POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
12TH CYCLE SHABBOS 64 (28 Sivan) - dedicated to the memory of Hagaon Rav Yisroel Zev (ben Rav Avrohom Tzvi) Gustman, ZT'L, Rosh Yeshiva of "Yeshivas Netzach Yisrael-Ramailes" (in Vilna, Brooklyn, and then Yerushalayim), author of "Kuntresei Shi'urim," and renowned Dayan in pre-war and post-war Vilna, on the day of his Yahrzeit. Dedicated by Harav Eliezer Stern and Harav Zalman Stern of Brooklyn NY, and Yechiel Wachtel and Michoel Starr of Yerushalayim, who merited to learn from Rav Gustman in Yerushalayim.
1) TUM'AH OF SAK
(a) (Beraisa): Sak has an advantage over Beged. It is Tamei due to Arig.
(b) Question: Also Beged is Arig! (What is the advantage of Sak?)
(c) Answer: Sak is Tamei even if it is not Arig.
(d) Question: What is it useful for?
(e) Answer (R. Yochanan): A poor person braids three strands and hangs it on his daughter's neck.
(f) (Beraisa): "Sak" teaches only that Sak is Mekabel Tum'ah [from a Sheretz];
1. Question: What is the source to include a harness strap or band [made from goats' hair]?
2. Answer: "Oh Sak" includes these.
3. Suggestion: Perhaps we include even ropes and strings! (They are braided, and not spun!)
4. Rejection: "Sak" includes only what is like Sak, i.e. it is spun and woven.
(g) Regarding Tum'as Mes it says "v'Chol Kli Or v'Chol Ma'aseh Izim... Tischata'u" to include a harness strap and band;
1. Suggestion: Perhaps we include even ropes and strings!
i. Support: Regarding Tum'as Sheretz we include only what is spun and woven. The same should apply to Tum'as Mes!
ii. Rejection: Tum'as Sheretz is lenient, therefore it applies only to what is spun and woven. Tum'as Mes is more stringent. (It makes an Av ha'Tum'ah, which requires seven days and sprinkling of Mei Chatas to become Tahor.) Perhaps it applies to more things!
2. Rejection: We learn from a Gezerah Shavah "Beged v'Or" between Tum'as Sheratzim and Tum'as Mes. Also the latter applies only to what is spun and woven;
3. Also, [the Gezerah Shavah teaches that] just like everything made from goats is Mekabel Tum'as Mes, it is Mekabel Tum'as Sheretz.
(h) Question: What is the source for [Tum'as Sheratzim of] something made from horse hair or a cow's tail?
(i) Answer: "Oh Sak" includes these.
(j) Question: We used "Oh Sak" to include a harness strap or band!
(k) Answer: That was before we knew the Gezerah Shavah. Now that we know the Gezerah Shavah, we learn these from Tum'as Mes, so "Oh Sak" teaches about horse hair and a cow's tail.
(l) Question: What is the source that these Mekabel Tum'as Mes?
(m) Answer #1: Since they are Mekabel Tum'as Sheratzim, just like Kelim from goats, they are like Kelim from goats to be Mekabel Tum'as Mes!
(n) Rejection: There are many sources of Tum'as Erev (Sheratzim, Nevelah, semen...) We cannot learn to Tum'as Shivah, which only comes from a Mes!
(o) Answer #2: We learn from a Gezerah Shavah "Beged v'Or" between Tum'as Sheratzim and Tum'as Mes.
(p) Suggestion: We must say that the Gezerah Shavah is Mufneh. (The word(s) we learn from are extra. We do not challenge such a Gezerah Shavah.) If not, we could challenge it. K'Adashah (the size of a lentil) of a Sheretz is Metamei, but only k'Zayis (a bigger Shi'ur) of a Mes is Metamei! (Tosfos ha'Rosh - this is a real challenge. The above challenge [that Tum'as Erev is more prevalent] was not a real challenge.)
(q) Affirmation: Yes, the Gezerah Shavah is Mufneh;
1. Sheratzim are equated to semen - "Ish Asher Teztei Mimenu Shichvas Zera; Oh Ish Asher Yiga b'Chol Sheretz";
2. Question: It says regarding semen "v'Chol Beged v'Chol Ohr Asher Yihyeh Alav Shichvas Zera" [is Tamei]. We could learn about Sheratzim from the Hekesh to semen. Why does it say "Beged v'Or" regarding Sheratzim?
3. Answer: "Beged v'Or" regarding Sheratzim is extra, for the Gezerah Shavah [to Tum'as Mes].
(r) Question: It is Mufneh from one side (one of the sources we learn from is extra). This is like the opinion that we learn from a Gezerah Shavah Mufneh from one side, but do not challenge it;
1. According to the opinion that we challenge such a Gezerah Shavah, how can we answer?
(s) Answer: It is Mufneh from both sides;
1. Tum'as Mes is equated [also] to Shichvas Zera - "veha'Noge'a b'Chol Tamei Nefesh Oh Ish Asher Teztei Mimenu Shichvas Zera." Therefore, "Beged v'Or" regarding Mes is [likewise] extra.
2) INNER TACHSHITIM
(a) (R. Elazar): "Va'Nakrev Es Korban Hash-m... Cheli Zahav Etz'adah v'Tzamid Taba'as Agil v'Chumaz Lechaper Al Nafshoseinu" - Agil is a bra; Chumaz is a girdle;
(b) Support #1 (Rav Yosef): The Targum [of Chumaz] is Mechuch. It is something that leads to Gichuch (frivolity).
(c) Support #2 (Rabah): Chumaz is an acronym for 'Kan Mekom Zimah' (this is the place of illicit relations).
(d) (Rav Nachman): "Va'Yiktzof Moshe Al Pekudei ha'Chayil" - Moshe suspected that the soldiers [who defeated Midyan] had sinned [in Zenus, like at Shitim].
1. The soldiers: "Lo Nifkad Mimenu Ish." (Everyone acted like Yisrael!)
2. Moshe: If so, why are you bringing an atonement?
3. The soldiers: We did not do a sinful action, but perhaps we had sinful thoughts. (Tosfos - there are limits on the Heter to take a woman in war.)
(e) (Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): The soldiers needed [to bring the Kelim for] an atonement for getting pleasure from seeing forbidden women.
(f) (Rav Sheshes): The Torah lists external Tachshitim (e.g. rings) with inner Tachshitim (girdles) to teach that one who looks [for pleasure] at a woman's pinky needs atonement like one who looks at her Ervah.
3) WHAT WOMEN MAY GO OUT WITH
(a) (Mishnah): A woman may go out with strands of hair [used to braid her hair], whether the strands are from her own [detached] hair, or from another woman, or from an animal;
(b) She may go out with Totefes or Sarbitin (head ornaments) if they are sewn [into her headdress];
(c) She may go out with Kavul (a wool cap under her headdress. Tosfos - Shmuel (58a) holds that it is a signet of slavery) or with a wig [used to make it look like she has much hair] in a Chatzer.
(d) She may go out with tufts in her ear [to absorb wax], in her sandal [for comfort] or to absorb Dam Nidah [in that place].
(e) She may go out with a pepper [to counter odors], a salt crystal [to heal teeth] or anything in her mouth [from before Shabbos];
1. She may not put it in on Shabbos. If it fell out, she may not return it [because cures are forbidden on Shabbos. Alternatively, it looks like a scheme to permit taking it out.]
(f) Version #1: Rebbi permits her to go out with an artificial tooth or a golden [cap for a] tooth;
(g) Version #2 (text of Rosh): Rebbi permits her to go out with an artificial golden tooth;
(h) Version #3 (brought in Rashi): She may go out with an artificial tooth;
(i) Rebbi permits her to go out with a golden tooth; (end of Version #3)
(j) Chachamim forbid.
4) GOING OUT WITH DETACHED HAIR
(a) (Gemara): We must teach all three cases of strands of hair:
1. Had we taught only about strands from her own hair, one might have thought that this is permitted for it does not entail disgrace, but hair from another woman is forbidden [lest others mock her and she will take it off and carry it in Reshus ha'Rabim];
2. Had we taught only about strands from [her or] another woman's hair, one might have thought that this is permitted for it is human hair, but hair from an animal is forbidden. (It is more disgraceful.)
(b) Version #1 (our text) (Beraisa): A girl may not go out with hair of an old woman, nor an old woman with a girl's hair.
(c) Version #1A (Tosfos - Rav Pores) Question: We understand why an old woman would [want to] go out with a girl's hair. It looks better than her own hair;
1. However, why would a girl [want to] go out with hair of an old woman?
(d) Answer: Indeed, she would not. The Tana merely taught this for parallel structure with the law of an old woman with a girl's hair.
(e) Version #1B (Rashi) Question: We understand why an old woman may not go out with a girl's hair. It looks nicer. (Perhaps she will remove it to show to others);
1. However, why can't a girl go out with hair of an old woman?
(f) Answer: Indeed, she may. This clause was included with the law of an old woman with a girl's hair (even though the law does not apply here).
(g) Version #2 (Tosfos' preferred text) (Beraisa): An old woman may not go out with a girl's hair, nor a girl with an old woman's hair.
(h) Question: We understand the Chidush that an old woman may not go out with a girl's hair. Even though it looks better, we are concerned lest she be mocked and remove it;
1. However, there is no need to forbid a girl to go out with hair of an old woman! (All the more so, she will be mocked and might remove it.)
(i) Answer: Indeed, there is no Chidush. It was taught for parallel structure with the Reisha. (end of Version #2)
(j) (Mishnah): She may go out with Kavul or with a wig in a Chatzer.
(k) (Rav): Everything that Chachamim forbade to wear in Reshus ha'Rabim is forbidden in a Chatzer, except for Kavul and a wig.
(l) (Rav Anani bar Sason citing R. Yishmael [b'Rebbi Yosi]): Everything is [permitted in a Chatzer,] like Kavul and a wig.
(m) Question (Mishnah): She may go out with Kavul or with a wig in a Chatzer.
1. This is like Rav. However, according to Rav Anani, why are these specified?
(n) Answer: Rav Anani cites the opinion of R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi, a Tana. He argues with our Mishnah.
(o) Question: According to Rav, what is special about these, that only they are permitted in a Chatzer?
(p) Answer (Ula): Chachamim permitted these, lest a husband be repulsed by his wife. (Rashba - they cover up a bald spot or a lack of hair. Tosfos - Shmuel explains that a signet of slavery assures a master that his slave does not intend to rebel.)
1. (Beraisa): Early Chachamim expounded "veha'Davah b'Nidasah" to forbid a Nidah to paint her eyes, apply rouge or adorn herself with colored clothing;
2. R. Akiva permitted these, lest a husband be repulsed by his wife. "Veha'Davah b'Nidasah" teaches that she is Nidah until she immerses.
(q) (Rav Yehudah): Anything forbidden due to Mar'is ha'Ayin (suspicion) is forbidden even in private.
(r) Question (Mishnah): [A donkey] may not go out with a bell, even if the clapper is plugged [because it looks like the owner takes it to sell it in the market].
1. (Beraisa): One may plug up the clapper of a bell on an animal's neck go with it in the Chatzer. (We are concerned for Mar'is ha'Ayin only in Reshus ha'Rabim!)
(s) Answer: Tana'im argue about this. (Rav holds like R. Eliezer and R. Shimon):
1. (Beraisa): [If one's clothes became wet in the rain,] one may spread them to dry in the sun, but not in public view;
2. R. Eliezer and R. Shimon forbid [even in private].