MORE TEACHINGS OF RAVA BAR MACHSIYA (cont.)
(Rava Bar Machsiya): If the roofs in a city are taller than the synagogue, in the end it will be destroyed - "Leromem Es Beis Elokeinu u'Lha'amid Es Charvosav";
This is only if the houses are taller - we are not concerned for buildings and towers (made for beauty).
Rav Ashi: I caused that Masa Machsya (my city) will not be destroyed.
Question: It was destroyed!
Answer: It was not destroyed on account of houses being taller than the synagogue.
(Rava Bar Machsiya): It is better to be under (subservient to) a Yishmaeli than under a Nochri (of Edom, they are worse);
It is better to be under a Nochri than under a Chaver (Rashi - a nation descended from Persians; Tosfos - they lived in Bavel);
It is better to be under a Chaver than under a Chacham (a disgrace to a Chacham is a disgrace to Torah, it must be avenged - a Chacham who does not take vengeance like a snake is not a Chacham (Yoma 22B));
It is better to be under a Chacham than under an orphan or widow (they are prone to cry if afflicted, "Yitz'ak Elai...; V'Haragti Eschem" - Shemos 22:22-23).
(Rava Bar Machsiya): The worst sickness is of the intestines, the worst [protracted] pain is of the heart, the worst [temporary] pain is of the head, the worst evil is an evil wife.
(Rava Bar Machsiya): The kingdom must have so many things in mind, they could not be written down even if all the seas were ink, and all the swamps quills, and Shamayim was parchments, and all people were scribes.
(Rav Mesharshiya): He learns from "Shamayim la'Rom va'Eretz l'Omek v'Lev Melachim Ein Cheker".
(Rava Bar Machsiya): A fast helps for [annulling harsh decrees in] a dream like fire consumes stubble.
(Rav Chisda): The fast must be the same day as the dream.
(Rav Yosef): One may fast [on account of a dream] even on Shabbos [even though it is normally forbidden to fast on Shabbos].
R. Yehoshua brei d'Rav Idi came to Rav Ashi's house, they prepared for him an Eglah Tilsa (a healthy calf - alternatively, it was born third to its mother; or was a third of its ultimate growth).
R. Yehoshua: I am fasting today.
Rav Ashi's household: Rav Yehudah taught that one may borrow (eat on a day he intended to fast) and repay later!
R. Yehoshua: I am fasting on account of a dream - this helps like fire for [consuming] stubble, but it must be the same day as the dream, even on Shabbos.
WHO STOPS FOR PRAYER?
(Mishnah): If one began [any of these activities before praying Minchah], he need not stop; we stop to say Shma [but not for prayer].
Question: Why does the Mishnah repeat 'We do not stop for prayer'?
Answer: The repetition refers to Torah:
(Beraisa): If Chachamim were engaging in Torah, they stop to say Shma, but not for prayer.
(R. Yochanan): This applies only to Chachamim like R. Shimon, who engage in Torah and nothing else - but people like us stop even for prayer.
Question (Beraisa): Just like we do not stop for prayer, we do not stop for Shma.
Answer: That refers to judges deciding whether or not to Me'aber (and a month to) the year.
(R. Eliezer bar Tzadok): When we engaged in Ibur Shanah in Yavneh, we did not stop for Shma nor for prayer.
DO WE DECREE ON ACCOUNT OF MID'RABANAN LAWS?
(Mishnah): Shortly before dark on Erev Shabbos, a tailor may not go outside with his needle (this informs people that he is a tailor), nor a scribe with his quill, lest he will forget and come to carry it on Shabbos;
One may not delouse clothing nor read by light of a lamp;
However, a teacher of children may look at where they are reading [by light of a lamp], but he himself may not read.
Similarly, a Zav may not eat with a Zavah lest they come to have relations (this will be explained).
(Gemara - Mishnah): One may not stand in Reshus ha'Yachid and [stick out his mouth and] drink in Reshus ha'Rabim, or vice-versa (lest he bring the cup into the Reshus he stands in, he would be liable for this);
If most of his head and body are in the Reshus in which he drinks, it is permitted.
The same applies to a winepress (this will be explained).
Question: May one stand in Reshus ha'Yachid or Reshus ha'Rabim and drink in Karmelis?
Answer #1 (Abaye): The same decree applies to Karmelis.
Answer #2 (Rava): The Isur of [transferring to or from a] Karmelis is only mid'Rabanan - Chachamim do not decree lest one will come to transgress an Isur mid'Rabanan.
Support (Abaye, for himself - Mishnah): The same applies to a winepress.
Question: What kind of winepress is discussed?
It is not a Reshus ha'Yachid or Reshus ha'Rabim, the Mishnah already taught these!
Answer: It is a Karmelis.
Rejection (Rava): No, the Mishnah teaches about a winepress regarding Ma'aser (one may drink in the winepress [before the wine descends to the pit, for then it is finished] without tithing, for this is Arai (haphazard), even if he stands outside; if he takes the wine outside, he must tithe before drinking):
(Mishnah - R. Meir): One who drinks in a winepress is exempt from Ma'aser, whether it was mixed with hot or cold water (wine used to be very strong, it was normal to dilute them with water);
R. Eliezer bar Tzadok obligates;
Chachamim exempt regarding [diluting with] cold [water], for he could return the leftovers [to the remaining wine]; they obligate regarding hot (he would not return it, lest it spoil the other wine - it is as if he removed the wine from the winepress).
Support (for Abaye - Mishnah): A tailor may not go outside with his needle shortly before dark, lest he will forget and will carry it on Shabbos.
Suggestion: It is inserted in his garment. (It is not normal to carry this way, it is forbidden only mid'Rabanan - nevertheless we decree on Erev Shabbos, lest he will transgress a mid'Rabanan law on Shabbos!)
Rejection: No, it is in his hand.
Support (for Abaye - Beraisa #1): A tailor may not go outside with his needle inserted in his garment.
Suggestion: This is forbidden on Erev Shabbos (lest he will carry it like this on Shabbos)!
Rejection: No, it is forbidden only on Shabbos itself.
Objection (Beraisa #2): A tailor may not go outside with his needle inserted in his garment on Erev Shabbos close to dark.
Answer: Beraisa #2 is R. Yehudah, who obligates a craftsman in such cases (but we do not decree on account of mid'Rabanan laws).
(Beraisa - R. Meir): On Shabbos, a tailor may not go outside with his needle inserted in his garment, nor a carpenter with a ruler on his ear, nor a fuller (one who cleans and thickens cloth) with a string on his ear, nor a weaver with a tuft on his ear, nor a dyer with a sample [of different colors of dyed wool] around his neck, nor a moneychanger with a coin in his ear;
If he did, he is exempt;
R. Yehudah says, a craftsman who carries something like people of his trade is liable (for it is normal for him to carry this way), anyone else is exempt (it is abnormal for him).
WEARING A POUCH
(Beraisa #1): A Zav may not walk [in Reshus ha'Rabim on Shabbos] with a pouch [to catch emissions from his Ever] - if he did, he is exempt;
Contradiction (Beraisa #2): If he did so [b'Shogeg], he brings a Chatas.
Answer #1 (Rav Yosef): Beraisa #1 is R. Meir, Beraisa #2 is R. Yehudah.
Objection (Abaye): We know that R. Meir exempts something carried abnormally - we have no source that he exempts for something carried normally!
Support: If not, will you say that he exempts a non-craftsman who carved out a [receptacle holding a] Kav in a log on Shabbos [just because he is not a craftsman, and does it unprofessionally]?
Answer #2 (Rav Hamnuna): Beraisa #1 discusses a Zav who already had three emissions, Beraisa #2 discusses a Zav who had only two emissions so far.
Question: A two-emission Zav is liable, for he needs to know whether or not he had a third emission [which would obligate him to bring a Korban, therefore it is normal for him to wear a pouch to collect emissions];
Also a three-emission Zav should be liable, for he needs to know if he had an emission today, for his count (he needs seven clean days to become Tahor)!
Answer: The case is, he already saw Zivah today (additional emissions today do not matter).