[5a - 23 lines; 5b - 29 lines]
1)[line 1]תינח לתנא דבי ר' ישמעאלTEINACH L'TANA D'VEI REBBI YISHMAEL- the question [regarding the origin of the principle of "Aseh Docheh Lo Sa'aseh"] is answered according to the teaching of the Yeshivah of Rebbi Yishmael [who maintain that the word "Beged" implies a garment of either wool or linen]
2)[line 2]"[וְהָיָה בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי יְגַלַּח אֶת-כָּל-שְׂעָרוֹ; אֶת] רֹאשׁוֹ [וְאֶת-זְקָנוֹ וְאֵת גַּבֹּת עֵינָיו וְאֶת-כָּל-שְׂעָרוֹ יְגַלֵּחַ]""[V'HAYAH VA'YOM HA'SHEVI'I YEGALACH ES KOL SE'ARO; ES] ROSHO [V'ES ZEKANO V'ES GABOS EINAV V'ES KOL SE'ARO YEGALE'ACH]"- "[And it will be on the seventh day that he should shave all of his hair;] his head, [his beard, his eyebrows, and all of his hair he should shave....]" (Vayikra 14:9) - This verse refers to a Metzora on the eighth day of his purification process; see below, entry #4. Since the verse has already specified that the Metzora must shave all of his hair, it does not seem necessary to state that the hair of his head and beard are included in the prohibition.
3)[line 3]"לֹא תַקִּפוּ פְּאַת רֹאשְׁכֶם, [וְלֹא תַשְׁחִית אֵת פְּאַת זְקָנֶךָ.]""LO SAKIFU PE'AS ROSHCHEM..."- "Do not round the corners of your heads, [nor destroy the corners of your beard.]" (Vayikra 19:27) - One may not cut the hair above his ears, his sideburns, or the point of his beard too close to the skin.
(a)If one develops a white patch on his skin the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) which appears to be Tzara'as, he must go to a Kohen, as the status of Tzara'as can only be determined by the pronouncement of a Kohen. If the Kohen ascertains that the whiteness of the patch is indeed the hue of a Nega Tzara'as, then the status of the individual depends on its appearance. If there are Simanei Tum'ah, which include the spreading of the patch, unaffected skin in the middle of the patch, or two white hairs growing in the patch, then the Kohen immediately declares him to be a Metzora. Such an individual is known as a Metzora Muchlat. If the Kohen does not find any Simanei Tum'ah, then he pronounces him Tamei for one week. At this point the person in question is known as a Metzora Musgar. After the week passes, the Kohen returns to see if the appearance of the patch has developed Simanei Tum'ah. If it has, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. If it has not, the individual is once again a Metzora Musgar for the duration of a week. At the end of this second week, if no Simanei Tum'ah appear, the Metzora becomes Tahor. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah disappear. At that point - after a Kohen determines that the Tzara'as has indeed departed - he is Tahor once pronounced so by the Kohen.
(b)The four shades of white considered Tzara'as are: 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg.
(c)No Metzora is allowed into "Machaneh Yisrael," i.e. any walled city in Eretz Yisrael.
(d)On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he procures two Kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur no longer applies to the living bird once it is sent off to the fields.
(e)The Metzora next shaves all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He waits seven days, and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Pesachim 59:5).
(f)On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring three Korbanos to complete his Taharah. These Korbanos consist of two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, and the other is offered as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas. If he cannot afford these animals, he is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two turtledoves or two common doves as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still necessary for his Asham.
(g)The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live Korban Asham while the Log of oil rests upon it. After the Asham is slaughtered, some of its blood is placed upon the middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, some on his right thumb, and some on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor (the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for the man who donated the brass doors of the gate; see Yoma 38a). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah have the status of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor is only as Kadosh as Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that a Metzora can put his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the awning of the gate.
(h)After all of the Korbanos of the Metzora are offered, a Kohen then pours some of the Log of oil into his left hand and sprinkles it with his right finger seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, dipping his finger into the oil each time. Some oil is placed on the Metzora, in the same places where the blood of the Asham was placed. The remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed upon the head of the Metzora. The remainder of the Log is given to the Kohanim; it has the status of Kodshei Kodashim, and therefore must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusrei Kaparah 4:2-3).
5)[line 5]הקפת כל הראש שמה הקפהHAKAFAS KOL HA'ROSH SHMAH HAKAFAH- it is considered rounding [the corners of one's head, and is therefore forbidden (see above, entry #3)] if he shaves his entire head [even though he has not singled the corners out]
6)[line 7]לאו שאין שוה בכלLAV SHE'EIN SHAVEH BA'KOL- a negative prohibition that does not apply equally to everyone [as women are not limited by this prohibition]
7)[line 8]"זקנו""ZEKANO"- see above, entry #2
8)[line 9]"וּפְאַת זְקָנָם לֹא יְגַלֵּחוּ""U'PE'AS ZEKANAM LO YEGALEICHU"- "... nor may they shave their beards...." (Vayikra 21:5) - This verse refers to Kohanim, and adds to the prohibition that applies to all Jews.
9)[line 10]אם אינו ענין... תנהו עניןIM EINO INYAN... TENEHU INYAN
There are times when the Torah appears to teach that which is unnecessary, due to that which another similar teaching has already been taught. The rule of "Im Eino Inyan l'Zeh, Tenehu Inyan l'Zeh" may then apply. This means that "if it is unnecessary for what it appears to be teaching, apply it to a different, related teaching." Through this rule, Halachos can be derived from subjects that do not deal directly with that area of Halachah.
10)[line 15]ראשו דהך תנאROSHO D'HACH TANA- the way in which that Tana interprets the word "Rosho." This Tana maintains that it is generally permitted to shave one's entire head, and the word "Rosho" is therefore not necessary for that which the Tana quoted earlier on the Amud required it (Maharsha and Rashash explaining RASHI DH Talmud Lomar Rosho, which contains what they maintain is an erroneous addition).
11)[line 16]"תַּעַר לֹא-יַעֲבֹר עַל-רֹאשׁוֹ""TA'AR LO YA'AVOR AL ROSHO " (NAZIR)
If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, his Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to: 1. cut his hair, as the verse states, "... a razor may not pass over his head..." (Bamidbar 6:5); 2. become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or 3. consume any products of the grapevine (Bamidbar 6:1-21).
12)[line 19]בשאלהSHE'EILAH (HETER NEDARIM)
(a)When a person makes a Neder (or designates Chalah, Terumah, or Kodshim) or Nezirus, he may have it revoked by a Beis Din of three (if they are not outstanding authorities) or a Yachid Mumcheh (an outstanding authority). The general method used is that Beis Din investigates whether the person would not have made the Neder in the first place had he been aware of a particular fact. This unknown bit of knowledge provides the individual with a "Pesach" (opening) for Beis Din or the Yachid to revoke his declaration.
(b)If no Pesach is available, but the individual nonetheless regrets his declaration, this is termed "Charatah" (remorse). Tana'im disagree as to whether or not Charatah alone is enough basis to annul a Neder.
13)[line 21]ליגמר מנזיר!LIGAMER MI'NAZIR!- derive from the case of Nazir [that an Aseh does defer both an Aseh and a Lo Sa'aseh]! A Nazir who cuts his hair transgresses the aforementioned negative prohibition against doing so (see above, entry #11), as well as a positive commandment to let his hair grow (Bamidbar 6:5).
14)[line 3]גדיל שניםGEDIL SHENAYIM- "twined thread" implies [a minimum of] two [threads twined together]
15)[line 4]פותלהו מתוכוPOSLEHU MI'TOCHO- (a) leave the ends of the threads [untwined and] hanging loosely (RASHI); (b) include [the twining thread] in the count [of four threads] (RASHI to Menachos 39a, first explanation); (c) fold [the four threads] as one does when [twisting thread to] form a wick through the hole [in the garment, doubling their number] (implied by TOSFOS DH Gedilim)
16)[line 6]יחדו למה לי?YACHDAV LAMAH LI?- why do I require the word "Yachdav"?
17)[line 7]תוכף שתי תכיפות חיבורTOKEF SHTEI TEKIFOS CHIBUR- one who attaches [wool and linen together] with two needlepoints (O.F. point) (i.e., one stitch) [has joined them in such a way that he has transgressed the prohibition of Sha'atnez]
18)[line 10]שוע טווי ונוזSHU'A TAVUY V'NOZ- see Background to 4:2
19)[line 11]כולה משעטנז נפקאKULAH MI'SHA'ATNEZ NAFKA- both that which Shu'a, Tavuy, and Noz are required to transgress the prohibition of Sha'atnez, as well as that which we can derive "Semuchin" from the juxtaposition of Tzitzis and Sha'atnez, are apparent from the word "Sha'atnez." The former is derived from that which the Torah did not write the word "Kil'ayim," and the latter from that which the Torah did not write the words "Shu'a, Tavuy, v'Noz" (RASHI and TOSFOS DH Kulah).
20)[line 14]דאיצטריך עליה למיסרהD'ITZTRICH ALEHA L'MEISRAH- that the word "Aleha" [written in the verse prohibiting a conjugal relationship with one's wife's sister] is necessary to prohibit [one from performing Yibum with an Ervah]
21)[line 15]מילהMILAH (BRIS MILAH)
(a)One must perform Bris Milah (circumcision) upon his son on the eighth day of his life (Bereishis 21:4). If the father is unable or otherwise fails to fulfill this obligation, then Beis Din is commanded to see to it that he is circumcised (ibid. 17:10). If, for any reason, a Jewish male reaches the age of Bar Mitzvah without a Bris Milah, then he is required to circumcise himself (ibid. 17:14). One who does not fulfill this Mitzvah receives Kares (see Background to 3:27) (ibid.; see RAMBAM Hilchos Milah 1:1-2 and RA'AVAD there).
(b)Although cutting into a living being on Shabbos is normally punishable by Sekilah (see Background to 2:15), the Mitzvah of Milah on the eighth day overrides the prohibitions of Shabbos (in Shabbos 132a). This is only true, however, when it is certain that Shabbos is indeed the eighth day of the child's life. If this is in doubt, then the Milah does not override Shabbos.
(c)Our Gemara attempts to prove that Aseh Docheh Lo Sa'aseh she'Yesh Bah Kares from that which Milah may be performed on Shabbos. Since Kares is less severe than Sekilah, it is clear from the case of Milah performed on Shabbos that a positive commandment can defer a negative one, even if it is punishable by Kares.
22)[line 15]נכרתו עליה שלש עשרה בריתותNICHRESU ALEHA SHELOSH ESREH BERISOS- the word "Bris" (covenant) appears thirteen times when HaSh-m commanded Avraham Avinu to perform Bris Milah (Bereishis 17:2-21) [implying that this Mitzvah has particular importance]
23)[line 16]פסחPESACH (KORBAN PESACH)
(a)In the times of the Beis ha'Mikdash, every adult Jew is obligated to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon, as the Torah commands, "And the whole assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards evening" (Shemos 12:6). A Korban Pesach must be an unblemished male lamb or goat within its first year. The Korban may be slaughtered in any part of the Azarah (see Zevachim 56b).
(b)The body of the Korban is roasted in its entirety, and is eaten after nightfall together with Matzah and Maror. The Korban must be eaten within the walls of Yerushalayim (Zevachim 56b).
(c)One who is able to offer the Korban Pesach and neglects to do so receives the punishment of Kares (see Background to 3:27). The Mitzvah of Korban Pesach is one of only two positive commandments that are punishable by Kares.
24)[line 16]כרתKARES- see Background to 3:27
25)[line 17]תמידTAMID (KORBAN TAMID)
The Korban Tamid consists of two male sheep which are younger than one year old. One sheep, known as the Tamid Shel Shachar, is offered in the morning, and the second - the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim - is offered in the afternoon. One tenth of an Eifah (approx. two quarts) of flour, mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approx. one quart) of hand-pressed olive oil, is offered with each sheep as a Minchah (meal offering). One quarter of a Hin of wine is offered with each sheep as a wine libation. (Bamidbar 28:5).
26)[line 17]תדירTADIR- regular[ly offered every day]
27)[line 18]תיתי מתרתיTEISI MI'TARTEI (HA'TZAD HA'SHAVEH)
(a)One method of deriving Halachos is a "Mah Matzinu" - literally, "just as we have found." This entails comparing one area of Halachah to another, and applying what is stated clearly regarding one to the other. This method, however, is very vulnerable to "Pirchos" - questions. If any difference can be shown between the two subjects, then the comparison is negated.
(b)In such a situation, the Gemara will sometimes offer a "Yochi'ach" / "Tochi'ach" - a proof. This takes the form of a comparison to yet another subject, which strengthens the original derivation and lacks the flaw of the first comparison. If a Pirchah is asked on this second comparison, it can then be refuted by the first one.
(c)The terminology of the Gemara in such a situation is "v'Chazar ha'Din" - the ruling returns [back and forth]; "Lo Re'i Zeh k'Re'i Zeh" - this comparison is unlike the first and vice versa; but the "Tzad ha'Shaveh" - the common denominator - teaches us that the derivation is valid. This process can continue, with the Gemara asking a Pirchah upon the common denominator and attempting to introduce yet a third comparison that will solidify the Tzad ha'Shaveh.
28)[line 19]צורך גבוהTZORECH GAVOHA- they fulfill the needs of Heaven; i.e., they are offered as Korbanos
29)[line 20](ישנו) [ישנן] לפני הדבור(YESHNO) [YESHNAN] LIFNEI HA'DIBUR- they existed prior to the giving of the Torah
30)[line 21]עולה שהקריבו ישראל במדברOLAH SHE'HIKRIVU YISRAEL BA'MIDBAR- the Korban Olah offered by [the first-born in] Klal Yisrael (Shemos 24:5; see Chagigah 6a)
31)[line 26]כולכם חייבין בכבודיKULCHEM CHAYAVIM BI'CHVODI- you (both children and their parents) are all obligated in my honor. This is derived from (a) the concluding words of the verse, "Ani HaSh-m" (RASHI and TOSFOS DH Kulchem); (b) that which the observance of Shabbos is characterized as "Shemirah" - guarding. If an exception to the laws of Shabbos exists, it is not "guarded" (RAMBAN).
32)[line 27]"שחוט לי, בשל לי""SHECHOT LI, BASHEL LI"- "Slaughter [an animal] for me, cook for me." Both of these actions are among the thirty-nine acts of creative labor prohibited on Shabbos and punishable by Sekilah (see Background to 2:15).