SKINS NOT GIVEN TO THE KOHANIM
(Mishnah): If an (Olah or another) Korban (became Pasul and no part of it) will not be offered on the Mizbe'ach, the Kohanim do not receive the skin. (They receive only) "Olas Ish", an Olah that Alsah l'Ish (is credited to the one who offered it; Rambam - that came up on the Mizbe'ach).
If an Olah was slaughtered Lo Lishmah, the Kohanim receive the skin, even though the owner was not Yotzei.
Kohanim receive the skin of an Olah, whether the owner was a man or woman.
The owner of Kodshim Kalim receive the skin. Kohanim receive the skin of Kodshei Kodoshim;
A Kal va'Chomer teaches the latter law. Kohanim receive the skin of an Olah, even though they do not receive any of the meat;
Kohanim receive the meat of (other) Kodshei Kodoshim, all the more so they receive the skin!
The Mizbe'ach does not refute this (it receives the meat of Olah, but not the skin), for the Mizbe'ach never receives skin.
(Gemara - Beraisa - R. Yehudah): "Olas Ish" excludes Olas Hekdesh (Kohanim do not receive its skin);
R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah says, it excludes Olas Ger (of a convert, this will be explained).
Question: What does it mean 'this excludes Olas Hekdesh'?
Answer #1 (R. Chiya bar Yosef and Rav Nachman): It excludes an Olah that came from Mosar (e.g. Mosar Asham left to graze until it becomes blemished). It is sold, and we use the money to buy an Olah.)
Question: This is like the opinion that a Mosar becomes Nidvas Tzibur (Kitz ha'Mizbe'ach. The Tzibur offers it for an Olah when the Mizbe'ach is idle. It is not Olas Ish);
However, according to the opinion that it becomes Nidvas Yachid (the original owner does Semichah, slaughters it and brings its Nesachim), it is still Olas Ish!
Answer: Still, it is excluded;
Rava expounded "ha'Olah" - (the morning Tamid must be) the first Olah (of the day);
Similarly, we expound "ha'Olah" - (Kohanim receive skin of) an original Olah (it was never a different Korban.)
Answer #2 (R. Eibo): It excludes an Olah Hukdash to Bedek ha'Bayis;
This is not only like the opinion that such Hekdesh takes effect mid'Oraisa. It is even like the opinion that such Hekdesh takes effect only mid'Rabanan!
Those opinions only argue about the meat (the latter holds that since meat of an Olah will be put on the Mizbe'ach, one does not really own it, so he cannot be Makdish it to Bedek ha'Bayis);
All agree about the skin. It will not go to the Mizbe'ach (and the Kohanim do not yet own it), so it is considered that he (the 'owner' of the Korban) still owns it, so he can be Makdish it to Bedek ha'Bayis.
Question (Rav Hamnuna of Rav Nachman): You say that Kohanim do not receive the skin of Olos from Mosaros. This is like R. Yehudah, but (since he did not defend his opinion, surely) he retracted!
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): There were six containers for coins to buy Nedavos (Tzibur), i.e. Olos from Mosaros. The Kohanim do not receive the skin;
R. Nechemyah: Yehoyada ha'Kohen refutes you!
(Mishnah - Yehoyada ha'Kohen) Question: Why does it say "Asham Hu Asham Asham la'Shem"? (Elsewhere, it says that Asham belongs to the Kohen!)
Answer: Any Mosar of Chatas or Asham is used to buy Olos. the meat goes to Hash-m (the Mizbe'ach), and the skin goes to Kohanim.
Rav Nachman: How do you explain the Mishnah?
Rav Hamnuna: It refers to one who was Makdish his property. It is like R. Yehoshua:
(Mishnah - R. Eliezer): If Reuven was Makdish his property and it included animals Kosher for the Mizbe'ach, males are sold for Olos (i.e. to people who want to offer Olos), and females are sold for Shelamim. The money paid for them and the rest of the property goes to Bedek ha'Bayis;
R. Yehoshua says, males are themselves Olos, females are sold to be Shelamim, and the money is used to buy and offer Olos.
Even according to R. Yehoshua, who says that one makes different kinds of Hekdesh together (unblemished animals are for the Mizbe'ach, and other property is to Bedek ha'Bayis), only the meat is for the Mizbe'ach. He agrees that the skin (even of the Olos) becomes Hekdesh Bedek ha'Bayis!
(Beraisa - R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah): It excludes Olas Ger.
Question (R. Simai bar Chilkai): This is also the Olah of an Ish!
Answer (Ravina): It excludes the Olah of a convert who died without heirs.
SKINS GIVEN TO KOHANIM
(Beraisa): "Olas Ish" teaches only about the Olah of a man;
Question: What is the source to include the Olah of a Ger (some texts - Nochri), woman or slave?
Answer: "Or ha'Olah" includes (the above cases).
Question: If so, what do we exclude from "Olas Ish"?
Answer: We exclude an Olah that did not count for the owner, e.g. it was slaughtered Chutz li'Zmano or Chutz li'Mkomo (with intent to eat it outside of the permitted time or place. The Kohanim do not get the skin.)
Suggestion: Perhaps this is even if it was slaughtered Lo Lishmah, for the owner was not Yotzei!
Rejection: "Or ha'Olah" includes this case.
Question: "Or ha'Olah" teaches only about an Olah. What is the source (that Kohanim get the skin) for (other) Kodshei Kodoshim?
Answer: We learn from "Or ha'Olah Asher Hikriv."
Suggestion: Perhaps we include even Kodshim Kalim!
Rejection: "Olah" is Kodshei Kodoshim. We include only Kodshei Kodoshim.
R. Yishmael says, "Or ha'Olah" teaches only about an Olah;
Question: What is the source for Kodshei Kodoshim?
Answer: We learn from a Kal va'Chomer. Kohanim do not receive meat of an Olah, yet they receive the skin. Kohanim receive meat of other Kodshei Kodoshim, all the more so they receive the skin!
Question: The Mizbe'ach refutes this. It receives the meat of Olah, but not the skin!
Answer: The Mizbe'ach does not refute this, for it never receives skin, but (a verse teaches that) Kohanim sometimes do;
Since (we know that) Kohanim sometimes do, (we derive that) they always do.
Rebbi says, the general rule is, whoever receives the meat receives the skin. The Torah needed to teach only about Olah, for Kohanim do not receive its meat;
Parim and Se'irim ha'Nisrafim are burned, and their skins are burned;
Chatas, Asham, and Shalmei Tzibur are gifts to the Kohen. They may flay them or eat them with their skin.
Question: Regarding Olah it says "v'Hifshit Es ha'Olah v'Nitach Osah li'Nsacheha." Perhaps Kohanim do not receive the skin!
Answer: It says "Or ha'Olah Asher Hikriv (la'Kohen)."
"(Veha'Kohen ha'Makriv Es Olas Ish)... Lo Yihyeh" excludes a Tevul Yom, (Mechusar Kipurim - it is not clear why this is deleted from the text here, but not below) and Onen;
One might have thought that they do not receive meat, for they are forbidden to eat it, but they receive skin. "Lo Yihyeh" excludes them.
Question: Why doesn't the first Tana learn from the Kal va'Chomer?
Answer: He holds that even though the law can be learned from a Kal va'Chomer, the Torah taught it anyway.
Question: What does R. Yishmael learn from "Asher Hikriv"?
Answer: This excludes a Tevul Yom, Mechusar Kipurim and Onen.
Question: We already know this from "Lo Yihyeh"!
Answer: He expounds that differently:
(R. Yochanan citing R. Yishmael): It says "Lo Yihyeh" regarding Olah and Asham. Just like bones of Asham are permitted to Kohanim (they receive and eat the meat), also bones of an Olah.
Suggestion: We must say that the words "Lo Yihyeh" are extra, for if not we could not learn from the Gezerah Shavah, for Asham is more lenient. Its meat is permitted to Kohanim!
Confirmation: Indeed, the words "Lo Yihyeh" regarding Olah are superfluous.
THE SKIN OF A KORBAN PASUL
(Mishnah): If any Korban became Pasul before it was flayed, Kohanim do not receive the skin. If the Pesul occurred after it was flayed, they receive the skin;
R. Chanina Segan ha'Kohanim says, I never saw a skin taken to Beis ha'Sereifah (to be burned due to a Pesul).
R. Akiva: From R. Chanina we learn that (even) if a Bechor was found to be Treifah after flaying, Kohanim receive the skin.
Chachamim: We cannot learn from the fact that he never saw this! (Perhaps a Pesul never occurred.) The Halachah is, it goes to Beis ha'Sereifah.
(Gemara, citing the previous Mishnah): If a Korban will not be offered on the Mizbe'ach, the Kohanim do not receive the skin.
Assumption: This is even if it was flayed before Zerikah.
Question: Who is the Tana?
Answer #1: It is like R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon, who says that we do not throw blood to be Meratzeh (permit) just the skin.
Contradiction (our Mishnah): If a Pesul occurred before flaying, Kohanim do not receive the skin. If it was after flaying, they receive the skin.
This is like Rebbi, who says that we throw blood to be Meratzeh just the skin!
Question: Is the Reisha R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon, and the Seifa Rebbi?! (We normally assume that one Tana taught the entire Perek.)
Answer #1 (and Answer #2 to Question (g) - Abaye): Since the Seifa is surely Rebbi, also the Reisha is;
Rebbi admits that we do not flay before Zerikah. (He says that blood is Meratzeh for skin alone only when they happened to flay before Zerikah. L'Chatchilah, if a Pesul occurred before Zerikah, the animal goes to Beis ha'Sereifah in its skin.)
Answer #2 (Rava): Since the Reisha is surely R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon, also the Seifa is;
The Mishnah refers to a Pesul before or after flaying, i.e. before or after it was time to flay (i.e. after Zerikah).