[6a - 29 lines; 6b - 37 lines]

1)[line 1] LAV D'MECHAMER

(a)One may not cause a laden animal to move on Shabbos, whether by leading it, driving it, or even simply calling to it from a distance. This is because one must ensure that his animal not perform Melachah on Shabbos (Shemos 23:12 and Devarim 5:14) (RAMBAM Hilchos Shabbos 20:1-2, 6).

(b)Unlike the thirty-nine acts of creative labor forbidden on Shabbos which are punishable by Sekilah (stoning), the prohibition of Mechamer is simply a Lav (negative prohibition), punishable by Malkus (thirty-nine lashes).

2)[line 2] !LIGAMER ME'HACHA D'LO LIDCHI!- why not derive from here that [an Asei] does not defer [a Lo Sa'aseh]?

3)[line 3] SHA'ANI LA'AVEI SHABBOS D'CHAMIREI- the negative prohibitions associated with Shabbos are severe [since one who transgresses Shabbos is comparable to one who has worshipped an idol (Eruvin 69b)]

4)[line 5]HITAMEI- become Tamei. This case assumes that the individual in question is a Kohen, in which case he is prohibited from becoming Tamei. His father wishes him to enter a cemetery in order to (a) return a lost item (RASHI; this Beraisa is written regarding the Halachos of returning lost items); (b) bring him pigeons that are there (TOSFOS DH she'Ken); (c) cook a meal for him on a stove there (RASHBA).

5)[line 5] AL TACHZIR- do not return [a lost item]

6)[line 9] SHE'KEN HECHSHER MITZVAH- (a) Our Gemara rejects the assertion that the Beraisa is referring to the negative prohibition against Mechamer. Yet, this has no bearing on Yibum, since in a situation of Kibud Av v'Em versus Shabbos, the only way to perform the Mitzvah of Kibud Av 'v'Em is to transgress Shabbos, and vice versa. This is termed "Hechsher Mitzvah." Yibum with an Ervah, on the other hand, can be avoided by performing Chalitzah instead (RASHI). (b) Our Gemara rejects the assertion that the prohibition against Mechamer is unique due to its severity. Rather, the reason why it is not comparable to Yibum is that the fulfillment of Kibud Av v'Em in this case - namely, when the pigeons are brought to one's father - is only a Hechsher Mitzvah. This means that it occurs only after the transgression of the prohibition (TOSFOS DH she'Ken).


(a)There is a positive Mitzvah to construct a building for the sake of HaSh-m, wherein it is possible to perform the Divine Service, offer Korbanos, and make pilgrimages on the festivals of Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos (Shemos 25:8). Included in this Mitzvah is the construction of those utensils necessary in the service of the Beis ha'Mikdash.

(b)This Mitzvah is incumbent upon the nation of Klal Yisrael as a whole, when the majority of the people live in Eretz Yisrael (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #95).

8a)[line 13]BONEH- building; constructing or improving a structure. This is one of the thirty-nine acts of creative labor prohibited on Shabbos and punishable by Sekilah (see background to 2:15).

b)[line 13]SOSER- demolishing; destroying a structure in order to enable new construction. This is one of the thirty-nine acts of creative labor prohibited on Shabbos and punishable by Sekilah (see Background to 2:15).


9)[line 1] LO MI'SHABBOS ATAH MISYAREI- it is not from Shabbos that one need be in awe [since no Mitzvah exists requiring such a thing]

10a)[line 5] MAKLO- his walking stick

b)[line 5]MIN'ALO- his leather shoes

c)[line 5]PUNDASO- his cloth money belt

11)[line 5]HAR HA'BAYIS- the Temple Mount

12)[line 6]AVAK- dust

13)[line 6]KAPANDARYA- a shortcut

14)[line 7] "REKIKAH MI'KAL VA'CHOMER- spitting [is forbidden on the Temple Mount] as a result of a Kal va'Chomer. This Kal va'Chomer is explained in Berachos (62b): If wearing Sak (material woven form goat's hair) is forbidden in the courtyard of a king (Esther 4:2) even though the king does not find them to be disgusting, then it is certainly forbidden to spit - which is disgusting to HaSh-m - in His courtyard!

15)[line 11] TEISI ME'HAV'ARAH- [that which] we [would otherwise have assumed that one may perform Yibum with an Ervah] would have been derived from [the Halachah regarding] kindling a fire [on Shabbos]

16a)[line 14] HAV'ARAH L'LAV YATZAS

The Torah forbids the performance of all Melachos (creative acts of labor performed in the Mishkan) on Shabbos (Shemos 20:10). One of these is Hav'arah (the kindling of a fire). Although it is included in the general prohibition, a different verse specifies that it is forbidden to kindle a fire on Shabbos (Shemos 35:3). Rebbi Yosi maintains that this teaches us that the Melachah of Hav'arah is simply a Lav (negative prohibition punishable by Malkus [lashes]), as opposed to the other thirty-eight Melachos, which are punishable by Sekilah (see Background to 2:15).


One of the applications of Davar she'Hayah bi'Chlal v'Yatza Min ha'Klal l'Lamed, Lo l'Lamed Al Atzmo Yatza Ela l'Lamed Al ha'Klal Kulo Yatza (see Background to 4:13) is that even if no new teaching is readily apparent in the verse detailing the specific example, Chazal search for that which may be revealed to us from the fact that one example is written separately. An example of this is the opinion of Rebbi Nasan regarding the prohibition against kindling a fire on Shabbos. Although this is included in the general prohibition against performing Melachah on Shabbos (Shemos 20:10), it is nevertheless spelled out explicitly (Shemos 35:3). Rebbi Nasan maintains that this is l'Chalek - to teach that one need not perform all thirty-nine Melachos forbidden on Shabbos in order to be liable to punishment; the transgression of any one of them is sufficient.

17)[line 18]MOSHAVOS- [that which the Torah specifies that the prohibition against kindling a fire applies] wherever one lives [which implies that we would otherwise have assumed that it applies only in Eretz Yisrael]


See Background to 2:15.

19)[line 23]"[ - ;] ""... MECHALALEHA MOS YUMAS..."- "[and guard the Shabbos, for it is holy to you;] those who profane it shall be put to death...." (Shemos 31:14) - It is from this verse that Chazal derive that one who performs a Melachah (act of creative labor) prohibited on Shabbos receives the punishment of Sekilah (see previous entry).

20)[line 28]" .""V'HAYU ELEH LACHEM L'CHUKAS MISHPAT, L'DOROSEICHEM, B'CHOL MOSHVOSEICHEM."- "And these will be an unquestionable judgment for you, for your generations, wherever you dwell." (Bamidbar 35:29) - This verse appears in the Parshah of Ir Miklat (see Background to Eruvin 58:30).

21)[line 34]GEREIDASA- alone

22)[line 34] BISHUL PESILAH HU- includes melting lead

23)[line 34] BISHUL SAMANIN- cooking various roots and plants to prepare dyes [used to dye Bigdei Kehunah (see Background to Rosh Hashanah 26:8) and other cloth in the Mishkan]. (The creative acts of labor performed in the Mishkan are the prototype for those which are forbidden to perform on Shabbos.)