[66a - 39 lines; 66b - 46 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Mishnah [line 4]:

The words "Kisei u'Semuchos Shelo" כסא וסמוכות שלו

should be "Kisei, Semuchos Shelo" כסא סמוכות שלו

This is evident from Rashi and the Rambam (in Peirush ha'Mishnayos), and this is the Girsa in the Oxford manuscript, the Yerushalmi, and the Aruch (Erech "Semach").

[2] Rashi 66a DH Semuchos : ד"ה סמוכות

The words "Oseh Lah Semuchos" עושה לה סמוכות

should apparently be "Oseh Lo Semuchos" עושה לו סמוכות

[3] Gemara 66b [line 40]:

The words "v'Listemaya b'Avara v'Lichtemi" באברא וליחתמי וליסתמיא

should be "v'Listemei b'Avara v'Lichtemei" וליסתמיה באברא וליחתמיה

(This is the Girsa in Dikdukei Sofrim #7.)

[4] Rashi 66b DH Inish Ashkechei [at the end of the page] : ד"ה איניש אשכחיה

The words "Choli ka'Zeh she'Zeh Oseh" חולי כזה שזה עושה

should be "Choli ka'Zeh Kemo she'Zeh Oseh" חולי כזה כמו שזה עושה


1)[line 1]ורבי יוסי אוסרV'REBBI YOSI OSER- The wooden foot of the amputee (Kav ha'Kite'a) was not used for walking on, or for leaning on. Rather, the amputee walked with a stick, or with a prosthesis attached to his knee, and the wooden foot was worn at the end of the foot (TOSFOS 65b DH ha'Kite'a; see Insights to 66:1). Only occasionally would the amputee rest the wooden foot on the floor and lean on it (RASHI 66a DH Temei'ah Midras). The argument between Rebbi Meir and Rebbi Yosi revolves around whether we consider footgear worn only by a limited few to be a "shoe" and thus permit it to be worn in Reshus ha'Rabim on Shabbos (RASHI Yoma 78b DH v'Rebbi Yosi; TOSFOS Yevamos 103a DH ha'Kite'a). Alternatively, their argument is whether we are concerned that the wooden foot will fall off in Reshus ha'Rabim and will be carried four Amos (Rava, Yoma 78b).

2)[line 2]כתיתיןKETITIN- pieces of soft cloth; pads

3)[line 2]סמוכותSEMUCHOS- shin-pads made of thick hide, for the amputee whose feet have been cut off. He walks on his shins and knees.

4)[line 2]מדרסMIDRAS

(a)A Zav who emits Zov two or three times, whether it is emitted in one day, or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah.

(b)He can cause objects that are under him to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether or not he touches them. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav (or the Tachton, of a Zav). An object may become a Midras if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon. Earthenware objects (Klei Cheres) cannot become Midras.

(c)A person who touches or carries a Midras is Tamei and is Metamei the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching. He and the items he touches get the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah.

(d)Utensils or clothes which lie above the Zav also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the Elyon of a Zav.

5)[line 3]ויוצאין בהן בשבתV'YOTZ'IN BAHEN B'SHABBOS- The first Semuchos of the Mishnah are indispensable to the Kite'a for walking. Since there is no reason to suspect that he will carry them in Reshus ha'Rabim (since he cannot walk without wearing them) and they are clearly a piece of apparel, he may walk with them on Shabbos. For the same reason, he may take them into the Mikdash: they are an extension of his foot rather than "shoes." The second Semuchos (that go with the Kisei) are primarily decorative. Therefore there is a possibility that they will be carried in Reshus ha'Rabim and they may not be worn on Shabbos. For the same reason, they are considered "shoes" insofar as they must be removed before entering the Mikdash.

6)[line 3]כסאKISEI- a small chair attached to the amputee who cannot use his shins or knees for walking. He propels himself forward using two small boxes (Safsalim) which he holds in his hands, coming to a rest position on the chair.

7)[line 4]סמוכות שלוSEMUCHOS SHELO- pieces of leather or wood that cover the ends of the stumps of the amputee's legs. He only occasionally rests his weight on them.

8)[line 4]ואין יוצאין בהן בשבתV'EIN YOTZ'IN BAHEN B'SHABBOS- The Mishnah is only discussing the Semuchos that go with the Kisei, not the Kisei itself. The Kisei may certainly be worn on Shabbos. (See Girsa section, Girsa #1.)

9)[line 5]לוקטמיןLUKTAMIN- (O.F. talemasje) masks; the Gemara (66b) offers two other opinions as to the definition of this word

10)[line 14]קיטונא דבי רבKITUNA D'VEI RAV- a small room adjacent to the Beis Midrash of Rav

11)[line 16]מחוי ליה רבMACHAVEI LEI RAV- Rav signaled to him

12)[line 17]סימנא סמך סמךSIMANA SAMECH SAMECH- a memory device for this reading is Samech Samech, i.e. Rebbi Yosi is the Tana who is Oser

13)[line 18]חלצהCHALTZAH (YIBUM / CHALITZAH)

(a)If a married man dies childless and has brothers who survive him, his widow (or widows) may not remarry until one of the deceased husband's brothers performs Yibum (levirate marriage) or Chalitzah (levirate release) with the widow (or one of the widows), as it states in Devarim 25:5-10. Chazal learn from the verses that if there are a number of brothers, there is a preference for the oldest brother to perform Yibum or Chalitzah (Yevamos 24a). If the conditions for the Mitzvah of Yibum do not exist, marital relations between a man and his brother's wife are prohibited and make them liable to the punishment of Kares.

(b)Yibum is a type of marriage. Unlike ordinary Kidushin, though, it can be accomplished only through Bi'ah and not through Kesef or Shtar (see Background to Kidushin 2:1:II:b). Nevertheless, the Rabanan instituted that one should precede Yibum with an act similar to Kidushei Kesef or Shtar, which is known as Ma'amar (see Background to Kidushin 43:19). The Bi'ah must be performed with the intention of fulfilling the Mitzvah.

(c)If the brother chooses not to marry her, he must perform Chalitzah (a procedure in Beis Din that absolves her of the Mitzvah of Yibum, ibid.). He appears before a Beis Din of three (but see Insights to Yevamos 101:2) and states, "I do not want to marry her," after which his sister-in-law approaches him before the elders, takes off his right sandal and spits on the floor in front of him. She then declares, "This is what shall be done to the man who will not build up a family for his brother," and she is then free to marry whomever she wants.

(d)The connection of the brother to the dead man's wife, which obligates Yibum or Chalitzah, is called Zikah. Even if the brother was born on the day of the man's death (before he dies), the one-day-old is Zokek l'Yibum — he obligates the widow in one of the two Mitzvos. If the brother was born after the man's death, he is not Zokek l'Yibum.

14)[line 22]סנדל של סיידיןSANDAL SHEL SAYADIN- (a) a wooden sandal worn over the shoe, used by those who sell lime or plaster so that their leather shoes would not be ruined by the acidity (RI and RASHI, citing his teachers); (b) a straw sandal used by those who sell lime or plaster (RASHI); (c) a tool used by plasterers to plaster a house, possibly a trowel. Since it has a strap, it was occasionally worn on the feet to walk short distances (RASHBA of the Tosfos)

15)[line 28]כוורת של קשKAVERES SHEL KASH- a beehive made of straw

16)[line 28]שפופרת של קניםSHEFOFERES SHEL KANIM- a tube or tubular basket made of reeds

17)[line 32]מטיילMETAYEL- he walks

18)[line 34]טומאת מתTUM'AS MES

(a)A k'Zayis of the flesh of a Mes (corpse) is an "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah" and is Metamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), and Ohel (being in the same room (lit. tent). An Ohel is defined as a covered space that is at least one Tefach in length, width and height.

(b)If a person (or utensil) becomes Tamei by touching a Mes, he must wait seven days to go to the Mikvah. Furthermore, on the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas (ashes of the Parah Adumah mixed in spring water) is sprinkled on the person or utensil. The water is sprinkled by means of three hyssops that have been bound together and dipped into the water. Afterwards, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah to complete the purification process.


19)[line 1]לתרוצי סוגיאL'TARUTZEI SUGYA- (lit. to straighten his walk) the cane is used to help him walk and stand straight, but is not meant to support his entire body weight

20)[line 8]חמרא דאכפאCHAMRA D'ACHPA- (a) (O.F. ardeficie) a play donkey attached to the body of a mime, in such a way that the mime appears to be carried by the donkey (RASHI); (b) wooden hands for an amputee (RABEINU CHANANEL)

21)[line 8]קשיריKESHIREI- (a) (O.F. eschaces) stilts (RASHI); (b) a cloth worn in front of the mouth to prevent the ejection of saliva (RABEINU PERACHYA, citing Rabeinu Yosef ben Palti, in the name of Rabeinu Sherira Ga'on)

22)[line 9]פרמיPARAMEI- (O.F. talemasje) masks

23)[line 9]קשריםKESHARIM- knots. There is a debate in the Gemara as to the exact type of knot

24)[line 10]זוגיןZOGIN- (O.F. escheletes) little bells

25)[line 10]דברו חכמים בהווהDIBRU CHACHAMIM BA'HOVEH- the Sages speak about the prevalent case at the time

26)[line 11]קשורי פואהKESHUREI PU'AH- knots made from the stems of the madder plant (O.F. warance) [a plant with small yellowish flowers whose root produces a red dye] that are worn around the neck

27)[line 12]אמרה לי אםAMRAH LI EM- my "mother" told me (Abaye was an orphan and he called his nursemaid "Em")

28)[line 12]תלתא מוקמיTELASA MUKMEI- three knots of the madder plant will prevent the illness from spreading

29)[line 12]חמשה מסוCHAMISHAH MASU- five knots will cure the illness

30)[line 13]מעליMA'ALEI- are beneficial

31)[line 13]דלא חזי ליה שמשא וסיהראD'LO CHAZI LEI SHIMSHA V'SIHARA- that [the plant] has never been exposed to sunlight or moonlight

32)[line 14]מיטראMITRA- rain

33)[line 14]ברזלאBARZELA- iron

34)[line 14]תרנגולתאTARNEGOLTA- a hen

35)[line 14]ניגרי,NIGREI- footsteps

36)[line 15]נפל פותא בביראNAFAL PUSA B'VEIRA- this cure is useless since the conditions are almost impossible to meet [lit. (a) the bread has fallen into a pit (RASHI); (b) with the Girsa "Pu'ah" instead of "Pusa," this means that the Pu'ah plant remedy has fallen into a pit (ARUCH)]

37)[line 17]געגועיןGA'AGU'IN- (O.F. bramors) longing (of a boy for his father)

38)[line 18]מנעל של ימיןMIN'AL SHEL YAMIN- the right sandal of (a) the father (RABEINU CHANANEL); (b) the boy (ME'IRI, RAN)

39)[line 19]סימניך תפיליןSIMANICH TEFILIN- the mnemonic device that can be used is that the Tefilin are tied on the left arm, so too the shoelace is tied on the left arm

40)[line 19]חילופא סכנתאCHILUFA SAKANTA- if the opposite is done, it is dangerous for the boy

41)[line 20]סחופי כסא אטיבוריSECHUFEI KASA A'TIBUREI- (a) a remedy in which a glass cup is heated and placed on the abdomen to cure an internal ailment (RASHI); (b) a preventative in which a small glass cup is placed over an umbilical ulcer to prevent it from further enlargement (ARUCH)

42)[line 21]דרב הונא מבי רב ...D'RAV HUNA MI'BEI RAV ...- as in the case of Rav Huna, [when he returned inebriated] from the house of Rav...

43)[line 22]מיבסמיMIVASMEI- inebriated; tipsy

44)[line 23]שייפי להוSHAIFEI LEHU- they rubbed (with the oil and salt)

45)[line 23]גוייתא דידייהוGAVYASA DIDAIHU- the palms of their hands

46)[line 23]גוייתא דכרעייהוGAVYASA D'KARAIHU- the soles of their feet

47)[line 23]כי היכי דציל הא מישחאKI HEICHI D'TZIL HA MISHCHAH- just as the oil is becoming lucid (due to the body heat)

48)[line 24]ליציל חמריה דפלניא בר פלניתאLEI'TZIL CHAMREI D'PELANYA BAR PELANISA- so too should so-and-so (the Sage), the son of so-and-so (his mother), become lucid once again (lit. his wine should become clear)

49)[line 24]שיעא דדנאSHI'A D'DANA- sealant for barrels

50)[line 25]שרי ליה במיאSHARI LEI B'MAYA- soak it in water

51)[line 26]לחנקL'CHANEK- (a) to perform a primitive form of traction in which the patient whose neck vertebrae have dislocated is hung from a rope in order to stretch and adjust his vertebrae (RASHI); (b) to massage the muscles and nerves of the neck to cure an extreme headache (ARUCH); (c) to cause a person to vomit by sticking a finger down his throat (ARUCH)

52)[line 27]לפופיLEFUFEI- swaddling

53)[line 28]מתני בניםMASNI BANIM- learns two Halachos with regard to children ("Banim" is plural) [in the name of Avin bar Huna Amar Rav Chama bar Gurya]

54)[line 28]מתני בןMASNI BEN- learns one Halachah with regard to children ("Ben" is singular) [in the name of Avin bar Huna Amar Rav Chama bar Gurya]

55)[line 31]מנייניMINYANEI- charms (called "Minyanei" or "counts" since these charms were usually repeated several times)

56)[line 32]קטריKATREI- knots

57)[line 32]מפרשיMEFARSHEI- they are explicit [as to how many repetitions are recommended]

58)[line 33]אבן תקומהEVEN TEKUMAH- a stone carried by pregnant women to protect themselves against a miscarriage

59)[line 34]משקל אבן תקומהMISHKAL EVEN TEKUMAH- a counterweight, i.e. something that was equal in weight on a balance scale, to the Even Tekumah. (Such objects were also worn as charms.)

60)[line 36]איכוון ואיתקלICHAVEIN V'ISHKAL- it was exactly equal in weight to the Even Tekumah without adding to or subtracting from it

61)[line 36]משקל דמשקלMISHKAL D'MISHKAL- the counterweight of a counterweight

62)[line 37]אשתא בת יומאESHASA BAS YOMA- for a daily fever

63)[line 37]לישקול זוזא חיווראLISHKOL ZUZA CHIVRA- take a newly minted coin

64)[line 38]מלחתאMILCHASA- a cavity into which sea water is drawn and allowed to evaporate, leaving the salt

65)[line 38]ליתקול מתקליה מילחאLISKOL MASKELEI MILCHA- measure out its weight in salt

66)[line 38]לצייריהL'TZAIREI- and tie it (hang it)

67)[line 38]חללא דבי צוארCHALALA D'VBEI TZAVAR- in the opening of the neck space (of his shirt)

68)[line 39]נירא ברקאNIRA BARKA- a strand of white hair

69)[line 39]אפרשת דרכיםA'PARSHAS DERACHIM- at an intersection

70)[line 39]שומשמנא גמלא דדרי מידיSHUMSHEMANA GAMLA D'DARI MIDI- a large ant that is carrying something

71)[line 40]גובתא דנחשאGUVSA DI'NECHASHA- a copper tube

72)[line 40]ליסתמיא באבראLISTEMAYA B'AVARA- seal it with lead

73)[line 41]גושפנקיGUSHPANKEI- seals

74)[line 41]לברזוליהLEVARZULEI- shake it

75)[line 41]לידריהLIDREI- carry it

76)[line 41]לימא ליהLEIMA LEI- say to [the ant]

77)[line 41]טעונך עלי וטעונאי עלךTE'UNECH ALAI U'TE'UNAI ALACH- your burden is upon me and my burden (my sickness) is upon you

78)[line 43]איפסק ביהIFSIK BEI- he used it to stop a similar disease

79)[line 43]כוזא חדתאKUZA CHADTA- a new earthenware cup

80)[line 44]אוזפן כוזא דמיאOZFAN KUZA D'MAYA- lend me a cup of water

81)[line 44]לאורחא דאיקלע ליL'URCHA D'IKLA LI- for the path (the illness) that has chanced upon me

82)[line 45]ליהדר שב זימני על רישיהLIHADAR SHEV ZIMNEI AL REISHEI- encircle his head seven times with the cup

83)[line 45]לשדיין לאחוריהLISHADYAN LA'ACHOREI- throw it over his shoulder (back into the river)

84)[last line]אורחא דאיקלע לי, ביומיה אתאURCHA D'IKLA LI B'YOMEI ASA- the path (the illness) that chanced upon me, came today

85)[last line]ביומיה אזלB'YOMEI AZAL- and it went today