MISHNAH: THE KETORES
They bring out the Kaf and the Machtah, from which the Kohen Gadol removes a M'lo Chofnav and places it in the Kaf.
The Chafnayim varied according to the size of the Kohen.
This was its measure.
He then took the Machtah of coals in his right hand and the Kaf of Ketores in his left (to the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim).
THE KAF AND MACHTAH
Question: We learned in the previous Mishnah that he went up to the Mizbe'ach with the Machtah (already in hand)!?
Answer: That was the Machtah for the coals, and now they brought him a Machtah of Ketores (as in the Beraisa).
Question: Why does he need a Kaf on Yom Kipur?
Answer: It was otherwise impossible.
He cannot make two trips.
He would have no hands free to put down the Machtah.
It is inappropriate for him to use his teeth.
Thus we learn from the Nesi'im who used a Kaf.
Question: How can he place the less important stranger (Machtah) in his right hand and the citizen (Ketores) in his left?
Answer: The Machtah was heavier than the Ketores (and we continue to do so even in the exceptional case that the Kohen was large enough to scoop a very large Chafnayim).
R. Yishmael, the son of Kimchis, would scoop four Kav of Ketores and boast that his mother exceded the others (either the cereal she ate or the 'select' Zera [as R. Avahu taught by resolving the two different occurrences of va'Tazreini]).
THE SONS OF KIMCHIS
One Yom Kipur R. Yishmael b. Kimchis became Tamei from the spittle of a gentile, and his brother, Yeshvav took his place, thus two of the sons of Kimchis merited the office.
The next time this happened, his brother Yosef took his place.
In the end all seven of her sons served as Kohanim Gedolim.
She credited her success to her modesty, while the Chachamim indicated that others had done similarly but had not merited such honor.
THE SIZE OF THE KOMETZ
"be'Kumtzo" teaches us not to make a fixed measure for the Kometz.
Question: What about making such a measure for the Chafinah?
Does "be'Kumtzo" only apply to the Kometz; or
Does "M'lo" connect the Chafinah to the Kometz?
Answer: The Mishnah teaches so is its measure.
This appears to permit making a measure for Chafinah.
No, it means that he measured it the same way (again) inside the Kodshei Kodshim.
Question: Then it seems that he repeated the Chafinah?!
Answer: It could mean to permit making a measure (and the interpretation could be pushed back and forth).
Alternate Answer: 'Its measure' means that he must take precisely a Chafnayim-full, not more nor less.
TAKING THE KOMETZ
The Beraisa understands M'lo Kumtzo to teach that:
It may not be full to overflowing.
It may not be only on his fingertips.
It must be a full fistful in his hand, closing three fingers around it.
When he must take the Kometz from the Minchas Machavas and Marcheshes he must use his thumb and pinky to clear the overflow from Birutzin (this is the most difficult Avodah to get precisely correct).
Question: But we learned that Melikah and (the second) Chafinah are the most difficult!?
Answer: This is one of the most difficult.
Question: What is the status of the flour found between his clenched fingers (that which is not clearly within or without)?
Answer: It is a Safek and he offers the Kometz first, and then he offers the flour between his fingers.
He cannot offer the doubtful flour first since it might impair the proper measure of the Kometz.
We learned that such impaired Shirayim do not allow for the Kometz to be brought.
Question: But it is prohibited to bring the doubtful flour after the proper Haktarah was done!?
Answer: He brings the doubtful flour as though it were wood.
This is supported by the teaching of R. Eliezer:
After an offering the leftovers cannot be brought as that Korban, but they may be brought as wood.
Question: But according to Rabanan (who prohibit bringing the leftovers even as wood), how will he offer the doubtful flour after?
Answer: Let the Kemitzah then be performed by heavy Kohanim whose fleshy fingers do not create this doubtful flour.
If that were so, R. Eliezer would then require the same.
RAV PAPA'S QUESTIONS ABOUT KEMITZAH AND CHAFINAH
Question: What is the status of the inter-finger flour of a M'lo Chafnav (perhaps Birutzin are acceptable by Chafinah)?
This would seem to hinge on the same Gezeirah Shavah ("M'lo" "M'lo") that prohibits Birutzin by Kemitzah!
His question, rather, was whether unintended taking is valid and may be brought ("M'lo Chafnav") or not ("ve'lakach-ve'Heivi").
Question: Would a fingertip or upward Kemitzah be considered as a common person would scoop a Kometz? What of a sideways Kemitzah?
Answer to all three: Teiku.
Question: Would a fingertip, upward or sideways Chafinah be considered its usual manner? What if he scooped with each hand separately and then brought his hands together?
Answer to all four: Teiku.