CROSSING THE JORDAN (cont.)
(Continuation of Beraisa): Once the Kohanim's feet touched the water, the water doubled back and flowed upwards.
Question: How high did the water go?
Answer #1 (R. Yehudah): It went 12 Mil (a Mil is about a kilometer), the length of the encampment of Yisrael.
Objection (R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon): Water flows faster than people walk. If the water resumed flowing after reaching 12 Mil, this would be before Yisrael finished crossing, and the water would have flooded them!
Answer #2 (R. Elazar): Rather, the water rose to over 300 Mil;
All the kings of the east and west saw it - "when all Malchei ha'Emori in Ever ha'Yarden... and Malchei ha'Kena'ani by the sea heard how Hash-m dried up the Jordan in front of Bnei Yisrael; their hearts melted..."
Rachav similarly told Yehoshua's spies "we heard that Hash-m dried the Yam Suf (and destroyed Sichon and Og), and our hearts melted"
While they were in the Jordan, Yehoshua told them to be aware of why they cross. "You will dispossess all the inhabitants of the land. If you do not, water will flood Oseichem."
Question: What is Oseichem?
Answer: It is Osi (me) and Eschem (you).
While they were in the Jordan, Yehoshua commanded that one man from each Shevet take a rock and carry it on his shoulder. "It will be a sign to your children..." that their ancestors (miraculously) crossed the Jordan."
While they were in the Jordan, Yehoshua commanded to take 12 rocks from where the Kohanim were standing, and to erect the rocks where they will lodge that night.
Three Tana'im measured the rocks. Each rock was 40 Sa'im (the Shi'ur for a Mikvah, about 350-600 liters).
We have a tradition that one can carry three times as much if people lift a load on his shoulders than if he must pick it up himself.
Based on this, we can calculate the size of the cluster of grapes that the Meraglim took (we assume that they took one as heavy as they could carry) - "they carried it on a pole, with two people."
Question: Always, two people carry something on a pole!
Answer: Rather, the verse teaches that it was on two poles.
(R. Yitzchak): There were (two) poles bearing the load, and (two) poles under the poles bearing the load.
Eight Meraglim carried the cluster, one took a pomegranate, and one took a date.
Yehoshua and Kalev did not carry fruits, either because they were too important, or because they refused to assist in the plot to dissuade Yisrael from coming to Eretz Yisrael.
(R. Ami or R. Yitzchak Nafcha): According to R. Yehudah, Yisrael crossed the Jordan the way they camped (a square 12 Mil by 12 Mil). According to R. Elazar, we crossed one by one (therefore, the water stacked up very high. Tosfos - R. Yehudah does not mean exactly like they camped, for the Yarden is only 50 Amos wide, and Yehoshua addressed all of Yisrael while they were all inside! Rather, they were 12 Mil long, like they camped, and stood densely to fit within 50 Amos width.)
(The other of R. Ami or R. Yitzchak Nafcha): Both Tana'im agree that Yisrael crossed the Jordan like they camped. R. Yehudah holds that people walk as fast as water flows, R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon holds that water flows faster than people walk.
(Reish Lakish): "Send for yourself men" - if you (Moshe) want to. One does not choose a bad portion for himself. (Hash-m would not tell him to send Meraglim, knowing that the outcome will be bad.)
(Reish Lakish): Moshe said "it was good in my eyes", but not in Hash-m's eyes.
(R. Chiya bar Aba): "V'Yachperu (they will search) the land for us" - the Meraglim intended to disgrace the land - "v'Chofrah (will be shamed) the moon..."
(R. Yitzchak): We have a tradition that the name of each spy relates to his deeds. The only one we know is Sesur ben Micha'el.
He was Soser (contradicted) the deeds of Hash-m. He made Him(self - this is a euphemism) Mach (weak).
(R. Yochanan): We can also explain Nachbi ben Vafsi. Hichbi (he hid) the words of Hash-m; Pise'a (he skipped) the attributes of Hash-m.
Question: Why does it say "they went up to the south, and he came to Chevron"? It should say 'they came'!
Answer (Rava): Kalev separated from the counsel of the Meraglim, and came alone to the graves of the Avos, to ask the Avos to request mercy for him, lest he accede to the Meraglim's counsel.
Moshe already prayed for Yehoshua - "Moshe called Hoshe'a bin Nun 'Yehoshua'" - Kah (Hash-m) should be Moshi'a (save) you from the counsel of Meraglim.
"My servant Kalev... (I will bring him to the land to which he went, and his seed will inherit it." We know that Chevron was give to Kalev (Yehoshua 14:13,14).
"There (in Chevron) were Achiman, Sheshai, and Talmai..." Achiman was MeYuMaN (strongest) of his Achim (brothers). Sheshai made craters in the ground (where he stepped, like pillars of Shesh (marble)). Talmai made the ground like Telamim (furrows, where he walked).
Alternatively, Achiman built Anas, Sheshai built Alash, and Talmai built Talbush.
"Children of the Anak (giant)" - because of their great height, the sun seemed to shine around their necks like an Anak (necklace).
Question: What does it mean "Chevron was Nivnesah seven years (before Tzo'an of Miztrayim)"?
It cannot mean that it was built earlier. One does not build a house for his younger son before his older son!
Chevron is in Eretz Kena'an, Cham's fourth son. Mitzrayim was Cham's second son.
Answer: Rather, it was seven times more Mevuneh (fertile) than Tzo'an.
Chevron is the rockiest part of Eretz Yisrael, therefore it was used for burial. Mitzrayim is the best land in Chutz la'Aretz - "like the garden of Hash-m, like Eretz Mitzrayim." Tzo'an is the best part of Mitzrayim - "his nobles were in Tzo'an." Still. Chevron was seven times more fertile.
Question: Is Chevron really rocky?!
(Rav Avya): "At the end of 40 years, Avshalom said to the king 'I will go...'" - he went to bring sheep from Chevron.
(Beraisa): Rams are brought from Mo'av, and sheep from Chevron.
Answer: Yes! Because it is rocky, it was used for grazing flock (grass grows there)!