WAS THE TORAH GIVEN IN ALL LANGUAGES?
Suggestion: Rebbi holds that the Torah was given (to be read) in all languages.
If he held that it was given only in Hebrew, Rebbi would not need "they will be" to teach that Shema Yisrael must be read in Hebrew!
Rejection: This is no proof. Perhaps it was given only in Hebrew, but if not for "they will be", one might have thought that "Shema" allows any language.
Suggestion: Chachamim hold that the Torah was given only in Hebrew.
If they held that it was given in all languages, they would not need to learn from "Shema" to allow Shema in any language!
Rejection: This is no proof. Perhaps it was given in all languages, but if not for "Shema", one might have thought that "they will be" obligates Hebrew.
OTHER THINGS THAT MAY BE DONE IN ANY LANGUAGE
(Mishnah): Prayer (may be said in any language).
Since it is a request for mercy, one may pray as he desires.
Question: R. Yochanan taught that if one asks Hash-m for his needs in Aramaic, the angels do not deal with his prayer, since they don't understand Aramaic!
Answer: A Tzibur may pray in any language (Hash-m always accepts its prayer). An individual may not.
Question: The angels do understand Aramaic!
(Beraisa): Yochanan the Kohen Gadol heard a Bas Kol (voice from Heaven) in the innermost part of the Mikdash, saying (in Aramaic) that the lambs (Kohanim) that went to battle defeated the Yevanim;
Shimon ha'Tzadik heard a Bas Kol in the innermost part of the Mikdash, saying (in Aramaic) that the army that was supposed to attack the Mikdash was canceled, and the king of the Yevanim died, and his decrees were canceled.
They checked and found that he died just when Shimon ha'Tzadik heard the Bas Kol.
Answer #1: A Bas Kol is unlike angels (it is wont to give messages in various places, which mandates knowledge of all languages).
Answer #2: Gavri'el said those voices, for he knows Aramaic;
Gavri'el taught Yosef the (rest of the) 70 languages before Yosef came before Pharaoh.
(Mishnah): Birkas ha'Mazon (may be in any language).
"You will eat, be satiated and bless Hash-m" - in any language that you know how to bless.
(Mishnah): The oath that one does not know testimony (may be in any language).
It says "a soul that will sin and hear a curse" - in any language that he understands.
(Mishnah): The oath of a Shomer (may be in any language).
We learn from a Gezeirah Shavah "Techeta-Techeta" from the oath that one does not know testimony.
THINGS THAT MUST BE SAID IN HEBREW
(Mishnah): The following must be said in Hebrew: Mikra Bikurim, Chalitzah...
We learn Mikra Bikurim from "you will answer...", like it says (about the Berachos and curses) "the Leviyim will answer." Just like the Leviyim answered in Hebrew, also Mikra Bikurim.
Question: What is the source that the Leviyim answered in Hebrew?
Answer: We learn from a Gezeirah Shavah "Kol-Kol" from Moshe.
Regarding the Leviyim it says "in a loud voice." It says about Moshe "Hash-m will answer him in a voice."
Just like Hash-m answered him in Hebrew, also the Leviyim.
(Mishnah): What is the source that Chalitzah (must be in Hebrew?...R. Yehudah says... "she will say like this.")
Question: What do Chachamim learn from "like this"?
Answer: This teaches that if any action is omitted, the Chalitzah is invalid.
R. Yehudah learns this (in addition to requiring the verses to be said in Hebrew) because the Torah did not say 'Ko (like this)', rather, "Kachah" (with an extra Chaf);'
Chachamim hold that this does not warrant learning an extra law.
Question: What does R. Yehudah learn from "she will answer and say"?
Answer: This is used for a Gezeirah Shavah to teach that the Leviyim answered in Hebrew.
Question: Why doesn't he learn that from the Gezeirah Shavah "Kol-Kol" from Moshe, as above?
Answer: He had a tradition for a Gezeirah Shavah "answering-answering" but not for "Kol-Kol."
Support (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): Wherever it says "Ko", "Kachah" or "answering and saying", it must be in Hebrew.
It says "Ko you will bless (Birkas Kohanim)";
It says "Kachah" in Chalitzah;
It says "answering and saying" regarding the Leviyim.
THE BLESSINGS AND CURSES
(Mishnah): What was the procedure of the Berachos and curses? When Bnei Yisrael crossed the Jordan River...
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): "Are they not on the other side of the Jordan?" They are far past the Jordan. "Far past Mevo of the sun" is far from (the east,) where the sun is Ba (comes, i.e. rises);
"In the land of the Kena'ani, who dwell in the plain" refers to Har Gerizim and Har Eival in Shomron, where the Kusim (Nochrim who settled in place of the exiled 10 tribes) dwell.
"Facing Gilgal" means close to Gilgal;
"By Eilonei Moreh" is Shechem;
Another verse says "Avram passed in the land until Shechem, until Alon Moreh" - just like that Alon Moreh is Shechem, also Eilonei Moreh in the Parshah of Berachos and curses.
R. Elazar b'Rebbi Yosi says, through this I refuted the Kusim;
They agree that Eilonei Moreh is Shechem. We learn it from a Gezeirah Shavah. They (who reject the oral tradition) could not find a source for this!
R. Elazar says, "they are across the Jordan" means close to the Jordan. There are several reasons why it cannot mean far from the Jordan. (We explain like Keren Orah, Hadar Zekenim Devarim 27:4););
It says "(immediately) when you cross the Jordan!"
"Far from Mevo of the sun" means far from (the west,) where the sun sets (like it says "Ki Va ha'Shemesh");
It is "in the land of the Kena'ani." Shechem is the land of the Chivi ("Shechem ben Chamor ha'Chivi Nesi ha'Aretz")!
It says "who dwell in the plain." People of Shechem dwell between the mountains!
"Facing Gilgal" cannot be Shechem, because Gilgal is not visible from there!
R. Eliezer ben Yakov says, the verse does not teach where Eilonei Moreh is. Rather, it instructs which way to go during the conquest, just like the cloud of Glory guided Yisrael when they left Mitzrayim.
"On the way" - go on the roads, not through fields and vineyards;
"Who dwell" - go through inhabited areas, not through uninhabited areas;
Go "in the plain", not through mountains and hills;
CROSSING THE JORDAN
(Beraisa): Normally, the Aron traveled after two Degalim (groups of three tribes) started going. On the day that Yisrael crossed the Jordan, the Aron went first;
Normally, the Leviyim carried the Aron. On this day, Kohanim carried it.
(Beraisa - R. Yosi): Kohanim carried the Aron three times: when Yisrael crossed the Jordan; when they surrounded Yericho; and when it was returned to its place (i.e. brought to the Beis ha'Mikdash).