1)

MERIT SUSPENDS PUNISHMENT (cont.)

(a)

Answer: The Mishnah is like R. Yishmael. Another verse shows that Hash-m's can delay three times as long;

1.

"Hash-m said, I will not punish until three transgressions of Edom."

(b)

Question: Why did R. Yishmael say this is not a proof?

(c)

Answer: Perhaps Hash-m is slower to punish Nochrim. (He allows them to sin until they deserve destruction.)

(d)

(Mishnah): Some merit can suspend for three years...

(e)

Question: Which merit is this?

1.

It cannot be merit of Torah. A woman is not commanded!

(f)

Answer #1: It is the merit of Mitzvos.

(g)

Objection: The merit of Mitzvos does not protect so much!

1.

(Beraisa - R. Menachem bar Yosi): "For a Mitzvah is (like) a lamp, and Torah is light" - just like a lamp illuminates only temporarily, a Mitzvah protects only temporarily;

i.

Just like light always illuminates, Torah always protects.

2.

"When you walk, it (Torah) will give you to rest" - in this world;

i.

"When you lie down, it will guard you" - in death;

ii.

"When you wake up, it will advocate for you" - in the world to come.

3.

A parable for this is a man walking in the black of the night. He fears thorns, pits, wild beasts, and robbers. Also, he does not know on which path he is walking.

i.

If he gets a torch, this saves him from thorns and pits. He still fears wild beasts and robbers; and does not know on which path he is walking;

ii.

When dawn comes, he is saved from wild beasts and robbers, but he still does not know on which path he is walking;

iii.

When he gets to the crossroads, he is saved from all his concerns.

4.

"Great waters cannot extinguish the love" - a sin can inhibit the reward for a Mitzvah, but not the reward for Torah.

(h)

Answer #1 (Rav Yosef): A Mitzvah protects (from punishment) and saves (from sin) when one is doing it. Afterwards, it protects, but does not save;

1.

Torah protects and saves, even when not engaging in it.

(i)

Objection (Rava): Doeg and Achitofel engaged in Torah, but it didn't save them from sin!

(j)

Answer #2 (Rava): Rather, Torah protects and saves when engaging in it. When not engaging in it, it only protects;

1.

A Mitzvah protects but does not save, both when doing the Mitzvah and when not doing it.

(k)

Answer #2 (to Question (e) - Ravina): Really, the merit of Torah can give a woman three years;

1.

Even though she is not commanded to learn, since she brings her sons to learn Chumash and Mishnah, and misses her husband when he is learning, she shares in their reward.

(l)

Question: In the parable, what does the crossroads symbolize?

(m)

Answer #1 (Rav Chisda): It is a Chacham who comes to the day of his death.

(n)

Answer #2 (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): It is a Chacham who obtains fear of sin.

(o)

Answer #3 (Mar Zutra): It is a Chacham whose words are accepted to be the Halachah.

2)

CAN ONE LOSE THE REWARD FOR TORAH AND MITZVOS?

(a)

(Beraisa (above)): A sin can inhibit the reward for a Mitzvah, but not the reward for Torah.

(b)

Rav Yosef: R. Menachem bar Yosi expounded the verses as if he received them on Har Sinai! Had Doeg and Achitofel expounded thusly, they would not have sought the downfall of David;

1.

"They say 'Hashem has abandoned him.'"

(c)

Question: Why did they think so?

(d)

Answer: "Hash-m will not see in you a matter of sexual immorality, lest He turn away from you";

1.

They did not realize that a sin can inhibit the reward for a Mitzvah, but not the reward for (David's) Torah.

(e)

Question: What do we learn from "Boz Yavuzu Lo (they will scorn him)"?

(f)

Answer (Ula): This does not refer to Shimon, the brother of Azaryah (he was called so, for his brother supported him); nor R. Yochanan, (who was supported by the Nasi). Rather, it refers to Hillel and Shevna.

1.

(Rav Dimi): Hillel and Shevna were brothers; Hillel engaged in Torah, Shevna in business.

i.

Shevna: Let us be partners, and split the rewards (in this and the next worlds).

ii.

A voice from Heaven: "If a man would give all his wealth for love (Torah learning), they will scorn him." (Magen Avos (1:14) - Shevna is scorned, for he did not offer to support Hillel before he learned. R. Yerucham (Toldos Adam v'Chavah 2:5 - if one tried to sell the reward for what he already learned, he loses it (and will be scorned). Maharsha - Shimon and R. Yochanan were scorned in this world (they were called by the name of their supporters) and the next (they lost half the reward for their learning). The Maharsha explains Ula to teach that one should not do like Shimon or R. Yochanan. Rather, he should refuse, like Hillel.)

21b----------------------------------------21b

3)

TEACHING TORAH TO WOMEN

(a)

(Mishnah - Ben Azai): A man is obligated to teach... R. Eliezer says, one who teaches his daughter Torah teaches her Tiflus (folly, or promiscuity).

(b)

Objection: You cannot say that he teaches her Tiflus!

(c)

Correction: Rather, it is as if he teaches her Tiflus. (Rambam - she will not understand it properly. Rashi - she will learn how to conceal her deeds.)

(d)

(R. Avahu): R. Eliezer learns from "I (the Torah) am Chachmah, my neighbor is Ormah (craftiness)" - once a person learns Chachmah, craftiness enters him. (This is bad for a woman. She is easily swayed, perhaps she will use it for sin.)

1.

Chachamim expound the verse like R. Yosi bar Chanina.

2.

(R. Yosi bar Chanina): "I am Chachmah, my neighbor is Ormah (related to the word Arum - naked)" - Torah endures only in one who strips himself (of possessions).

(e)

(R. Yochanan): Torah endures only in one who makes himself like nothing - "Chachmah me'Ayin (from where - the word may be read 'from nothing') will be found.

(f)

(Mishnah - R. Yehoshua): A woman prefers one Kav...

(g)

Question: What does he teach?

(h)

Answer: A woman prefers one Kav (of food, i.e. sparse rations) and frequent Bi'ah with her husband, to nine Kabim and abstention. (Rashi - since she disdains abstention, it is not good to teach Torah to her. Tosfos - normally, one gives to his wife two Kabim of wheat per week (Kesuvos 64b). One who forbids Bi'ah through a vow adds three Zuz to her Kesuvah each week, which can be used to buy 18 Kabim. She prefers the former.)

4)

THOSE WHO DESTROY THE WORLD

(a)

(Mishnah - R. Yehoshua): A foolish Chasid...

(b)

Question: What is an example of a foolish Chasid?

(c)

Answer: When a woman is drowning in the river, he will not save her, to avoid looking at a woman.

(d)

Question: What is an example of a crafty Rasha?

(e)

Answer #1 (R. Yochanan): He presents his case to the judge before his opponent comes.

(f)

Answer #2 (R. Avahu): He gives one Zuz to a Oni (poor person), so that the Oni will now have 200 Zuz;

1.

(Mishnah): One who has 200 Zuz may not take agricultural gifts for the poor, i.e. dropped sheaves, forgotten produce, the unharvested corner of the field, and the tithe for the poor.

2.

One who has 199 Zuz may accept gifts for the poor, even if 1000 people give to him at once.

(g)

Answer #3 (Rav Asi): He counsels sons to sell a small estate (i.e. insufficient to feed all the orphans until the girls grow up. It should be used to feed the daughters);

1.

(Rav Asi): If sons sold a small estate, the sale stands.

(h)

Answer #4 (Abaye): He counsels to sell property received on condition (that another will receive what remains), like R. Shimon ben Gamliel's law:

1.

(Beraisa - Rebbi): If one said 'I give my property to Reuven. After him, it should go to Ploni', and Reuven sold it, Ploni takes it from the buyers;

2.

R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, Ploni receives only what Reuven leaves over when he dies.

(i)

Answer #5 (Rav Yosef bar Chama): He persuades others to go in his (evil) ways.

(j)

Answer #6 (R. Zerika): He is lenient for himself and stringent for others.

(k)

Answer #7 (Ula): He learned written Torah and Mishnah, but not the reasons behind the Mishnayos and resolutions of their difficulties. (He is a Rasha, because it sounds like he knows and people honor him, but really one may not rely on him.)

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