1)

(a)On what grounds do we initially reject the suggestion that the merits that protect the Sotah from the water are those of the Mitzvah of Torah-study?

(b)On what grounds do we also query the suggestion that it is the merit of the Mitzvos that protect her?

(c)Rebbi Menachem b'Rebbi Yosi Darshens the Pasuk in Mishlei "Ki Ner Mitzvah v'Torah Or". What distinction does he draw between "Ner" and "Or"?

(d)How does that explain why the Pasuk compares Mitzvah to a Ner and Torah to Or?

1)

(a)We initially reject the suggestion that the merits that protect the Sotah from the water are those of the Mitzvah of Torah-study - on the grounds that she is not commanded to study Torah (and can therefore not expect such a great reward if she does).

(b)We also query the suggestion that it is the merit of the Mitzvos that protect her - because from the Beraisa that we are about to discuss it appears that although Torah has the power to shield even whilst one is not studying it, Mitzvos can protect a person whilst he is actually performing them.

(c)Rebbi Menachem b'Rebbi Yosi Darshens the Pasuk "Ki Ner Mitzvah v'Torah Or". According to him - a 'Ner' is a temporary (man-made) lamp, whereas 'Or' is the light of the sun that is permanent.

(d)This explains why the Pasuk compares Mitzvah - which protects only as long as one is actually performing it, to a Ner, and Torah - which protects even afterwards, to Or.

2)

(a)Rebbi Menachem b'Rebbi Yosi extrapolates from the Pasuk in Mishlei "b'His'halechecha Tancheh Osach, b'Shochbecha Tishmor Alecha v'Hekitzosa Hi Sesisecha" that Torah shields forever. Which 'world' is meant by ...

1. ... "b'His'halechecha"?

2. ... "b'Shochbecha"?

3. ... "Ve'hekitzosa"?

(b)In Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Menachem's parable, how is the night-traveler saved from ...

1. ... thorns and pits?

2. ... wild beasts and armed robbers? What happens when he arrives at the crossroads?

(c)If the lamp analogizes Mitzvos and daylight, Torah, what does the crossroads analogize?

(d)What other problem do we have in ascribing the Sotah's merits to Mitzvos (though ascribing them to Torah would be fine if she were commanded, due to the Pasuk in Shir ha'Shirim "Mayim Rabim Lo Yuchlu Lechabos Es ha'Ahavah")?

2)

(a)Rebbi Menachem b'Rebbi Yosi extrapolates from the Pasuk in Mishlei "b'His'halech'cha Tancheh Osach, b'Shochbecha Tishmor Alecha Ve'hekitzosa Hi Sesisecha" that Torah shields forever.

1. "b'His'halech'cha" - refers to this world.

2. "b'Shochbecha" - to the world of the grave.

3. "Ve'hekitzosa" - to the period of Olam ha'Ba (Techi'as ha'Meisim).

(b)In Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Menachem's parable, the night-traveler is saved from ...

1. ... thorns and pits - by a lantern.

2. ... wild beasts and armed robbers - by dawn-break. When he arrives at the crossroads - he clarifies his exact location.

(c)The lamp analogizes Mitzvos, daylight, Torah - and the crossroads, death (when a person who did not stray from the path of Torah and Mitzvos during his lifetime, is saved from all further trials and tribulations).

(d)The other problem in ascribing the Sotah's merits to Mitzvos (though ascribing them to Torah would be fine if she were commanded, due to the Pasuk in Shir ha'Shirim Mayim Rabim Lo Yuchlu Lechabos es ha'Ahavah") is - that sins cannot extinguish the merits of Torah, whereas they can extinguish the merits of Mitzvos.

3)

(a)To resolve the initial problem, Rav Yosef maintains that a Mitzvah can protect a person, even at the time when he is not actually performing it. Then how does he explain Rebbi Menachem b'Rebbi Yosi, who says that Mitzvos are only able to protect as long as one is actually performing them?

(b)What Kashya does Rabah ask on Rav Yosef from Doeg and Achitofel?

(c)Rava therefore explains that even Torah can only protect from both punishment and from sin as long as one is studying it. What power does ...

1. ... Torah have when one is not studying it?

2. ... the performance of Mitzvos have when one is performing them?

3. ... the performance of Mitzvos have when one is not performing them? How does that answer our original Kashya on Sotah?

(d)Ravina ascribes the Sotah's merits to Torah-study after all. How does he get round the fact that women are not commanded to study Torah (and are therefore not subject to such great reward for doing so)?

3)

(a)To resolve the initial problem, Rav Yosef maintains that a Mitzvah can protect a person, even at the time when he is not actually performing it (which explains the merits of the Sotah); and when Rebbi Menachem b'Rebbi Yosi says that Mitzvos are only able to protect as long as one is actually performing them - he is referring (not to protection from punishment, but) to protection from sin.

(b)According to Rav Yosef, asks Rabah - why did Doeg and Achitofel, two outstanding Talmidei-Chachamim, become such great sinners? Why did their Torah not protect them from sinning?

(c)Rava therefore explains that even Torah can only protect from both punishment and from sin as long as one is actually studying it. When he is not ...

1. ... Torah can only save from punishment, but not from sinning.

2. ... Mitzvos have the power to save from punishment whether one is actually performing them ...

3. ... or not. In any event, this explains the merits that shield the Sotah from her due punishment.

(d)Ravina ascribes the Sotah's merits to Torah-study after all. Women may well not be commanded to study Torah - they do however share the reward with their husbands and children for encouraging them and assisting them in their Mitzvah (by taking the latter to Talmud-Torah and by waiting for the former to return from respective places of learning).

4)

(a)Rav Chisda explains the crossroads in Rebbi Menachem's parable to mean the day of death of a Talmid-Chacham (as we explained above). According to Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak, it refers to a Talmid-Chacham who develops a fear of Hash-m (which prevents him from sinning). How does Mar Zutra explain it?

(b)Why did Doeg and Achitofel 'chase after David'?

(c)What did they Darshen from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Leimor Elokim Azavo" and from the Pasuk in Ki Setzei "v'Lo Yir'eh Becha Ervas Davar ... " with regard to David?

(d)What did Rebbi Menachem b'Rebbi Yosi Darshen that would have saved them from committing this terrible transgression against David?

4)

(a)Rav Chisda explains the crossroads in Rebbi Menachem's parable to mean the day of death of a Talmid-Chacham (as we explained above). According to Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak, it refers to a Talmid-Chacham who develops a fear of Hash-m, whereas according to Mar Zutra, it refers to a Talmid-Chacham who, over and above his Yir'as Shamayim, also merits that his opinion is accepted l'Halachah.

(b)Doeg and Achitofel 'chased after David' - because of his 'sin' with Bas-Sheva.

(c)They Darshened from the Pasuk "Leimor Elokim Azavo" and from the Pasuk in "v'Lo Yir'eh b'cha Ervas Davar ... " - that due to that 'sin', Hash-m had forsaken him.

(d)They would not have done so however, had they known Rebbi Menachem b'Rebbi Yosi's Derashah - that although a sin can extinguish a Mitzvah, it cannot extinguish Torah (and David was a distinguished Torah-scholar).

5)

(a)We just quoted the Pasuk in Shir ha'Shirim "Im Yiten Ish es Kol Hon Beiso b'Ahavah, Boz Yavuzu Lo". What does this Pasuk mean?

(b)Why does it apply to Hillel and his brother Shevna?

(c)Why does it not apply to Shimon Achi Azaryah or to Rebbi Yochanan and the Bei Nesi'ah?

5)

(a)The Pasuk in Shir ha'Shirim (that we quoted earlier) states "Im Yiten Ish es Kol Hon Beiso b'Ahavah, Boz Yavuzu Lo" - meaning that even if someone gives all his money for Torah, the Torah will nevertheless despise him.

(b)This applies to Hillel - who studied Torah in extreme poverty, and his brother Shevna - who became a wealthy businessman. Shevna's ultimate offer to buy half of his brother's Torah was rejected, because one person cannot purchase another's Torah after he has studied it.

(c)It does not however, apply to Azaryah, Shimon's brother or to Bei Nesi'a, Rebbi Yochanan's patron - since both of these supported the respective Talmid-Chacham at the outset in the form of a partnership (like Yisachar and Zevulun), which has the validity of a legal agreement.

21b----------------------------------------21b

6)

(a)What does Rebbi Eliezer mean when he says that someone who teaches his daughter Torah, teaches her immorality?

(b)Based on the Pasuk in Mishlei "Ani Chochmah Shecheinasi Armah", how does Rebbi Avahu explain Rebbi Eliezer's statement?

(c)The Chachamim (it is unclear why this title is given to ben Azai) explain this Pasuk like Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina, who says 'Ein Divrei Torah Miskaymin Ela b'Mi she'Ma'amid/she'Meisim Atzmo Arum Aleihen'. What is the meaning of 'Ein Divrei Torah Miskaymin Ela b'Mi ...

1. ... she'Ma'amid Atzmo Arum Aleihen'?

2. ... she'Meisim Atzmo Arum Aleihen'?

(d)What does Rebbi Yochanan learn from the Pasuk in Iyov "v'ha'Chochmah me'Ayin Timatzei"?

6)

(a)When Rebbi Eliezer says that someone who teaches his daughter Torah, teaches her immorality, he means - that it is as if he taught her immorality (not that he actually does so), because the one leads to the other.

(b)Based on the Pasuk in Mishlei "Ani Chochmah Shecheinasi Armah", Rebbi Avahu explains that - (since women tend to be more emotional than men) by teaching one's daughter Torah, he is training her to think cunningly.

(c)The Chachamim (it is unclear why this title is given to ben Azai) explain this Pasuk like Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina, who says either 'Ein Divrei Torah Miskaymin Ela b'Mi ...

1. ... she'Ma'amid Atzmo Arum Aleihen', meaning - that the words of Torah are only established with someone who gives up all other occupations to study Torah.

2. ... she'Meisim Atzmo Arum Aleihen', meaning - that the words of Torah are only established with someone who uses cunning to study Torah (by learning slowly, one bit at a time until he has mastered it, and by learning from everyone).

(d)Rebbi Yochanan learns from the Pasuk "v'ha'Chochmah me'Ayin Timatzei" - that Torah is only found with someone who makes himself like nothing in order to study it.

7)

(a)We amend Rebbi Yehoshua's statement in our Mishnah 'Rotzah Ishah b'Kav v'Tiflus mi'Tish'ah Kabin u'Perishus' to read 'Rotzah Ishah b'Kav v'Tiflus Imah, mi'Tish'ah Kabin u'Perishus'. What does it now mean?

(b)He included in his list of people who destroy the world 'a Chasid Shoteh'. What is an example of a Chasid Shoteh?

7)

(a)We amend Rebbi Yehoshua's statement in our Mishnah to read - 'Rotzah Ishah b'Kav v'Tiflus Imah, mi'Tish'ah Kabin u'Perishus', which means - that a woman would prefer to live with more intimacy, even if it means less Parnasah, than infinitely more Parnasah but less intimacy.

(b)He included in his list of people who destroy the world 'a Chasid Shoteh' - someone for example, who sees a woman drowning in a river and decides that it is not proper to look (so he walks straight past, allowing the woman to drown).

8)

(a)He also includes a 'Rasha Arum'. How does Rebbi Yochanan (or Rebbi Chanina) define a Rasha Arum with regard to a litigant discussing his case with the Dayan?

(b)According to Rebbi Avahu, it pertains to someone who gives a Zuz (i.e. a Dinar) to a poor man who has a hundred and ninety-nine Zuz. What is wrong with ...

1. ... that?

2. ... discussing one's case with the Dayan before one's opponent arrives?

(c)Rebbi Asi Amar Rebbi Yochanan's example of a Rasha Arum is someone who advises an heir to sell 'Nechasim Mu'atim'. What is wrong with that? What ought to happen to Nechasim Mu'atim?

(d)If the heir acted on the above advice, is his sale valid?

8)

(a)He also includes a 'Rasha Arum'. Rebbi Yochanan (or Rebbi Chanina) define 'Rasha Arum' - as a litigant who discusses his case with the Dayan before his disputant arrives.

(b)According to Rebbi Avahu, it pertains to someone who gives a Zuz (i.e. a Dinar) to a poor man who has a hundred and ninety-nine Zuz. The problem with ...

1. ... that is - based on the Mishnah in Pe'ah, which rules that a person who owns a hundred and ninety-nine Zuz, may take as much Ma'aser Ani as one gives him (in one go). However once he has two hundred Zuz, he is no longer permitted to take Leket, Shichechah, Pe'ah or Ma'aser Ani.

2. ... discussing one's case with the Dayan before one's opponent arrives is - that it causes the Dayan to accept his version of the story in advance of the actual hearing.

(c)Rebbi Asi Amar Rebbi Yochanan's example of a Rasha Arum is someone who advises an heir to sell 'Nechasim Mu'atim' - which is forbidden l'Chatchilah, because when there is only little property, Chazal authorize the daughters to inherit, so that if anyone has to go begging, it should be the sons (rather than the daughters).

(d)If the heir acts on the above advice - his sale is nevertheless valid (which is precisely why the advisor is labeled 'a Rasha Arum').

9)

(a)Abaye gives the example of Rasha Arum of someone who advises his friend to sell the property in the following case: 'Nechasai Lach, v'Acharecha li'Peloni'. Rebbi holds that the first beneficiary is forbidden to sell the property; in the event that he does, the second beneficiary may retrieve what he sold in Beis-Din. What does Raban Shimon ben Gamliel say?

(b)According to which Tana does Abaye establish the case of Rasha Arum?

(c)Rav Yosef bar Chama Amar Rav Sheshes explains a Rasha Arum as one who is 'Machri'a Acheirim b'Orchosav'. What does this mean?

9)

(a)Abaye gives the example of Rasha Arum of someone who advises his friend to sell the property in the following case: 'Nechasai Lach, v'Acharecha li'Peloni'. Rebbi holds that the first beneficiary is forbidden to sell the property; in the event that he does, the second beneficiary may retrieve what he sold in Beis-Din. According to Raban Shimon ben Gamliel - the second beneficiary is only entitled to receive what the first one leaves him (irrespective of what the first one did with it).

(b)Abaye establishes the case of Rasha Arum like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel - according to whom his sale is valid b'Di'eved.

(c)Rav Yosef bar Chama Amar Rav Sheshes explains a Rasha Arum as one who is 'Machri'a Acheirim b'Orchosav' - meaning that he goes around putting on airs, pretending to be a pious man, encouraging others to follow in his footsteps (to prevent people from getting to know about the sins that he perpetrates in secret).

10)

(a)Rebbi Zerika Amar Rav Huna establishes a Rasha Arum as someone who adopts the lenient view for himself but rules strictly for others. The last opinion is that of Ula. How does he describe it?

(b)Why is learning Gemara referred to as Shimush Talmidei-Chachamim?

(c)What is the reason for this? Why is such a person termed a 'Rasha Arum'?

10)

(a)Rebbi Zerika Amar Rav Huna establishes a Rasha Arum as someone who adopts the lenient view for himself but rules strictly for others. The last opinion is that of Ula - who describes a Rasha Arum as someone who learns Chumash and Mishnayos, and puts on airs pretending to be a Talmid-Chacham, even though he has not learned Gemara, which is referred to as 'Shimush Talmidei-Chachamim' ...

(b)... because in former times, there were no Sefarim, and the only one could understand the Mishnayos was to serve and a Talmid-Chacham, and learn his interpretation of the Mishnah.

(c)The reason that such a person is termed a 'Rasha Arum' is - because the Mishnayos in themselves are only bases for Halachah, and cannot be accepted as Halachah until one fully understands their interpretation (e.g. Who is the author of the Mishnah?, whether there are no words missing ... ). Consequently, it is impossible to rule from Mishnayos alone, and someone who does, is bound to err in many of his rulings.

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