שאין בית דין נזקקין אלא לנכסים שיש להן אחריותEIN BEIS DIN NIZKAKIN ELA L'NECHASIM SHE'YESH LAHEN ACHRAYUS- Beis Din will only collect from Karka (land)

14)[line 14]?מאי משמעMAI MASHMA?- where is the inference to Karka in the term "Shevei Kesef?"

15)[line 15]דבר השוה כל כסףDAVAR HA'SHAVEH KOL KESEF- something which is worth any price. People will oftentimes overpay for land.

16)[line 15]דבר שאין לו אונאהDAVAR SHE'EIN LO ONA'AH - an item to which the laws of Ona'ah do not apply (ONA'AH)

(a)If a person makes a profit of one sixth of the total value on an item that he sells without the purchaser's knowledge, the transaction is valid, but the seller must return the profit to the purchaser. If the profit is less than one sixth, nothing is returned. If the profit is more than one sixth, the sale is invalid even if the profit is returned.

(b)With regard to sales of real estate, even if the profit is more than one sixth, the sale is valid and nothing is returned.

(c)When Beis Din errs in an appraisal of property by a sixth of its value, the Rabanan and Raban Shimon ben Gamliel argue whether the sale is binding (because of "Im Ken, Mah Ko'ach Beis Din Yafeh"; this is the view of Raban Shimon) or it is not binding (Rabanan).

17)[line 24]ביתמיB'YASMEI- the Mishnah which teaches that one may collect only land in return for damage done refers to one who collects from the heirs of the person who was obligated to pay for the damage.] This is because Beis Din does not collect from them debts that their father owed unless they inherited land from their father (Kesuvos 110a); the chattels (movable property) of orphans are never collected for their father's debts.

18)[line 30]שמע מינה לוה ומכר נכסיו ואחר כך בא לבית דין אין בית דין גובין לו מהן?SHEMA MINAH: LAVAH U'MACHAR NECHASAV V'ACHAR KACH BA L'VEIS DIN, EIN BEIS DIN GOVIN LO MEHEN!?- are we to deduce from this that if someone borrowed and then sold his property that Beis Din does not extract payment from the sold property? Surely we know that Beis Din takes the property from the buyer!

19)[line 32]פרט לבית דין הדיוטותPERAT L'VEIS DIN HEDYOTOS- to exclude a Beis Din made up of Hedyotos, judges who are not ordained with Semichah (since Semichah is given only in Eretz Yisrael)

20)[line 33]פרט למודה בקנס ואחר כך באו עדים שהוא פטורPERAT L'MODEH BI'KENAS V'ACHAR BA'U EDIM SHE'HU PATUR - to exclude a case of one who admits to being obligated to pay a penalty, and then witnesses come who testify that he is obligated to pay the penalty, in which case he remains exempt. (MODEH B'KENAS PATUR)

Any payment that involves over-compensation for a monetary loss is considered a "Kenas" (penalty) rather than "Mamon" (compensation). In every case of Kenas, the liable party does not have to pay the Kenas if he admits to his guilt of his own accord. Only if witnesses testify to his guilt in court must he pay. If he admits to his guilt of his own accord, and later witnesses testify to his guilt in court, the Amora'im argue as to whether or not he must pay the Kenas (Bava Kama 74b-75a - he is exempted from payment, according to the lenient opinion, only if his admission took place under specific circumstances). Until one is obligated to pay a Kenas in court, he is fully exempt from payment and does not even have a moral obligation to pay it on his own accord (RASHBA to Bava Kama 74b, see also RAMBAN in Milchamos HaSh-m at the end of the third Perek of Kesuvos).

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