CHIYUV FOR CARRYING IN RESHUS HA'RABIM
Question: The pouch will keep his [other] garments clean (it should be considered carrying for this reason)!
Answer #1 (R. Zeira): This Tana holds that anything worn to shield from filth is not considered carrying.
(Mishnah): If a man placed a bowl on a wall in order that the bowl should get wet, and water fell on it, the water is "Ki Yutan" (it is Machshir produce);
If he placed a bowl so the wall should not get wet, water that falls on the bowl is not Ki Yutan.
Rejection: There is different, he does not need the water at all - here, he needs the pouch to shield from filth! Our case resembles the Seifa:
(Seifa): If water was dripping into a bowl, drops that splash outside or float on top are not Ki Yutan (he does not want them), water in the bowl is Ki Yutan.
Answer #2 (Abaye and Rava): (Melachah she'Einah Tzericha l'Gufah is a Melachah done for a different purpose than in the Mishkan (Tosfos 94A), or one done to avoid something undesired, without producing something desired (Rashi).) Beraisa #2 is like R. Yehudah (who obligates for Melachah she'Einah Tzerichah l'Gufah), Beraisa #1 is like R. Shimon (who exempts).
(Beraisa - Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): A person may walk outside wearing Tefilin on Erev Shabbos close to dark (we are not concerned that he will forget to remove them before Shabbos and carry them in Reshus ha'Rabim on Shabbos).
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: Rabah bar Rav Huna taught that one must constantly touch Tefilin (when he wears them), we learn from a Kal V'Chomer from the Tzitz (that the Kohen Gadol wears on his forehead):
The Tzitz has Hash-m's name on it only once, yet the Torah says "V'Hayah Al Mitzcho Tamid", the Kohen Gadol may not cease to be aware of it;
Hash-m's name is written 21 times in each Tefilah, all the more one must constantly be aware of them!
Since he is constantly aware of Tefilin, he will not forget.
(Beraisa - Chananya): A person must check his garment on Erev Shabbos [lest there is something in the pocket, he will carry it in Reshus ha'Rabim on Shabbos].
(Rav Yosef): This is a great law of Shabbos!
(Mishnah): One may not delouse clothing [or read by light of a lamp].
Question: What does this mean?
Possibility #1: One may not delouse [even] during the day, lest he kill a louse - it is like R. Eliezer;
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer): If one kills a louse on Shabbos he is [liable] like one who killed a camel;
One may not read by light of a lamp lest one tilt the lamp [an oil lamp is prone to get dim, tilting it brings more oil to the wick, making it burn better].
Possibility #2: Delousing and reading by light of a lamp are both forbidden lest one tilt it.
Answer #1 (Beraisa): One may not delouse nor read by light of a lamp.
Objection: Why is this different than the Mishnah, which can be understood either way?! (Tosfos - the one who gave Answer #1 thought that the wording of the Beraisa is more like Possibility #2; alternatively, a Beraisa must explain more than a Mishnah, if the concern was killing a louse it should have said so.)
Answer #2 (Beraisa): One may not delouse by light of a lamp nor read by light of a lamp - these are some of the laws said in the attic of Chananyah ben Chizkiyah.
Both are forbidden lest one tilt the lamp.
(Rav Yehudah): One may not distinguish between his clothes and his wife's (which are similar) [by lamplight].
(Rava): This applies only to city dwellers - farmers' clothes [are narrower, for one works in them] are easily distinguished, it is permitted by lamplight.
Even city dwellers' clothes may be distinguished from young women's clothes (which are very wide) - it is forbidden only to distinguish from clothes of older women (which are also moderately wide).
(Beraisa): One should not delouse in Reshus ha'Rabim, for it is dishonorable.
Similarly, R. Yehudah or R. Nechemyah taught that one should not make himself vomit in Reshus ha'Rabim for it is dishonorable.
(Beraisa): One who delouses his clothes [on Shabbos] may roll the lice between his hands (to weaken them, so they will not return to him) and cast them down, but he may not kill them;
Aba Sha'ul says, he may remove them and cast them down, but he may not roll them (lest he kill them - Aba Sha'ul obligates for killing them, like R. Eliezer).
(Rav Huna): The Halachah permits rolling them, but not kill them - even during the week it is dignified to do so (not to kill them).
Rabah and Rav Sheshes used to kill them (Rashi - on Shabbos; Riva - on a weekday); Rava would cast them into a vessel of water.
Rav Nachman (to his daughters): Kill them, so I will hear the death of my enemies! (R. E.M. Horowitz - he wanted to in publicize that the Halachah follows Beis Hillel [in the following Beraisa], who totally permit killing lice, even in a vengeful way, i.e. Tzericha l'Gufah.)
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Elazar): Beis Shamai forbid killing lice on Shabbos; Beis Hillel permit.
Beis Shamai forbid the following on Shabbos - to arrange marriages for daughters, to hire teachers to teach sons Torah or a trade, to console mourners, and to visit the sick;
Beis Hillel permit them.
BIKUR CHOLIM ON SHABBOS
(Beraisa): One who is Mevaker (investigates the needs of) a Choleh (sick person) on Shabbos says 'It is Shabbos, so we do not pray [for a cure - in any case,] the cure will come soon.
R. Meir says, the merit of honoring Shabbos [by not feeling pained] will cause Hash-m to have mercy (and cure him)!
R. Yehudah says, [he says] 'Hashem will have mercy on you and all Cholei Yisrael.'
R. Yosi says, 'Hashem will have mercy on you amidst all Cholei Yisrael.'
Shevna of Yerushalayim says, when he enters [visits a Choleh on Shabbos] he says 'Shalom', when he leaves he says 'It is Shabbos, so we do not pray - the cure will come soon, His mercy is great - rest peacefully.'
Question: Like which Tana is the following?
(R. Chanina): If there is a Choleh in one's house, he must request mercy for him amidst all Cholei Yisrael.'
Answer: It is like R. Yosi.
(R. Chanina): With difficulty, Chachamim permitted Bikur Cholim and consolation of mourners on Shabbos (for these sadden people).
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): When we would go in back of R. Elazar to Mevaker a Choleh, sometimes he would say 'Hashem should bring Shalom upon you', sometimes he would say 'Rachmana (this is Arame'ic for 'the merciful one', i.e. Hash-m) should guide you to Shalom'.
Question: But R. Yochanan taught that if one prays for his needs in Arame'ic, the angels do not deal with his prayer (Rashi - to take it up to Hash-m), for they don't know Arame'ic! (Tamim De'im, brought in Etz Yosef in Sotah - if it is with great Kavanah, Hash-m heeds it in any case.)
Answer: A prayer said in front of a Choleh is different, for the Shechinah is with him:
(Rav Anan): The Shechinah is So'er (Mevaker) a Choleh - "Hash-m Yis'adenu Al Eres Devai", we read this 'Yis'arenu'. (We prefer this text, for according to our text (So'ed, sustains), this is virtually identical to Rava's teaching (below), they should have been taught together.)
Support (Beraisa): One who is Mevaker a Choleh should not sit on a bed or chair (some texts - or a high place), rather, he should cloak himself and sit [in awe] in front of him, for the Shechinah is at the head of a Choleh - "Hash-m Yis'adenu Al Eres Devai".
(Rava): The Shechinah sustains a Choleh - "Hash-m Yis'adenu Al Eres Devai (He will sustain us on the bed of the sick)".
READING BY LIGHT OF A LAMP
(Mishnah): One may not read by light of a lamp.
(Rabah): This is forbidden even if it is twice the height of an [average] person above the floor (he is unlikely to tilt it to make it burn better), or two plowshare lengths above the floor, even the height of 10 houses!
Inference: One person may not read, but two may (for one will remind the other if he goes to tilt it).
Contradiction (Beraisa): It is forbidden for one or two people.
Resolution (R. Elazar): If two people are learning the same matter, it is permitted; if they are learning different matters, it is forbidden (neither pays attention to the other).
(Rav Huna): It is forbidden to read by light of a bonfire, even if there are 10 people (everyone is by himself, he will not notice if someone else goes to fix the fire).
(Rava): An important person may read by light of a lamp (he normally does not tilt it even on a weekday).
Question (Beraisa): One may not read by light of a lamp, lest he tilt it;
R. Yishmael ben Elisha said, I will read, I will not tilt it.
Once, he was reading, and was about to tilt it - he said, how great are the words of Chachamim, who forbade to read by a lamp!
R. Noson says, he tilted the lamp, and wrote on his ledger 'I, Yishmael ben Elisha, read by a lamp on Shabbos and tilted it - when the Mikdash is rebuilt, I will bring a fat Chatas.
Answer (R. Aba): We cannot learn from R. Yishmael, he would [waive his honor] and act like a commoner for the sake of Torah.
(Beraisa #1): A servant may check [the cleanliness of] cups and bowls by light of a lamp.
(Beraisa #2): A servant may not check cups and bowls by light of a lamp.
Resolution #1: A regular [permanent] servant may not check (he is concerned to check very well), a temporary servant may check.
Resolution #2: Both refer to a regular servant - it is forbidden with an oil lamp, it is permitted with a kerosene lamp (it smells foul, he will not tilt it).
Question: May a temporary servant check with an oil lamp?
Answer #1 (Rav): It is permitted, but we do not in publicize this (lest people will be too lenient).
Answer #2 (R. Yirmeyah bar Aba): It is permitted, and we publicize this.
R. Yirmeyah bar Aba came to Rav Asi's house; R. Yirmeyah's servant checked by light of a lamp.
Rav Asi's wife (to Rav Asi): You do not do so!
Rav Asi: Do not protest, he holds like his master.