12th CYCLE DEDICATIONS
 
YEVAMOS 37-40 - Dedicated by Andy & Nancy Neff in memory of Leah Miriam bat Yisroel -- Lucy Rabin. Beloved mother of Nancy Neff, Valerie, Doug and Andy Rabin, and wife of Sidney Rabin, Lucy Rabin was Nifteres last Thursday (14 Sivan).

1)

A SAFEK ABOUT WHO IS THE FATHER (Yerushalmi Perek 4 Halachah 2 Daf 24a)

מה אנן קיימין

(a)

Question: What is the case [that our Mishnah calls a Safek nine month baby from the first, or a seven month baby from the latter]?

אם בשבא עליה לאחר מיתת בעלה מיד הוכר עוברה לאחר שני חדשים ניתני בן ט' לזה ולזה בן ז' לזה ולזה.

1.

If he had Bi'ah with her immediately after her husband's death, and the fetus showed after two months, it should teach that it is a Safek whether it is a nine month baby from this man or from this, or a seven month baby from this man or from this [for there was no time of separation between the men]!

אלא כן אנן קיימין בשבא עליה לאחר שני חדשים והוכר עוברה לאחר ג' חדשים.

(b)

Answer #1: Rather, he had Bi'ah two months after [death], and the fetus showed after three [more] months.

ניתני היבמה לא תחלוץ ולא תתיבם עד שיהו לה חמשה חדשים.

(c)

Question: [This implies that even if the fetus did not show until five months after death, it is a Safek whether it is from the Mes. If so, the Mishnah (11, below) should teach that a Yevamah may not do Yibum or Chalitzah until five months [from death. Why does the Mishnah say three months?!]

אלא כן אנן קיימין כשבא עליה לאחר ארבעים יום והוכר עוברה לאחר חמשים יום. הרי יש כאן שלימין לראשון ומקוטעין לשני.

(d)

Answer #2: Rather, he had Bi'ah 40 days after [death], and the fetus showed after [another] 50 days. There are three full months (90 days) from the first, and three partial months (i.e. the first and third months are partial, and the second month is full) from the second.

שמע מינה שהאשה יולדת לחדשים (שלימים) מקוטעים.

(e)

Inference: A woman can give birth after partial months. (I.e. a seven month baby can be born after one day in the first month, one day in the last month, and five full months in the middle, so 50 days is a third of the pregnancy - MAR'EH HA'PANIM. This is unlike we said above (at the end of 1:2), that a girl cannot give birth in the six months between Na'arus and Bagrus. - PF)

את שמע מינה שהן שתי יצירות.

(f)

Inference: There are two formations (some babies are formed after seven months, and some after nine).

את שמע מינה שהאשה (יולדת) [צ"ל ניכר עוברה - הגר"ח קניבסקי שליט"א] לחדשים מקוטעין.

(g)

Inference: A woman's fetus is recognized after partial months. (We explained this like HA'GAON RAV C. KANIEVSKY, SHLITA.)

את שמע מינה [דף כד עמוד ב] שהאשה מעוברת (וחוזרת) [צ"ל אינה וחוזרת - קרבן העדה] ומתעברת.

(h)

Inference: A pregnant woman cannot become pregnant again [with a second fetus. If she could, a woman could not remarry even after three months].

את שמע מינה שהאשה אינה מתעברת משני בני אדם כאחת.

(i)

Inference: A woman cannot become pregnant from two men at once.

ופליגא על דרבנן דאגדתא

(j)

Question: This argues with Rabanan of Agadata!

דרבנן דאגדתא אומרים [שמואל א יז כג] ויצא איש הביניים ממערכות פלשתים. ממאה ערלות פלשתים שהערו בה מאה ערלות פלשתים.

1.

(Rabanan of Agadata): "Va'Yetzei Ish ha'Beinayim... mi'Ma'archos Plishtim" - mi'Me'ah (from 100) foreskins of Plishtim; 100 foreskins of Plishtim had Bi'ah with [Orpah, and Galyus resulted from them].

i.

Note: We expound mi'Me'ah Ha'ara'os from the way the word is written (mi'Ma'aros). Really, proper Bi'ah is needed to impregnate, and not merely Ha'ara'ah (the initial stage of Bi'ah).

אמר רבי מתנייה ולא פליגין. עד שלא נסרח הזרע האשה מעוברת משני בני אדם כאחת. משנסרח הזרע אין האשה מעוברת משני בני אדם כאחת.

(k)

Answer (R. Masniyah): They do not argue. Before the semen decays, a woman can become pregnant from two men at once. After the semen decays, a woman cannot become pregnant from two men at once.

מניין שתי יצירות.

(l)

Question: What is the source for two Yetziros (formations)?

רבי זעירא בשם רבי הונא [בראשית ב ז] וייצר יצירה לשבעה ויצירה לתשעה.

(m)

Answer (R. Ze'ira citing Rav Huna): "va'Yitzer" (is spelled with two Yud's). This alludes to Yetzirah [of a baby] in seven months, and Yetzirah in nine.

נוצר לז' ונולד לשמונה חיי כל שכן לתשעה.

(n)

If a baby was formed in seven months, and was born in the eighth [month], it will live (it merely delayed in the womb), and all the more so [if it was born] in the ninth.

נוצר לתשעה ונולד לשמונה. אינו חיי.

(o)

If a baby was [due to be] formed in nine months, and was born [prematurely] in the eighth, it will not live.

נוצר לתשעה ונולד (לשמונה) לשבעה איתא חמי אם לשמונה אינו חייה לא כ"ש לשבעה.

(p)

If it was [due to be] formed in nine months, and was born in the seventh, let us see - if it was born in the eighth [one month too soon], it will not live, and all the more so [if it was born] in the seventh!

בעון קומי ר' אבהו מניין לבן שבעה שהוא חייה

(q)

Question (to R. Avahu): What is the source for a seven month baby, that he lives?

אמר לון מדידכון אנא יהב לכון )זוטא אבטא. זוטא אבטא( [צ"ל זיטה איפטה איטה אכטו - ע"פ בראשית רבה יד]

(r)

Answer (R. Avahu): I will answer you from your language (Yevanis)! Zeitah Iftah Eitah Achto (seven lives, eight dies).

2)

INHERITANCE IN CASES OF SAFEK (Yerushalmi Perek 4 Halachah 2 Daf 24b)

בא הספק ליטול את חלקו של אביו אמרין ליה הני אביך בא היבם ליטול חלקו של אחיו א"ל הני בריה.

(a)

If the Safek (son of the Mes or of the Yavam) comes to take his share of his [dead, Safek] father's property, they tell him, [the Yavam] is your father!' If the Yavam comes to take his share of his brother's property, they tell him, [the Safek] is [your brother's] son (he alone inherits him)!

הא כיצד עושין שיפיות ביניהן ומחלקין נכסי המת.

1.

What do they do? They make a compromise, and divide the Mes' property.

נמצאת אומר שיפיות לאחין הפסד לאחין. תחרות באחין שכר באחין.

2.

It turns out that compromise among the 'brothers' (the Safek and the Yavam, they are not truly brothers) is a loss for [the other] brothers. Strife among the 'brothers' is a gain for [the other] brothers. (Due to the compromise, even after the Safek and Yavam die, the other brothers do not inherit the Mes. Without a compromise, the Safek and Yavam do not receive anything, and after one of them dies, the other brothers have a claim to inherit the Mes.)

i.

Note: If the Mes' father is alive, he inherits before the other brothers, so the loss or gain is his. If the Safek or Yavam dies without children, the father (or other brothers, if the father died) inherits him, but he 'loses' property of the Mes that he consumed or sold.

מת הזקן הרי יש (באים בנים בוודאי ובין בן) [צ"ל כאן בנים בודאי ובן הבן - קרבן העדה] בספק.

(b)

If the Zaken (the father of the Mes and the Yavam) died, there are Vadai sons [of the Zaken], and [the Safek is] a Safek grandson. (If he were Vadai, he would inherit with them in place of his dead father. Amidst Safek, he does not take from Vadai heirs.)

מת הספק הרי יש בן (אחי אב בוודאי ואם) [צ"ל כאן אחי אב וודאי ואב - קרבן העדה] בספק.

(c)

If the Safek died, there are Vadai brothers of his father, and [the Yavam is] a Safek father. (If not, also he is an uncle. They inherit equally. Even though the Yavam Vadai inherits at least part, and the brothers are Safek, since the Yavam is not sure why he inherits (i.e. because he is a father or uncle), we do not say 'a Safek cannot take from a Vadai. This is based on RASHI 37b.)

מת אחד מן האחין הרי יש (כן בן אח בודאי ובן אח) [צ"ל כאן אח בודאי ובן אחיו - קרבן העדה] בספק.

(d)

If one of the [other] brothers died, there is a Vadai brother(s), and [the Yavam is] a Safek son of a brother. (If he were Vadai, he would inherit with them in place of his dead father. Amidst Safek, he does not receive anything.)

מתה אמו של ספק הרי יש כאן בן בודאי ובעל בספק.

(e)

If the Safek's mother died, there is a Vadai, and [the Yavam is] a Safek husband. (Amidst Safek, he does not take from the son.)

מת הספק ואח"כ מתה אמו הרי יש (בן אחי אם) [צ"ל כאן אחי האם - קרבן העדה] בוודאי ובעל בספק.

(f)

If the Safek died, and afterwards his mother died, there are Vadai brothers of the mother, and [the Yavam is] a Safek husband. (They inherit equally.)

מת הייבם ובא הספק ליטול חלקו של אביו אי הוה קדמייא מיסכן אמרין ליה הני אבוך. אי הוה עתיר אמרין ליה כולן אחין בני אחין בואו ונירש חלקו של אבינו וחלקו של אחי אבינו

(g)

If the Yavam died, and the Safek comes to take his share of his father's property - if the first [to die] was poor, [the Yavam's Vadai sons] say to him 'you are his son' (you get his property, but you do not share in the property of our father, the Yavam). If [the first] was rich, they say to him 'we are all sons [of the Yavam], brothers - we inherit [equally] the property of our father and of our father's brother.

תני הראשון ראוי להיות כהן גדול. והשני ממזר בספק.

(h)

(Beraisa): The first [son born after Yibum] is proper to be Kohen Gadol [no matter who his father is, he is Kosher]. The second son (i.e. any child from a later pregnancy) is a Safek Mamzer;

רבי ליעזר בן יעקב אומר אין ממזר בספק.

(i)

R. Eliezer ben Yakov says, there is no Safek Mamzer (the Torah permits a Safek Mamzer to marry Yisraelim. He holds that even mid'Rabanan he is permitted.)

מודי ר' ליעזר בן יעקב בספק כותים ובספק חללים

(j)

R. Eliezer ben Yakov agrees about Safek Kusim and Safek Chalalim;

כההיא דתנינן תמן עשרה יוחסין עלו מבבל על דעתיה דר' ליעזר בן יעקב שמונה.

1.

This is like it we learned there - 10 categories of lineage ascended from [Galus] Bavel. R. Eliezer ben Yakov says, there were eight. (He permits a Shetuki (one whose mother is known, but not his father) and Asufi (an abandoned baby), even though they are Safek Mamzerim, so they are like Yisraelim.)

[דף כה עמוד א] על דעתיה דרבן גמליאל ורבי ליעזר תשעה. על דעתיה דרבנן עשרה:

(k)

R. Gamliel and R. Eliezer say that there were nine. (They permit a Shetuki, for they believe his mother to say that the father had Kosher lineage.) Rabanan hold that there were 10. (We explained this like HA'GAON RAV C. KANIEVSKY, SHLITA.)

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