[16a - 54 lines; 16b - 53 lines]

1)[line 2]"לשום לאבילי ציון לתת להם פאר תחת אפר""LA'SUM LA'AVEILI TZIYON LA'SES LA'HEM PE'ER TACHAS EFER..." "[HaSh-m has appointed me, Yeshayah,] to replace the ashes of the mourners of Tziyon with splendor...." (Yeshayah 61:3)- Tefilin are referred to as "Pe'er" (see Yechezkel 24:17).

2)[line 6]לומרLOMAR- [as if] to say

3a)[line 6]זעקנו בצנעא ולא נענינוZA'AKNU B'TZIN'A V'LO NA'ANEINU- we cried out in private, and were not answered

b)[line 6]נבזה עצמנו בפרהסיאNEVAZEH ATZMENU B'FARHESYA- we shall now shame ourselves [by doing so] in public

4)[line 9]לבי כנישתאL'BEI KENISHTA- to a [different] synagogue (which is akin to going into exile, but is no more public than the first synagogue)

5)[line 11]כלי צנועKLI TZANU'A- an instrument [generally kept in] private; i.e., a Sefer Torah

6)[line 12]ונתבזה בעוונינוNISBAZEH BA'AVONEINU- it has now become shamed [(a) through that which it was brought outside; (b) through that which we have neglected to learn it as a result of our need to pray for rain (TIFERES YISRAEL)] through our sins

7)[line 12]ולמה מתכסין בשקיםLAMAH MISKASIN B'SAKIM?- RASHI quotes a Gemara Yerushalmi which makes mention of three customs followed on a public fast day: the donning of Sak (a garment woven from goat's hair), visiting the cemetery, and blowing horns. Our Gemara discusses the reason for these customs.

8)[line 15]"[יקראני ואענהו] עמו אנכי בצרה...""[YIKRA'ENI V'E'ENEIHU;] IMO ANOCHI V'TZARA"- "[He will call Me, and I will answer him;] I am with him in his distress..." (Tehilim 91:15)

9)[line 16]"בכל צרתם לו צר...""B'CHOL TZARASAM LO TZAR..."- "He feels distress with all of their sorrows ..." (Yeshayah 63:9)

10)[line 17]מרישME'RESH- at first

11)[line 18]דיהביYAHIV- place

12)[line 18]מזדעזע לי כוליה גופאיMIZDA'AZE'A LI KULEI GUFA'I- my entire body trembled

13)[line 22]אפרו של יצחקEFARO SHEL YITZCHAK- the ashes of Yitzchak (as if he had actually been offered as a Korban at the Akeidah)

14)[line 23]עפר סתםAFAR STAM- regular dirt

15)[line 30]שיצא ממנו הוראה לישראלSHE'YATZA MI'MENU HORA'AH L'YISRAEL- from which instruction came to Klal Yisrael. This refers to either Har ha'Bayis (the Temple Mount), upon which the Sanhedrin (the ultimate Halachic authority) sit, or to Har Sinai, upon which the Torah as given (see Insights).

16)[line 31]שיצא ממנו מורא לעובדי כוכביםSHE'YATZA MI'MENU MORA L'OVDEI KOCHAVIM- from which fear came upon those who worship idols. This refers to Har ha'Bayis (the Temple Mount), upon which the Beis ha'Mikdash stood. The Nochrim grew afraid of Yisrael when they beheld the grandeur of the Beis ha'Mikdash and the stature that it afforded Klal Yisrael. Alternatively, this refers to Har Sinai, since the whole world trembled when the Torah was given to Klal Yisrael (see Insights).

17)[line 33]אומר זקןOMER ZAKEN- then the elder should say it

18)[line 33]אדם של צורהADAM SHEL TZURAH- (a) a tall, impressive individual [to whom people will listen] (RASHI); (b) a Talmid who does not yet qualify as a Chacham (ROSH 2:22)

19)[line 36]גורמיםGORMIN- cause [HaSh-m to rescind his decree]

20)[line 39]"ויתכסו שקים האדם והבהמה ויקראו אל אלקים בחזקה וישבו איש מדרכו הרעה ומן החמס אשר בכפיהם""VA'YISKASU SAKIM HA'ADAM VEHA'BEHEMAH, V'YIKRE'U EL ELOKIM B'CHOZKAH; V'YASHUVU ISH MI'DARKO HA'RA'AH U'MIN HE'CHAMAS ASHER B'CHAPEIHEM."- "And both people and animals covered themselves in Sak (an uncomfortable garment woven from goat's hair), and they called to G-d forcefully; and each man repented from his evil ways and from the robbery that was in his hands." (Yonah 3:8)

21)[line 39](אסרא) [אסרי] הבהמות לחוד(ASRA) [ASREI/ASRU] HA'BEHEMOS LECHUD- they locked up the animals by themselves

22)[line 40]אם אין אתה מרחם עלינוIM EIN ATAH MERACHEM ALEINU...- (a) This was an attempt to arouse HaSh-m's mercy upon themselves, through arousing their own mercy upon their animals (RASHI, as explained by the ETZ YOSEF); (b) This was an attempt to extort mercy from HaSh-m, as it were, by threatening the animals (see Etz Yosef).

23)[line 42]עלובALUV- (a) one who is degraded; (b) one who is brazen (MAHARSHA)

24)[line 42]מי נדחה מפני מיMI NIDCHEH MIPNEI MI?- who defers to whom? This means: (a) The nature of a righteous individual is to give in. Therefore, even though we do not plan to change fully, You should defer your decree (RASHI; see MAHARSHA); (b) Is it proper for the righteous to be punished because of the actions of the wicked? (RASHI in EIN YAAKOV)

25)[line 44]מרישMARISH- a beam

26)[line 44]בבירהBIRAH- a tower

27)[line 44]מקעקעMEKA'AKE'A- tear down

28)[line 46]עבירהAVEIRAH- a sin [of theft]

29)[line 46]ומתודהMISVADEH- confess

30)[line 46]שרץSHERETZ (SHEMONAH SHERATZIM)

(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei

(b)A source of Tum'ah is called an Av ha'Tum'ah. The exception to this is a corpse, which is referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah," due to the fact that it can generate more Tum'ah than any other object. When an object becomes Tamei from coming into contact with an object which is Tamei, that object does not receive the same Tum'ah as that of the first object, but rather a level of Tum'ah one degree weaker than the first. If an object came into contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah, or Vlad ha'Tum'ah. Tum'ah received from a Rishon creates a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and that from a Sheni creates a Shelishi (in certain cases), etc.

(c)A metal utensils can become an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah, an Av ha'Tum'ah or a Rishon l'Tum'ah; a person and all utensils other than earthenware can become an Av ha'Tum'ah or Rishon l'Tum'ah (although Chazal decreed that one's hands sometimes become a Sheni l'Tum'ah). Earthenware utensils can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah. Food and liquids which are Chulin can become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or a Sheni l'Tum'ah. Terumah can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah as well, and Hekdesh can also become a Revi'i l'Tum'ah.

(d)There are eight Sheratzim - scampering animals - described by the Torah as sources of Tum'ah (Vayikra 11:29-38). A dead Sheretz or part of a dead Sheretz the size of an Adashah (lentil bean) is an Av ha'Tum'ah (Chagigah 11a). If a person or object makes either willing or unwilling contact with a Sheretz, he/it becomes Tamei; this is known as Tum'as Maga. The eight Sheratzim (based upon Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan's "The Living Torah" and other sources) are:

1.CHOLED - a weasel [alt., a martin or an ermine (ARUCH), a rat (TARGUM, TOSFOS YOM TOV), a mole or mole-rat (ARUCH), or a field mouse (TARGUM YONASAN)]. The Gemara describes a Choled as a predatory animal which tunnels under the ground, potentially weakening the foundation of a house.

2.ACHBAR - a mouse; some sources appear to include a rat in the definition of Achbar as well.

3.TZAV - a toad (RASHI Vayikra 11:29, Nidah 56a; this is also evident from the Mishnah in Taharos 5:1 which implies that it is easily confused with a frog - see Rishonim there). Alternatively, it is a turtle (ME'AM LOEZ, TIFERES YISRAEL to Taharos ibid.). According to the Septuagint, it is a land crocodile (perhaps the monitor, see KO'ACH; this would fit with the Gemara (Chulin 127a) which associates it with the salamander and snake). Others identify it as a ferret.

4.ANAKAH - a hedgehog or porcupine; alternatively, a beaver (RADAK). [The Septuagint identifies the Anakah as a mole, shrew mouse or field mouse.] Rabeinu Sa'adya Ga'on identifies it as a gecko, a type of lizard with a soft speckled hide which may grow to five inches in length; "Anachah" means to groan, and the gecko makes a groaning sound.

5.KO'ACH - a lizard (RADAK quoting RASHI) [chameleon, according to the Septuagint]. According to some translations the Ko'ach would appear to be the monitor or monitor lizard. This is the largest reptile living in the Holy Land, growing to be as long as four feet. Found on the coast, in the Negev, and in the Aravah, it feeds upon rodents and other reptiles (RADAK, RABEINU SA'ADYA GAON).

6.LETA'AH - a lizard; alt., a white lizard, otherwise known as the great gecko.

7.CHOMET - a snail or slug (RASHI) [alt., a lizard; alt. a skink, a short-legged lizard of which four varieties are found in Eretz Yisrael].

8.TINSHEMES - a mole (Rashi Chulin 63a) [alt., a large-headed lizard which burrows underground; most probably a species of gecko].

(e)One who becomes Tamei through coming into contact with a Sheretz may not eat Terumah or Kodshim nor enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash. He need not wait before immersing in a Mikvah. After doing so, he must wait until nightfall to become Tahor; after that time he may once again eat Terumah and Kodshim and enter the Azarah.

31)[line 48]בארבעים סאהARBA'IM SE'AH (MIKVAH)

(a)If a person (or utensil) becomes Tamei, then he (or it) must be immersed in either a Mikvah (a cavity of gathered rainwater) or a spring as part of the purification process.

(b)A Mikvah must contain at least forty Se'ah of rainwater for it to be Metaher. This is equal to approximately 288, 331.78 or 576 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

32)[line 48]"[מכסה פשעיו לא יצליח] ומודה ועזב ירחם""[MECHASEH FESHA'AV LO YATZLI'ACH,] U'MODEH V'OZEV YERUCHAM"- "[One who attempts to cover over his willful sins will be unsuccessful,] but one who admits and lets go of them will be the beneficiary of mercy." (Mishlei 28:13)

33)[line 49]"נשא לבבינו אל כפים אל אל בשמים""NISA LEVAVEINU EL KAPAYIM, EL KEL BA'SHAMAYIM."- "Let us lift our hearts in our palms, to G-d in heaven." (Eichah 3:41) - This verse teaches that it is not enough to merely lift one's hands toward heaven; prayer is effective only when it involves one's emotions.

34)[line 51]מטופל ואין לוMETUPAL V'EIN LO- [the Shali'ach Tzibur should be] one who has young children, with no means of providing for them

35)[line 52]יגיעה בשדהYEGI'AH BA'SADEH- work in the field [which depends on rainfall, so that he will be motivated in his prayer]

36)[line 52]ופרקו נאהPIRKO NA'EH- his young adulthood was pleasant (the Gemara explains this phrase on 16b)

37)[line 52]ושפל ברךSHEFAL BARECH- he is humble

38)[line 52]ומרוצהMERUTZEH- pleasing

39a)[line 52]נעימהNE'IMAH- the ability to modulate his voice in a way that invokes the emotions of those who hear him

b)[line 53]וקולו ערבKOLO AREV- his voice is sweet

40a)[line 53]בהלכותHALACHOS- the discussions of the Gemara relating to practical law

b)[last line]ובאגדותAGADOS- the homiletic discussions of the Gemara

41)[last line]ויהבו ביה רבנן עינייהוV'YAHAVU BEI RABANAN EINEIHU- and the [assembled] Rabanan [who had just heard from Rebbi Yehudah the makeup of the ideal Shali'ach Tzibur] turned their eyes [to the one who met all of these qualifications]

16b----------------------------------------16b

42)[line 1]היינו מטופל ואין לו היינו ביתו ריקם!HAINU METUPAL V'EIN LO, HAINU BEISO REIKAM!- both Metupal v'Ein Lo and Beiso Reikam appear to describe the same quality!

43)[line 4]"היתה לי נחלתי כאריה ביער נתנה עלי בקולה על כן שנאתיה""HAYESAH NACHALASI K'ARYEH B'YA'AR; NASNAH ALAI B'KOLAH, AL KEN SENEISIHA."- "My heritage (the Jewish People) was as a lion in the forest; it cried out against me, [and so] I therefore hated it." (Yirmeyahu 12:8)

44)[line 9]הגוןHAGUN- act in a befitting manner

45)[line 14]שביעית לארוכהSHEVI'IS L'ARUCHAH- the seventh [Berachah] that is lengthened

46)[line 18]וחזן הכנסתCHAZAN HA'KENESES- the Shamash (sexton) of the synagogue

47)[line 26]בגבוליןGEVULIN- the boundaries [of Eretz Yisrael; namely, anywhere other than the Beis ha'Mikdash]

48)[line 27]"קומו ברכו את ה' אלקיכם מן העולם עד העולם ויברכו שם כבודך ומרומם על כל ברכה ותחלה""KUMU BARCHU ES HASH-M ELOKEICHEM MIN HA'OLAM VE'AD HA'OLAM VI'YEVARCHU SHEM KEVODECHA U'MEROMAM AL KOL B'RACHAH U'SEHILAH" - "[And the Leviyim... said:] Arise and bless HaSh-m your G-d from the beginning of the world to the end, and (turning towards the Shechinah, they continued:) they will bless Your glorious Name, as it is elevated over and above all blessing and praise." (Nechemyah 9:5) (THE TEFILAH OF YESHU'A AND HIS FELLOW LEVIYIM)

(a)This is part of the beautiful Tefilah of Yeshu'a and his fellow Leviyim following Yisrael's Teshuvah in the days of Ezra and Nechemyah.

(b)See Background to Ta'anis 12:42.

49)[line 29]ותהלהTEHILAH- praise

50)[line 37]וכך הנהיגV'CHACH HINHIG...- See Insights #4 for various explanations of the Rishonim as to what exactly it was that Rebbi Chalafta and Rebbi Chanina ben Teradyon did.

51)[line 38]ואית דאמריV'IS D'AMRI...- RASHI explains that this is simply an alternate version of the same Beraisa; See Insights #5 for other explanations.

52)[last line]דמן יפוD'MIN YAFO- from the city of Jaffa

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