MISHNAH: MEASURING ON YOM TOV
(Tana Kama): One may ask one's friend to fill his utensil with a liquid, but he may not designate a measure.
(R. Yehudah): If the utensil is a measuring cup, it should not be used.
Aba Shaul b. Batnis would fill his measuring utensils before Yom Tov and give them to the buyers on Yom Tov.
(Aba Shaul): He would do so on Chol ha'Moed.
(Chachamim): He would do so at all times in order to insure complete measures of the oil.
Question: What is meant by Aval Lo b'Midah?
Answer (R. Yehudah citing Shmuel): One may not use a Kli designated for measuring, but one may use a Kli which is no more than a spare while R. Yehudah forbids the use of any measuring vessel.
Question: But that set R. Yehudah l'Chumra regarding Simchas Yom Tov (and Rabanan l'Kula), the opposite of our Mishnah?
Answer: To resolve R. Yehudah we must distinguish between a Kli which was not used for weighing (permitted) versus a measuring Kli where R. Yehudah is strict.
Answer: We resolve Rabanan by distinguishing between normal weekday activity (requesting an amount) and exceptional activity (requesting a filled vessel).
Answer (Rava): That he may not mention a measure by name, but he may use a measuring cup (R. Yehudah agrees that one may use a Kli ha'Omed leMidah, he only argues to prohibit a Kli ha'Meyuchad leMidah).
Question: But their positions contradict?
Answers: As above.
ABA SHAUL BEN BATNIS
He would also do so on the Moed to free up the daytime for learning and answering questions.
He collected 300 barrels of wine from Birurei ha'Midos while his colleagues collected 300 barrels of oil from Mitzuy ha'Midos.
They brought the 300 barrels to the treasurers of Hekdesh who initially indicated that what they were doing was not necessary, and when they persisted the treasurers told them that Safek Gezel should benefit the community at large.
Question: What are such needs?
Answer (R. Chisda): Water cisterns.
R. Chisda took Rabana Ukva for a walk and taught him:
One may not measure barley for his animal on Yom Tov (but rather he may dig a measuring cup into the barley and take it out full).
One who cooks for another may measure spices on Yom Tov in order that excess spices should not cause the food to burn.
(R. Yirmeyah b. Aba citing Rav): A woman may measure flour for her dough on Yom Tov to encourage her to give Chalah (one twenty-fourth) generously.
(Shmuel): It is still forbidden.
Question: But Shmuel is cited (in a Tana d'vei Shmuel) as ruling leniently!?
Answer (Abaye): Shmuel himself taught the Halachah l'Ma'aseh.
(Tana Kama): One is not permitted to re-sift flour.
(R. Papayos and R. Yehudah b. Beseira): It is permitted.
All agree that re-sifting flour is permitted if a stone or a splinter of wood fell into the flour on Yom Tov.
The Beraisa expert taught that in such a case the stones or splinters may be removed by hand (but not by re-sifting)
Ravina objected on the grounds that removing them by hand moreso resembles Bereirah and it is preferable to re-sift the flour, which does not resemble a Melachah.
Rava b. R. Huna Zuta taught publicly that re-sifting flour is permitted.
R. Nachman relayed to him that this was already well known (there were already many sieves at work in Neherda'a, re-sifting flour).
R. Yosef taught his wife that no Shinuy was needed.
R. Ashi's wife re-sifted flour with a Shinuy and he deferred to her practice seeing as she was the daughter of (the Halachically meticulous) Rani b. Chama she must have seen it being done so in his house.
MISHNAH: REQUESTING ITEMS BY NUMBER
One may ask a store-keeper for a certain number of eggs and nuts.
One does so in one's own home (and thus it is not exclusively a business practice).
THE BERAISA CONTRIBUTES OTHER EXAMPLES OF PERMITTED REQUESTS
Other requests may be made (as listed) provided that one does not include the amount required (Sechum Midah).
(R. Shimon b. Elazar) He may not mention the price (Sechum Mekach).