12th CYCLE DEDICATION
SOTAH 22 (12 Sivan) - Today's Torah study has been dedicated on behalf of Chaim ben Rinah Bitton of Geneva and Melissa Leah bat Esther of Montreal on the day of their marriage, in prayer that they should merit to live a happy and successful life in Torah and Mitzvot together.

1)

(a)Rebbi Elazar ben Pedas refers to someone who has learned Chumash and Mishnah but not Gemara, as an Am ha'Aretz. What are the ramifications of this title?

(b)Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmani calls him a Bur and Rebbi Yanai, a Kuti. What is the difference between ...

1. ... an Am ha'Aretz and a Bur (see Agados Maharsha)?

2. ... an Am ha'Aretz and a Kuti?

(c)Rav Acha bar Yakov calls him a Magush and Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak agrees with him. What is 'a Magush'?

(d)What are its implications here?

1)

(a)Rebbi Elazar ben Pedas refers to someone who has learned Chumash and Mishnah but not Gemara, as an Am ha'Aretz - in which case, they are not believed regarding Ma'asros and Taharos, and their touch renders Tamei.

(b)Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmani calls him a Bur and Rebbi Yanai, a Kuti. The difference between ...

1. ... an Am ha'Aretz and a Bur (see Agados Maharsha) - is that the latter does not even have good Midos either, whereas the former at least has that.

2. ... an Am ha'Aretz and a Kuti - is that whereas the latter's bread and wine are forbidden too (because his lack of interest in learning Gemara goes hand in hand with his lack of reliability, and he only studied Mishnah for show), those belonging to the former are not.

(c)Rav Acha bar Yakov calls him a 'Magush' - (a magician who tricks people using sleight of hand) and Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak agrees with him.

(d)Likewise - this ha'Aretz likewise tricks people into believing that he is very learned by quoting lots of sources, though he does really understand them.

2)

(a)Rebbi Meir in a Beraisa, defines an Am ha'Aretz as someone who does not read the Shema with the Berachos each day (Rashi appears not to have had 'with the Berachos' in his text) see Agados Maharsha. How do the Chachamim and ben Azai respectively define it?

(b)Finally, Rebbi Yonasan ben Yosef defines an Am ha'Aretz as someone who does not educate his children to study Torah, and Acheirim, in the same way as Rebbi Elazar ben Pedas (whose opinion, we cited earlier). What is the Pasuk ...

1. ... in Yirmiyahu "Ve'zara'ti es Beis Yisrael v'es Beis Yehudah Zera Adam v'Zera Behemah" referring to? What are the connotations of "Zera Behemah", according to Acheirim?

2. ... in Mishlei referring to when it writes "Yerei es Hash-m, Bni u'Melech, v'Im Shonim Al Tis'arev", according to Rebbi Yitzchak?

(c)Why did Shlomo give his son Rechav'am this advice?

(d)If not for Rebbi Yitzchak, we would have established "Shonim" like Rav Huna. What does Rav Huna say?

2)

(a)Rebbi Meir in a Beraisa, defines an Am ha'Eretz as someone who does not read the Shema with the Berachos each day (Rashi appears not to have had 'with the Berachos' in his text) see Agados Maharsha. The Chachamim and ben Azai respectively define it as - someone who does not wear Tefilin every day, or one who wears a four-cornered garment without Tzitzis.

(b)Finally, Rebbi Yonasan ben Yosef defines an Am ha'Aretz as someone who does not educate his children to study Torah, and Acheirim, in the same way as Rebbi Elazar ben Pedas (whose opinion we cited earlier). The Pasuk ...

1. ... in Yirmeyahu "Ve'zara'ti es Beis Yisrael v'es Beis Yehudah Zera Adam v'Zera Behemah", according to Acherim, is referring to - people who have not even learned Chumash and Mishnah, in which case they are no better than animals, and ...

2. ... in Mishlei "Yerei es Hash-m, B'ni u'Melech, v'Im Shonim Al Tis'arev", according to Rebbi Yitzchak - to those who learn Mishnah (which the Tana calls 'Halachos'), and with whom Shlomo advised his son Rechav'am not to mix ...

(c)... because it is dangerous to rule from Mishnayos without first having learned the Gemara (as we learned above).

(d)If not for Rebbi Yitzchak, we would have established "Shonim" like Rav Huna - who says that once a person has performed a sin and repeats it, he is considers as if it was actually permitted (and the word "Shonim" would then mean those who repeat their sins).

3)

(a)What is the Pasuk in Chavakuk "Halichos Olam Lo" referring to?

(b)How does Rebbi Yehoshua then reconcile the statement 'ha'Tana'im Mevalei Olam' with this Pasuk?

3)

(a)The Pasuk "Halichos Olam Lo" refers to - those who learn the Mishnahs, thereby establishing the basis of Halachos.

(b)Rebbi Yehoshua reconciles the statement 'ha'Tana'im Mevalei Olam' with this Pasuk - by establishing the Pasuk with regard to those who compiled the Mishnayos, and the statement with regard to those who issue rulings from them.

4)

(a)How did Rebbi Yochanan learn ...

1. ... fear of sin from a young virgin?

2. ... the concept of reward from a widow? What did she tell him?

(b)How do we reconcile the latter with the Tana of a Beraisa, who includes a praying woman in his list of those who destroy the world? Who was Yuchni bas Retivi?

(c)The Tana also included an 'Almanah Shovavis' in the latter category. What does this mean?

4)

(a)Rebbi Yochanan learned ...

1. ... fear of sin from a young virgin - who fell on her face and whom he overheard praying that no-one should sin because of her, to lose their portion in Gan Eden and to inherit Gehinom on account of her.

2. ... the concept of reward from a widow - who used to Daven in his Shul every single day, even though she lived at the other end of town. When he asked her whether there was no Shul closer to her, she responded that she wanted not only the reward for Tefilah, but also for walking further (S'char Pesi'os).

(b)The Tana of a Beraisa, who includes a praying woman in his list of those who destroy the world, is referring - to women of the caliber of Yuchni bas Retivi, who would use sorcery to stop pregnant women from bearing their children, and then pretend to pray for them whilst she simply removed the spell, until the time that someone discovered her bubbling pot.

(c)The Tana also included an 'Almanah Shovavis' - (a widow who was constantly visiting her neighbors with the intention of living an immoral lifestyle) in the latter category.

5)

(a)He finally listed a minor whose years are not yet completed. Some explain this to mean a disciple who rebels against his Rebbi. Rebbi Aba connects it with a statement by Rebbi Avahu Amar Rav Huna Amar Rav. What did the latter learn from the Pasuk in Mishlei ...

1. ... "Ki Rabim Chalalehah Hipilah"?

2. ... "va'Atzumim Kol Harugehah"?

(b)Until what age is one considered unfit to issue rulings?

(c)Then on what grounds did Rabah issue rulings for a number of years (considering that he died at the age of forty)?

5)

(a)He finally listed a minor whose years are not yet completed. Some explain this to mean a disciple who rebels against his Rebbi. Rebbi Aba connects it with a statement by Rebbi Avahu Amar Rav Huna Amar Rav, who learns from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Ki Rabim Chalalehah Hipilah" - that someone who has not yet attained the age to issue rulings, should not do so (from the word 'Nefel' [a premature baby]).

2. ... "va'Atzumim Kol Harugehah" - that someone who has, should not refrain from doing so (from the word 'Otzem' [to close]).

(b)One is considered unfit to issue rulings - until the age of forty.

(c)Rabah issued rulings for a number of years (despite the fact that he died at the age of forty) - because he was equal to the greatest Talmid-Chacham in town. One would also be permitted to issue rulings if there was nobody in town older than forty.

22b----------------------------------------22b

6)

(a)The Beraisa lists seven Perushin. What does 'Perushin' mean? What do all seven have in common?

(b)What is 'Parush ...

1. ... Shichmi'?

2. ... Nakfi'?

(c)'Parush Kiza'i' is someone who pretends to close his eyes so as not to look at women, banging his head against the wall in the process. What is 'Parush Maduchya'?

(d)Parush 'Mah Chovasi' seems to be a good thing. What does the Pasush really mean to say?

6)

(a)The Beraisa lists seven Perushin - meaning people who make a pretense of abstaining from evil, but who are not sincere. What they have in common is that they comprise the 'Makos P'rushin' who destroy the world, mentioned by Rebbi Yehoshua in our Mishnah.

(b)'Parush ...

1. ... Shichmi' - refers to someone who performs good deeds purely so that others should hold him in high esteem (like the inhabitants of Sh'chem, who performed the Milah purely for the material benefits that they hoped to gain from it).

2. ... Nakfi' - refers to someone who takes short steps without lifting his feet from the ground (so as to appear modest), banging his feet against stones in the process.

(c)'Parush Kiza'i' is someone who pretends to close his eyes so as not to look at women, banging his head against the wall in the process. 'Parush Maduchya' - refers to people who walk with heads bent in fake modesty (like a pestle with a bent head).

(d)Parush 'Mah Chovasi' seems to be a good thing. What the Parush really means to say is - 'What more can I possibly do that I have not done already?'

7)

(a)What is 'Parush ...

1. ... me'Ahavah'?

2. ... mi'Yir'ah'?

(b)Abaye and Rava instructed the Beraisa-expert to erase them from the text because of what Rav Yehudah Amar Rav said. What did he say?

7)

(a)'Parush ...

1. ... me'Ahavah' - is someone who abstains from evil out of love of reward.

2. ... Parush mi'Yir'ah' - is someone who does so out of fear of punishment.

(b)Abaye and Rava instructed the Beraisa-expert to erase them from the text because of what Rav Yehudah Amar Rav - who said that one is obligated to study Torah and perform Mitzvos even for ulterior motives, because doing so will lead a person to perform them for the right motive.

8)

(a)What did Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak say about those people who 'cover their heads with a Talis'? What did he mean by that?

(b)Yanai ha'Melech instructed his wife 'Shelomis' on his death-bed that she need fear neither the Perushim nor the Tzedokim. Why might she have had reason to fear the Perushim?

(c)Then why did Yanai instruct her not to be afraid of them?

(d)When he said 'Osin Ma'aseh Zimri u'Mevakshin S'char k'Pinchas', he was referring to the 'Tzevu'in' (the pretenders) who would make out to be Perushim when really they were Tzedokim. Who else might he have been referring to?

8)

(a)Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak said that - the Beis-Din shel Ma'alah will punish those people who 'cover their heads with a Talis' (pretending to be Tzadikim), when really they are not.

(b)Yanai ha'Melech instructed his wife 'Shelomis' on his death-bed that she need fear neither the Perushim nor the Tzedokim. She might have had reason to fear the Perushim - who hated Yanai for having killed many of their number during his life-time, and they might take it out of her or out of their children.

(c)Yanai nevertheless instructed her not to be afraid of them - because they were Tzadikim and would not punish her or their children on account of what he had done.

(d)When he said 'Osin Ma'aseh Zimri u'Mevakshin S'char k'Pinchas', he was referring to the 'Tzevu'in' (the pretenders) who would make out to be Perushim when really they were Tzedokim (who behave like Zimri but they want reward like Pinchas). Alternatively, he was referring to people who put on airs of modesty, when really their lifestyle was decadent.

9)

(a)For which two reasons does Rebbi Shimon in our Mishnah reject the concept of merits protecting a Sotah from punishment?

(b)To counter these arguments, what does Rebbi say will happen to a woman who has merits as a compromise between Rebbi Shimon and the Chachamim?

9)

(a)Rebbi Shimon in our Mishnah rejects the concept of merits protecting a Sotah from punishment - because first of all, it weakens the deterrent quality of the water in the eyes of the women who might have to drink it; and secondly, because it will give a bad name to those women who drink and are truly innocent, since people will now accuse them of bring guilty, and attribute the fact that nothing happened to them to their merits.

(b)To counter these arguments, Rebbi explains - a woman who has merits will neither have children nor will she improve her looks (like the Chachamim). In fact, she will begin to decline until she dies the death that is her due.

10)

(a)What happens to a Sotah's Minchah should it become Tamei ...

1. ... before it is placed in a Kli Shares? What happens to the money?

2. ... afterwards? Why can it not be redeemed?

10)

(a)Should a Sotah's Minchah become Tamei ...

1. ... before it is placed in a Kli Shares - it may be redeemed (like any other Minchah), and a replacement purchased with the proceeds.

2. ... afterwards - it must be burned (like any other Minchah), because Kedushas ha'Guf cannot be redeemed.

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