INTERPRETING A STATEMENT BY INFERENCE
Question: Who is the Tana of the following Beraisa?
(Beraisa): A sick person was lying in bed. They asked him 'to whom will your property go?' He said 'I used to think that I had a son (or that my wife is pregnant). Now that I see that this is not so, my property is to Ploni.'
If it became known that he had a son (or that his wife was pregnant), the gift is void.
Suggestion: This is like R. Shimon ben Menasiya, and not like Chachamim.
Answer: No, it is even like Chachamim. Here is different, for he said 'I used to think...'
Question: This is obvious! Why didn't the questioner anticipate this answer?
Answer: One might have thought that he merely mentions his woe, but not that having a son would affect the gift. The Beraisa teaches that this is not so.
THE SOURCE FOR MATNAS SHECHIV MERA
Question (R. Zeira): What is the Torah source for Matnas Shechiv Mera (that it does not require a Kinyan)?
Answer #1 (R. Zeira): "V'Ha'avartem Es Nachalso l'Vito" teaches that there is another transfer of inheritance.
Answer #2 (Rav Nachman): "U'Nsatem Es Nachalso l'Echav" - there is another gift like this, i.e. Matnas Shechiv Mera.
Question: Why didn't Rav Nachman learn from "V'Ha'avartem..."?
Answer: That is used to teach Rebbi's law.
(Beraisa - Rebbi): Regarding other inheritances, it says "U'Nsatem". Regarding a daughter, it says "v'Ha'avartem", because only a daughter transfers inheritance from one tribe to another, her husband and son inherit her.
Question: Why didn't R. Zeira learn from "U'Nsatem..."?
Answer: That is the normal expression, so he does not expound it.
Answer #3 (Rav Menashiya bar Yirmeyah): "Chalah Chizkiyahu Lamus... Tzav l'Veisecha" - a mere command suffices.
Answer #4 (Rami bar Yechezkeil): "Va'Achitofel... va'Ytzav El Beiso va'Yechanek va'Yamas" - a mere command sufficed.
SIGNS OF WEATHER OF THE COMING YEAR
Version #1 (Beraisa): Achitofel commanded his children three things: do not be in a feud, do not rebel against the kinship of Beis David, and if it is Barur (clear, i.e. sunny) on Shavu'os, plant wheat that year (it will prosper).
Version #2 (Mar Zutra): He said, if it is Balul (cloudy) on Shavu'os... (end of Version #2)
(Chachamim of Neharde'a): The Beraisa does not mean that is totally clear, and Mar Zutra does not mean it is totally Balul, rather, even a cloudy day on which the north wind scatters the clouds is considered clear (and is a good sign).
(R. Aba): No, we learn from the wind on Shemini Atzeres!
(R. Yitzchak bar Avdimi): On Shemini Atzeres, everyone looks towards the smoke rising from the Altar. If it tilts northwards (due to the south wind), the poor rejoice and farmers are sad, because there will be much rain, Peros will rot, and people will be forced to sell cheaply.
If it tilts southwards (due to the north wind), farmers rejoice and the poor are sad, because there will be little rain, the Peros (will grow well, but they) will not rot, and grain will be expensive;
If it tilts eastwards (due to the west wind), everyone rejoices. If it tilts westwards (due to the east wind), everyone is sad.
Question (Beraisa): The east wind is always nice. The west wind is always harsh. The north wind is good for wheat if it already grew a third, but it is bad for blossoming olives. The south wind is bad for wheat if it already grew a third, but it is good for blossoming olives.
(Rav Yosef): A way to remember this is the Shulchan (on which we place the Lechem ha'Panim, which is made of wheat), which is in the north side (of the Heichal). The Menorah (which is lit with oil of olives) is in the south side;
Each wind is good for what is on its side.
Version #1 (Rashbam) Answer: The Beraisa discusses Bavel (the west wind is bad, for it brings too much rain). R. Yitzchak discusses Eretz Yisrael (which needs much rain).
Version #2 (Tosfos) Answer: The Beraisa discusses Eretz Yisrael (the east wind is good, for it brings rain). R. Yitzchak discusses Bavel (which does not need so much rain). (end of Version #2)
(Beraisa - Aba Sha'ul): If it is clear on Shavu'os, it is a good sign for the entire year.
(Rav Zvid): If it is hot on Rosh Hashanah, the entire year will be hot. If it is cold, the entire year will be cold.
Question: Why must we know this?
Answer: This is so the Kohen Gadol will know what to pray for on Yom Kipur. (E.g. if it was hot on Rosh Hashanah, he should pray that it not be too hot.)
HOW MATNAS SHECHIV MERA WORKS
Answer #5 (to Question 2:a - Rav Nachman): Matnas Shechiv Mera is a Rabbinical enactment, lest a Shechiv Mera's anxiety (that he cannot give his property like he wishes) hasten his death.
Question: This contradicts something else that Rav Nachman said!
(Rav Nachman): Shmuel taught that if Reuven sold a loan document to Shimon, and then pardoned the debt, the debt is cancelled. Even Reuven's heir can pardon the debt;
Nevertheless, if Reuven gave money owed to him through Matnas Shechiv Mera, Reuven's heir cannot pardon the debt.
Granted, if Matnas Shechiv Mera is mid'Oraisa, this is why the heir cannot pardon it. (Sale of a debt is only mid'Rabanan, therefore the heir can pardon it.)
But if Matnas Shechiv Mera is only mid'Rabanan, why can't the heir pardon it (like a sold debt)?
Answer: Matnas Shechiv Mera is mid'Rabanan, but Chachamim enacted it as if it were mid'Oraisa.
(Rav Nachman): If a Shechiv Mera said 'Ploni will live in this house', or 'he will eat the fruits of this date tree', this does not take effect;
He must say 'give this house to Ploni and he will live in it', or 'give this date tree to Ploni and he will eat the fruits'.
Inference: Rav Nachman holds that Matnas Shechiv Mera only takes effect in those cases when a gift of a healthy person takes effect.