MISHNAH: PROPER CONDUCT ON YOM TOV (CARRYING QUANTITIES AND MUKTZAH)
One may not transport jars of wine by putting them all into a basket or a box.
Rather, one may carry a few jars in the prescribed fashion.
One may not transport a box of straw slung over one's shoulder.
He may transport it as described.
One begins taking fuel from piles of straw rather than from the wood in storage (in the Muktzah).
ALTERING (SHINUY) FOR YOM TOV
(Beraisa): When change is not possible, articles may be transported in the usual manner.
Rava instituted various alterations in the methods of transporting goods on Yom Tov (as listed), to the extent that alteration is possible without an increase in the labor involved.
Question (R. Chanan b. Rava): How do we allow women to draw and subsequently carry, the water in the regular jars, without making a Shinuy?
Answer (R. Ashi): Each suggested alteration has drawbacks (as listed) leaving us with no available alteration.
MUTAV SHE'YIHEYU SHOGEGIN
Question (Rava b. R. Chanin): Why do we overlook the violations of the Mishnah's prohibition against clapping, etc.?
Answer (Abaye): The same problem should then apply to our overlooking those who sit at the opening of a Mavoy, and the answer to both is Hanach Lahem...
The principle of Mutav she'Yiheyu Shogegin does not apply to a d'Oraisa, where we must rebuke the Shogegin.
The principle applies to a d'Oraisa, as well, as we see from our silence regarding Tosefes Yom ha'Kipurim.
(R. Kehana): The instruction in the Mishnah to begin from the straw (being stored for animals) seems to indicate that taking from long-term storage does not engender a problem of Muktzah, and must be the opinion of R. Shimon.
Question: The Seifa of the Mishnah prohibits the wood in the Muktzah, implying that the Tana is concerned for Muktzah (and must be R. Yehudah)!?
Answer: Even R. Shimon would agree that this wood is Muktzah (because of Chisaron Kis since wood suited for construction would not normally be used as firewood).
(Alternate rendering of R. Kehana's teaching): The prohibition of taking the wood in the Muktzah which points to the Mishnah being R. Yehudah.
Question: But the Reisha points to R. Shimon?!
Answer: Even R. Yehudah would agree that this straw is not Muktzah (since it is rotten and only usable as firewood).
Question: But rotten straw is usable as mortar!?
Answer: This straw has thorns.
MISHNAH: TAKING APART AN OHEL
One may not undo the roof of an Ohel (such as the Sechach of an old Sukah) for firewood on Yom Tov.
We may only take wood which is nearby.
THE WOOD WHICH IS NEARBY
Question: The nearby (presumably lying on top of the Sechach) wood should be prohibited just as is the Sechach (Stiras Ohel)!?
Answer (R. Yehudah citing Shmuel): The Mishnah is speaking of wood that is leaning against (but not attached to) the wall of the Sukah.
Answer (R. Menashya) The Seifa permits (the still tied up) bundles of wood, which are on the Sukah, but are not Batel to the Sechach.
Question: How could R. Shimon permit taking Sechach which was placed conditionally on the Sukah, given the prohibition of Stiras Ohel!?
Answer (R. Nachman b. Yitzchak): The Beraisa speaks of a Sukah that collapsed on Yom Tov and thus (acc. to R. Shimon) is not Muktzah, like the oil which remains from the Shabbos candles.
Question: But a person anticipates the candle going out, but surely did not anticipate the day when the Sukah will collapse!?
Answer (R. Nachman b. Yitzchak): It was threatening to collapse from before Yom Tov.
THE SUKAH IS PROHIBITED ON SUKOS
Question: How could a condition help, given that the Sukah is Asur b'Hana'ah all seven days (two sources)!?
Answer (R. Menashia b. Rava): The reference to Sechach placed with a condition is not speaking on Sukos (when the Sechach would surely be Asur, as taught), but of a condition made before another Yom Tov.
Question: But the Beraisa teaches that a condition would work to permit parts of the Sukah even on Sukos!?
Answer (Abaye and Rava): A condition may only be made regarding the decorations of the Sukah.
Question: Why should the Sukah be more stringent than an Esrog which is subject to his condition (Rav holds that it may be used on its day and eaten while R. Asi permits it on the next day)!?
Answer: The Mitzvah of Esrog (unlike the Sukah) is interrupted by nighttime and thus each day is viewed as a separate Mitzvah.