[11a - 54 lines; 11b - 39 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 11a [line 12]:

The words "Tachas Nachri" תחת נכרי

should be "Tachas Roma'i" תחת רומאי


1)[line 6]"לרומם את ...""L'ROMEM ES ..."- "to raise the House of our G-d and to repair its ruins" (Ezra 9:10). This verse is part of Ezra's prayer. He thanks HaSh-m for the rebuilding of the Beis ha'Mikdash. Since the verse uses the word "l'Romem," the Amora learns from it the Halachah that the houses of G-d, including Batei Keneses, should be higher than all other houses.

2a)[line 7]קשקושיKISHKUSHEI- with towers

b)[line 8]אברוריAVRUREI- and turrets

3)[line 13]חברCHAVER- a nation situated in Persia

4)[line 16]כאב לבKE'EV LEV- a recurring pain of the heart

5)[line 17]מיחושMEICHUSH- ache

6)[line 20]אגמים קולמוסיםAGAMIM KULMUSIM- and the [reeds of all the] ponds in the world were styluses

7)[line 21]לבלריןLAVLARIN- scribes

8)[line 21]חללה של רשותCHALALAH SHEL RESHUS- the scope of mind of the ruling authority

9)[line 22]"שמים לרום וארץ לעומק ולב מלכים אין חקר""SHAMAYIM LA'RUM, VA'ARETZ LA'OMEK; V'LEV MELACHIM EIN CHEKER"- "The heaven for height, and the earth for depth, and the heart of kings is unsearchable" (Mishlei 25:3)

10)[line 25]כאש לנעורתK'ESH L'NE'ORES- like fire is to thoroughly beaten flax

11)[line 28]עיגלא תילתאIGLA TILTA- (a) a calf which is a cow's third offspring which is well developed and fat; (b) a one-third-grown calf (that has reached one third of its full growth and is particularly tasty)

12)[line 31]לוה אדם תעניתו ופורעLOVEH ADAM TA'ANISO U'FORE'A- (lit. a person may borrow for his fast and repay) a person may eat on the day he intended to fast, and fast instead on a different day

13)[line 44]עיבור השנהIBUR SHANAH

(a)A Shanah Me'uberes (a leap year) is one in which an extra month is added. The only month that is ever added is Adar, such that in a Shanah Me'uberes there are two months of Adar. The reason for adding the extra month is in order to be certain that Pesach falls in the season of Aviv (spring), as it states in the verse, "Shamor Es Chodesh ha'Aviv, v'Asisa Pesach..." ("Observe the month of Aviv, and perform the Pesach offering...") (Devarim 16:1).

(b)A Beis Din of the Chachamim decides whether there is a need for a Shanah Me'uberes based upon three signs: (1) the spring equinox; (2) the spring season in the districts of Yehudah, Ever ha'Yarden and Galil; (3) the ripening of fruits. If, according to the calculation of the Chachamim, the spring equinox (1) will fall on the 16th of Nisan or later, the extra month is added. The month that would have been Nisan is called Adar Sheni. The second and third signs (2 and 3) are interrelated. If the Chachamim decide that the spring season has not come, because they see that the days are still short and dark and the fruits that are normally ripe at the time of Pesach have not ripened, the extra month is added even if the equinox falls before the 16th of Nisan. If spring arrived in two out of three of the districts mentioned above, the extra month was not added.

(c)Besides the principal signs mentioned above, the Chachamim list four more reasons to add an extra month, based upon necessity. (1) If the roads are impassable and will prevent the Diaspora Jews from getting to the Beis ha'Mikdash in time for the Pesach sacrifice. (2) If bridges are washed out and the journey is impossible or dangerous for the Diaspora Jews. (3) If the Diaspora Jews have started their journey, but will not arrive in Yerushalayim on time. (4) If the ovens that were meant to be used for roasting the Pesach sacrifices in Yerushalayim were destroyed during the rainy season, and there are no other substitutes for them. (RAMBAM Hilchos Kidush ha'Chodesh 4:1-5)

14)[line 45]סבי דהגרוניאSAVEI D'HAGRONYA- the elders of Hagronya, a town in Babylon

15)[line 50]הלבלרHA'LAVLAR- a scribe

16)[line 50]לא יפלה את כליוLO YEFALEH ES KELAV- a person may not pick lice out of his clothes

17)[line 51]החזן רואה היכן תינוקות קוראיןHA'CHAZAN RO'EH HEICHAN TINOKOS KORIN- (a) the Gabai sees where the children are reading in order to know which Parshah is to be read tomorrow; (b) the teacher looks in his book in order to know where his students shall begin and end their reading lesson on the following day


18)[line 1]גתGAS- a winepress

19)[line 8]שותין על הגתSHOSIN AL HA'GAS- drinking grapejuice straight from the winepress, before it descends to the collection pit. This is considered Shtiyas Ara'i, and is exempt from the requirement of Hafrashas Ma'aser (tithing).

20)[line 11]המותרHA'MOSAR- the leftover [grapejuice]

21)[line 19]אומן דרך אומנתוUMAN DERECH UMNASO- a craftsman who carries his tools outside in the normal manner for those of his craft

22)[line 21]קיסםKISEM- (O.F. vire) a straight piece of wood used as a ruler

23)[line 21]סורקSOREK- a person who cleans, shrinks and thickens woolen cloth by washing and pressing it

24)[line 21]משיחהMESHICHAH- a cord used to tie down cloth for the cleaning process

25)[line 22]גרדיGARDI- weaver

26)[line 22]איראIRA- a small ball of cotton or wool which was placed in the Buchyar (shuttle) to hold the spool of Arev (woof) thread

27)[line 22]צבעTZABA- a dyer

28)[line 23]דוגמאDUGMA- a colored piece of wool used as a sample

29)[line 26]הזבHA'ZAV

(a)Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.

(b)A Zav who emitted Zov twice or three times does not become Tahor from his Zivah until seven "clean" days pass, during which he does not emit any Zov. He is supposed to check himself twice every day; once in the morning and once towards evening. If he emits Zov during those days, he must begin his count all over again (Rambam, Hilchos Mechusrei Kaparah 3:1).

30)[line 26]כיסוKISO- his bag [with which he covers his male organ and collects any Zov that may issue forth]

31)[line 30]לאו היינו אורחיהLAV HAINU URCHEI- it is not the usual way [to carry these things (the needle, ruler, cord, etc.)]

32)[line 32]חקק קב בבקעתCHAKAK KAV B'VIK'AS- he hollowed out a piece of wood to be used as an artificial leg in which to place the stump of his foot (ARUCH)

33)[line 38]כל אצולי טינוף לא קא חשיבKOL ATZULEI TINUF LO KA CHASHIV- preventing an object from becoming soiled is not considered to be a significant act. (Therefore, if one carries an object into Reshus ha'Rabim to prevent another object or person from becoming soiled, it is considered she'Lo k'Derech Hotza'ah (not the usual way to transfer things) and is exempt from punishment — even if Melachah she'Einah Tzerichah l'Gufah (see Background to Shabbos 12:4b) is liable to punishment.)

34)[last line]כי יותןKI YUTAN (HECHSHER ZERA'IM)

(a)All foods become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only after they first become wet. Making foods wet in a manner that enables them to become Tamei is called "Hechsher." From then on, even after they dry, they can still become Tamei. Seven liquids can enable foods to become Tamei: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey.

(b)The food can become Tamei only if the owner of the food was pleased that his food became wet. This is learned from the Pasuk (Vayikra 11:38), "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." - "If water has been placed on seeds and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon them, the seeds are Tamei." The word "Yutan" in the Pasuk is written without a Vav, like the word "Yiten" — "he places." However, it is read "Yutan" — "it was placed." From this we learn that water or other liquids that fall on the food must be desirable to the owner of the food, as though he himself applied them.