BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
12TH CYCLE SHABBOS 64 (28 Sivan) - dedicated to the memory of Hagaon Rav Yisroel Zev (ben Rav Avrohom Tzvi) Gustman, ZT'L, Rosh Yeshiva of "Yeshivas Netzach Yisrael-Ramailes" (in Vilna, Brooklyn, and then Yerushalayim), author of "Kuntresei Shi'urim," and renowned Dayan in pre-war and post-war Vilna, on the day of his Yahrzeit. Dedicated by Harav Eliezer Stern and Harav Zalman Stern of Brooklyn NY, and Yechiel Wachtel and Michoel Starr of Yerushalayim, who merited to learn from Rav Gustman in Yerushalayim.
[64a - 51 lines; 64b - 42 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 64a [line 26]:
The words "Mekamei d'Leisei Gezeirah Shavah" מקמי דליתיה גזירה שוה
should be "Mekamei d'Teisi Gezeirah Shavah" מקמי דתיתי גזירה שוה (Dikdukei Sofrim)
 Rashi 64a DH Defus Shel Dadin : ד"ה דפוס של דדין
The words "she'Munachos Bo" שמונחות בו
should be "she'Manachas Bo Dadeha שמנחת בו דדיה
(This is the Girsa in the Soncino edition and in other early editions.)
 Mishnah 64b [line 12]:
"Shen Toseves Shen Shel Zahav" שן תותבת שן של זהב
Rashi's Girsa is "Shen Toseves Shel Zahav" שן תותבת של זהב. This is also the Girsa of the Rosh. However, the Rambam, Rif, and Rashba are Gores "Shen Toseves v'Shen Shel Zahav" שן תותבת ושן של זהב. This is the Girsa of the Mishnayos.
1) [line 4] למאי חזי? L'MAI CHAZI? - for what can it (the minute piece of Sak) be used?
2) [line 5] קולע KOLE'A - braids
3) [line 5] נימין NIMIN - threads
4) [line 6] "[וכל אשר יפל עליו מהם במתם יטמא] ... או שק ..." "[V'CHOL ASHER YIPOL ALAV MEHEM B'MOSAM YITMA ...] O SAK ..." - "[If any of these dead creeping things (Sheratzim) falls on anything...] or sacks (made of goat hair) [... then that article must be immersed in a Mikvah, and it remains Tamei until evening, whereupon it becomes Tahor]" (Vayikra 11:32)
5) [line 7] הקילקלי HA'KILKELI - (O.F. peitral) the breast-strap of a harness
6) [line 7] החבק HA'CHEVEK - (O.F. cengle) the strap that passes under the body of a horse to fasten the saddle onto its back
7) [line 8] המשיחות HA'MESHICHOS - the cords or strings
8a) [line 10] מת MES
A k'Zayis of the flesh of a Mes (corpse) is an "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah" and is Metamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), and Ohel (being in the same room (lit. tent). An Ohel is defined as a covered space that is at least one Tefach in length, width and height. If a person becomes Tamei with Tum'as Mes, he must wait seven days to go to the Mikvah. Furthermore, on the third and seventh days he must have Mei Chatas (water mixed with ashes of the Parah Adumah) sprinkled on him.
b) [line 16] שרץ SHERETZ
A Sheretz (a crawling pest - see Vayikra 11:29-38 for a list of the eight Sheratzim, and Background to Chulin 122:7), even if it or a part of it is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean), is an Av ha'Tum'ah (Chagigah 11a, Ohalos 1:7). It makes a person or object Tamei at the level of a Rishon l'Tum'ah through Maga (contact), whether the Sheretz was touched willingly or unwillingly. The person who becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz may not eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah of the Beis Ha'Mikdash. However, he can immediately immerse in a Mikvah. After nightfall he becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah.
9) [line 26] אייתור ליה AYATUR LEI - the words "O Sak" are no longer necessary to teach that Kilkeli and Chevek may become Tamei (since this Halachah is now learned through a Gezeirah Shavah,) and therefore may be used to teach that articles made of horse tail and cow tail hair may become Tamei
10) [line 34] מופנה MUFNEH (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH)
(a) In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is Gezeirah Shavah, which is a Halachic device by which two similar words in the Torah from different subjects teach that laws from one subject apply to the other.
(b) A sage may use the method of Gezeirah Shavah only if he received a tradition from his teachers that a Gezeirah Shavah exists between the two words. However, the comparison that he makes regarding which laws are applied from one subject to the other may be his own, in the event that he did not learn this directly from his teachers.
(c) MUFNEH MI'SHENEI TZEDADIM - If two similar words in the Torah are free of any Derashah, they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezeirah Shavah between the two topics.
(d) MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If only one of the words is free, there is a Machlokes whether they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezeirah Shavah ("Lemedin v'Ein Meshivin"), or if they can only be used for a Gezeirah Shavah if we have no logical argument against learning the Gezeirah Shavah ("Lemedin u'Meshivin").
(e) EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If both words are used for another Derashah, there is a Machlokes whether they can only be used for a Gezeirah Shavah if we have no logical argument not to learn the Gezeirah Shavah, or if they cannot be used at all for a Gezeirah Shavah.
(f) If there are a few possible Halachos that the Gezeirah Shavah teaches, we learn them all ("Ein Gezeirah Shavah l'Mechetzah"). We do not say that it teaches us only one or two of the Halachos (unless we have an explicit teaching that excludes a specific Halachah).
11) [line 35] לאי אפנויי מופני LAI, AFNUYEI MUFNEI - truly, the words are free for a Gezeirah Shavah
12) [line 36] "איש אשר ..." "ISH ASHER ..." - "[or] a man whose semen goes out from him; or whoever touches any creeping thing..." (Vayikra 22:4-5) - The close proximity of the topics of Shichvas Zera and Sheratzim in these verses allow the laws of clothing and leather to be learned from the verses that deal with Shichvas Zera (Vayikra 15:16-17), thus leaving the words Beged and Or in the verse dealing with Sheratzim (Vayikra 11:32) free to use for a Gezeirah Shavah.
13) [line 43] "ונקרב את קרבן ה' איש אשר מצא כלי זהב אצעדה וצמיד טבעת עגיל וכומז לכפר על נפשתינו לפני ה'" "VA'NAKREV ES KORBAN HASH-M ISH ASHER MATZA CHELI ZAHAV ETZADAH V'TZAMID TABA'AS AGIL V'CHUMAZ L'CHAPER AL NAFSHOSEINU LIFNEI HASH-M" - "We have brought an offering to HaSh-m, every man who found any gold article [such as] an anklet, a bracelet, a ring, an earring, or a body ornament [wishes to bring it] to atone for our souls before HaSh-m" (Bamidbar 31:50)
14a) [line 45] דפוס של דדין DEFUS SHEL DADIN - a [gold] brassiere
b) [line 45] דפוס של בית הרחם DEFUS SHEL BEIS HA'RECHEM - a [gold] piercing of the female genitalia intended to prevent relations
15) [line 46] גיחוך GICHUCH - frivolity, obscenity
16) [line 48] קלקולכם הראשון KILKULCHEM HA'RISHON - your first corruption (see Bamidbar 25:1-9)
17) [line 50] הרהור HIRHUR - a lascivious thought
18) [line 1] זנו עיניהם ZANU EINEIHEM - that their eyes derived benefit
19) [line 2] תכשיטין שבחוץ TACHSHITIN SHEBA'CHUTZ - a ring. That is, the verse implies that the warriors needed to be forgiven even for looking at the Midyanites' rings, and not just at their more private ornaments.
20) [line 3] תכשיטין שבפנים TACHSHITIN SHEBI'FNIM - the more private ornaments
21) [line 5] התורפה HA'TURFAH - obscenity or filth
22) [line 6] חוטי שער CHUTEI SE'AR - strands of detached hair which a woman ties into her braids
23) [line 7] טוטפת TOTEFES - a frontlet, a golden plate that covers the forehead from ear to ear
24) [line 7] סרביטין SARVITIN - strands of colored thread or of gold or silver that are attached to the frontlet and hang down from the temples to the cheeks
25) [line 8] כבול KAVUL - an ornamented cloth that is placed under the frontlet to protect the forehead. There is a disagreement in the Gemara (57b) with regard to this item.
26) [line 8] פאה נכרית PE'AH NOCHRIS - braided detached hair piled atop a woman's hir in order to make her hair look fuller
27) [line 9] מוך שבאזנה MOCH SHEB'OZNAH - soft substances such as combed wool which a woman inserts in her ear to absorb the wax
28) [line 9] שבסנדלה SHEB'SANDALAH - that are in her sandal (to make it more comfortable)
29) [line 10] פילפל PILPEL - a hot pepper
30) [line 10] (גלגל) [גרגיר] מלח (GALGAL) [GARGIR] MELACH - a pellet of salt
31) [line 11] ובלבד שלא תתן לכתחלה בשבת U'VILVAD SHE'LO SITEN L'CHATCHILAH B'SHABBOS - That is, because of Shechikas Samemanim (the prohibition of healing on Shabbos), or because it appears as if she intends to do Hotza'ah (the prohibition of transferring objects from one domain to another) on Shabbos in a deceptive, subtle way (TOSFOS)
32) [line 12] שן תותבת SHEN TOSEVES - a false tooth
33) [line 13] שן של זהב SHEN SHEL ZAHAV - (a) a false tooth made of gold (this is the Shen Toseves) (RASHI); (b) a golden cover made for a odd-looking tooth (RAMBAM, Peirush ha'Mishnayos)
34) [line 16] בת מינה הוא BAS MINAH HU - she is from the same species
35) [line 20] ילדה בשל זקנה אמאי? גנאי הוא לה! YALDAH B'SHEL ZEKENAH AMAI? GENAI HU LAH! - Why would a young woman wear the hair of an elderly woman? It is a disgrace for her!
36) [line 32] לא תתגנה LO TISGANEH - she should not become repulsive
37) [line 34] לא תכחול LO SIKCHOL - she should not tint her eyes blue
38) [line 34] לא תפקוס LO SIFKOS - and she should not put on rouge
39) [line 40] זוג ZOG - a little bell
40) [line 41] פוקק POKEK - stopped up