YOMA 35 - Dedicated in memory of Max (Meir Menachem ben Shlomo ha'Levi) Turkel, by his children Eddie and Lawrence and his wife Jean Turkel/Rafalowicz. Max was a warm and loving husband and father and is missed dearly by his family and friends. His Yahrzeit is 5 Teves.
1) THE "BEIS HA'PARVAH"
OPINIONS: The Mishnah (34b) says that in the next stage of the order of the day, the Kohen Gadol was brought to the Beis ha'Parvah for his second Tevilah. The Gemara here says that this chamber was named after Parvah the "Amgusha," the "magician."
Why was part of the holy Beis ha'Mikdash named after a sorcerer?
(a) RASHI writes that it was Parvah who built this chamber. The ROSH (Midos 5:3) adds that Parvah must have been a Jew, because a non-Jew would not have been allowed to build a part of the Beis ha'Mikdash (see Shekalim 4a, Erchin 6a).
Why, though, did they name this chamber after its architect, something they did not do for any other part of Beis ha'Mikdash? Perhaps it was given the name of the person who built it in order to show that it was built after
the rest of the Azarah was built. This fact has Halachic ramifications: since the Beis ha'Parvah was not part of the original construction of the Azarah, even its roof was sanctified, as explained earlier (see Insights to Yoma 30:2
(b) The RASH (Midos 5:3) points out that the Mishnah in Midos says that the Beis ha'Parvah was used as the place in which the hides of Kodshim were salted. Accordingly, it was called "Parvah" because of the hides of cows ("Parim") that were salted there. (Although the hides of all animals were salted there, the word "Parvah" was chosen presumably because it also happened to be the name of the person who designed it. Thus, the Rash's explanation does not contradict the Gemara here.)
(c) TOSFOS (DH Parvah) relates an incident recorded by the ARUCH. This particular sorcerer clandestinely dug an underground tunnel from outside the Beis ha'Mikdash in order to be able to see the Kohen Gadol perform the Avodah. The Kohanim discovered him as he dug the tunnel and captured him, and they named the place where they caught him, "Beis ha'Parvah." The RAMBAM (in Perush ha'Mishnayos to Midos 5:3) says that he dug a hole through the wall of the Azarah, and that the Kohanim killed him at that spot. Apparently, they name that place "Beis ha'Parvah" in commemoration of the miracle that Parvah was caught in time, before he entered the Azarah.
(d) The TIFERES YISRAEL in Midos suggests that this chamber was named in honor of Parvah because he developed an ingenious system, which seemed almost magical, for transporting water to the Mikvah on its roof.
2) THE VALUE OF THE KOHEN GADOL'S HOLY GARMENTS ON YOM KIPPUR
QUESTION: The Gemara asks why everyone (Rebbi Meir and the Chachamim) agrees that the Begadim the Kohen Gadol wears in the morning of Yom Kippur are worth more than the Begadim he wears in the afternoon (when he removes the Kaf u'Machtah from the Kodesh ha'Kodashim). The Gemara answers with the verse that mentions "Bad" four times with regard to the morning Begadim (Vayikra 16:4).
The Gemara then relates incidents in which mothers of Kohanim Gedolim made for their sons extravagant garments to wear for "Avodas Yachid." Rashi says that this means "Hotza'as Kaf u'Machtah," which was the afternoon Avodah. According to Rashi's explanation, the afternoon Begadim were worth more than the morning Begadim! (See SEFER SHEMU'AS CHAIM, p. 422, and CHONEN DE'AH, p. 223, for a very novel approach to this question.)
(a) The CHAFETZ CHAIM (in ZEVACH TODAH) answers that perhaps the requirement that the morning Begadim be worth more than the afternoon Begadim applies only when the Begadim are purchased from the public funds. When the money of Hekdesh is used to buy the Begadim, the morning Begadim must be worth more than the afternoon Begadim. However, this requirement does not apply when private donations are used to buy the Begadim. The Kohen Gadol may use private funds to make extravagant afternoon Begadim even though they will be worth more than the morning Begadim. (See also Milu'im of the GEVURAS ARI to Yoma 34b.)
However, the Chafetz Chaim questions this approach. Since the privately-donated, expensive Beged must be dedicated to the Tzibur, it becomes public funds and is considered as though the public donated it.
(b) The Chafetz Chaim concludes that this question is not difficult according to the Girsa and explanation of the ME'IRI, who explains that "Avodas Yachid" does not refer to an Avodah done on Yom Kippur. The Begadim contributed by the Kohen's mother were worn only during the weekday service and not on Yom Kippur, as the Chafetz Chaim proves from a Tosefta. The Chafetz Chaim favors this explanation of the Gemara over Rashi's explanation.
(c) The RAMBAM (Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 8:3) writes that the Kohen Gadol may add to the value of the Begadim as much as he wants. The Rambam makes no mention of the limitation that the morning Begadim must be worth more than the afternoon Begadim. Similarly, RABEINU YEHONASAN MI'LUNIL explains that the Gemara means that the Kohen Gadol may add to the value of the afternoon Begadim even if he makes them worth more than the morning Begadim.
How do they understand the statement of the Gemara that the morning Begadim must be worth more than the afternoon Begadim?
The SI'ACH YITZCHAK explains that when the Mishnah and the Gemara say that the morning Begadim are worth more, they mean merely that the common practice of the Kohanim is to spend more on the morning Begadim, but not that there is any obligation to do so. (When the Gemara says that for "Kulei Alma" the morning Begadim were worth more, it does not mean "according to all of the Tana'im in the Mishnah," but rather it means "for all (i.e. most) of the Kohanim Gedolim.")
However, the Si'ach Yitzchak does not explain how the Rambam understands the Gemara's source that the morning Begadim must be worth more. According to his explanation, there is no verse that teaches that the morning Begadim must be worth more.
Perhaps the answer is as follows. The GEVURAS ARI asks what the source is for the Mishnah's teaching that the total minimum value of all of the Bigdei Kodesh worn on Yom Kippur according to the Chachamim is 30 Manah. The Gemara brings no source for that requirement. The Gevuras Ari answers that it must be a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai.
Perhaps the Rambam understands that when the Gemara asks, "Mena Lan," it is not seeking a source for the requirement that the morning Begadim be worth more than the afternoon Begadim. Rather, it is seeking a source for the requirement that the total value of the Begadim be at least 30 Manah. The Gemara answers that the word "Bad" ("linen") appears four times in the verse that discusses the morning Avodah of the Kohen Gadol. The word "Bad" appears one more time in the verse that discusses the afternoon Avodah, for a total of five times. The Gematriya of the word "Bad" is six, and since the word "Bad" appears five times, the total value is 30. This is the source that the Begadim must be made of the finest linen, and that the two sets of Begadim together must be worth at least 30 Manah. The verse does not teach that the morning Begadim must be worth more than the afternoon Begadim.
How, though, does the Rambam understand the next question of the Gemara? The Gemara asks that the verse in Yechezkel implies that the afternoon Begadim are more distinguished than the morning Begadim. If there is no requirement that the morning Begadim be worth more, what is the Gemara's question?
The answer is that in the Rambam's text of the Gemara, this question appeared later, as a question on Rav Huna's statement that when a Kohen performs an Avodas Yachid, he may wear the Ketones that his mother made for him. This indeed was the original Girsa before Rashi emended it. The ME'IRI explains this Girsa in detail. (M. KORNFELD)