[53a - 53 lines; 53b - 49 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 53a [line 29]:

"d'Yasiv v'Ka'amar Lei mi'Shmei d'Rebbi Yochanan" דיתיב וקאמר ליה משמיה דרבי יוחנן

The word "Lei" is unnecessary and does not appear in Dikdukei Sofrim or in the manuscripts.

[2] Rashi DH Mirda'as Mutar : ד"ה מרדעת מותר

"d'Tza'ara Hi, Hilkach Urchah b'Hachi v'Lav Masuy Hu" דצערא היא הלכך אורחא בהכי ולאו משוי הוא

From these words of Rashi it appears that the Gemara is discussing the question of whether a Mirda'as is a Masuy or not. This is problematic, though, for several reasons:

(a) This clearly contradicts what Rashi writes in DH Mahu, that the Gemara refers to placing a Mirda'as or Ukaf on a donkey inside the Chatzer only (REBBI AKIVA EIGER, RASHASH). As Rashi notes on Daf 54b DH kid'Amran (cited here by Tosfos DH v'Hu), putting a Mirda'as on a donkey which was not wearing it from before Shabbos indeed is prohibited because of Masuy, and is not permitted just because of the discomfort of the donkey (REBBI AKIVA EIGER).

(b) The RASHASH adds that if the reasoning has to do with Masuy, then why is it prohibited to remove the Ukaf on Shabbos?

(c) Moreover, Rashi throughout the Sugya explains that placing a Mirda'as on a donkey is permitted only in order to prevent the donkey's discomfort (cf. Rashi 53b DH u'Mishum Tza'ar), and not because of "Urcha b'Hachi."

Because of all these questions, there is reason to suppose that the words "Hilkach Urchah b'Hachi v'Lav Masuy Hu" in the end of Rashi are actually a separate Dibur and belong at the top of this page. They should read, "DH v'Hu she'Keshurah Lo me'Erev Shabbos: Hilkach Urchah b'Hachi v'Lav Masuy Hu." Rashi is actually discussing the Mirda'as of the Mishnah, which was tied on before Shabbos. (Support for this may be drawn from the fact that Rashi explains why the Mirda'as has to be tied on before Shabbos only later, on Daf 54b. Why did he not relate to it at all in the Sugya here, which is the main Sugya?)

[3] Gemara 53b [line 21]:

The words "v'Amar Ravina, Kegon she'Hayah Techum Shelah ..." ואמר רבינא כגון שהיה תחום שלה

should be "Amar Ravina, Kegon she'Hayah Techum Shelah ..." אמר רבינא כגון שהיה תחום שלה

as found in the Rishonim. The Girsa "v'Amar" appears only in certain editions of the Gemara. Other editions have corrected the error already.

[4] Rashi 53b DH Ha Mumcheh : ד"ה הא מומחה

The words "Mai Shena Behemah" מאי שנא בהמה

should be "u'Mai Shena Behemah" ומאי שנא בהמה


1)[line 1]הוא שקשורה לו מערב שבתHU SHE'KESHURAH LO ME'EREV SHABBOS- the Mishnah refers to a case where the Mirda'as is tied to it from Erev Shabbos; see Insights to the Daf

2)[line 9]אוכףUKAF- a pack saddle

3)[line 9]אף על פי שקשורה לו מערב שבתAF AL PI SHE'KESHURAH LO ME'EREV SHABBOS- That is, it is forbidden to go out with an Ukaf because it is a burden since it does not help much to warm the donkey (RITVA; this also seems to be implied by RASHI DH Af b'Ukaf)

4)[line 11]ובלבד שלא יקשור לו מסריכןU'VILVAD SHE'LO YIKSHOR LO MASRICHAN- as long as he does not tie the donkey (on Shabbos, and perhaps even on Erev Shabbos) with a strap that holds the Mirda'as around the animal's neck

5)[line 12]יפשולYIFSHOL- fasten

6)[line 14]מהו ליתן מרדעת על גבי חמור בשבתMAHU LITEN MIRDA'AS AL GABEI CHAMOR B'SHABBOS- That is, the Amora is not asking about the case of the Mishnah. The Mishnah permits a donkey to go out to Reshus ha'Rabim wearing a Mirda'as. The Amora now asks if it is permissible to dress the donkey in a Mirda'as on Shabbos in a courtyard, without going out to Reshus ha'Rabim. The reason why this may be prohibited is that it requires Tirchah (extra work) not for the sake of Shabbos (TOSFOS DH Mahu). In addition, it looks like he intends to load a burden on his donkey on Shabbos (RASHI DH Hachi Garsinan). According to the opinion of the RASHBA, who prohibits tying the Mirda'as on Shabbos because he must lean on the animal (violating the prohibition of being Mishtamesh b'Va'al Chayim; see Insights), the Amora must be asking whether it is permissible to place the Mirda'as on the donkey, without tying it (as explained by the ME'IRI).

7)[line 15]וכי מה בין זה לאוכףV'CHI MAH BEIN ZEH L'UKAF- Why should a Mirda'as be judged differently from an Ukaf, which, as we are about to prove from a Beraisa, may not be put on the donkey on Shabbos?

8)[line 17]מוליכה ומביאה בחצרMOLICHAH U'MEVI'AH B'CHATZER- he walks backs and forth with the donkey in the courtyard

9)[line 21]טרסקלTERASKAL- a basket

10)[line 22]וקל וחומר למרדעתV'KAL VA'CHOMER L'MIRDA'AS- That is, certainly it should be permitted to tie on a Mirda'as — or an Ukaf, for that matter — on Shabbos (see Insights, and Chart #9)

11)[line 23]הכא דמשום צערHACHA D'MISHUM TZA'AR- That is, the Mirda'as or Ukaf is put on the animal to make it comfortable, by keeping it warm (and the Ukaf is removed to cool it off).

12)[line 31]יישרYEYASHER- that is right!

13)[line 31]וכן תרגמה אריוך בבבלV'CHEN TIRGEMAH ARYOCH B'VAVEL- this is also the way Shmuel explained it in Bavel

14)[line 34]דכולי עלמא מיהתD'CHULEI ALMA MIHAS- That is, Rav and Shmuel both agree that a Mirda'as may be placed on the donkey. (Rav Asi bar Nasan, however, certainly disagrees and prohibits the act.)

15)[line 36]דאפשר דנפיל ממילאD'EFSHAR D'NAFIL MEMEILAH- That is, the removal of an Ukaf can be done without physically removing it, but just by untying it. (Placing the Ukaf or Mirda'as on the donkey, however, which cannot be done in this manner, is permitted. See Chart #8.)

16)[line 39]תקופת תמוזTEKUFAS TAMUZ- the summer solstice, when the temperature is hottest

17)[line 41]שועלSHU'AL- a fox

18)[line 41]זהרוריתZAHARURIS- a strip of wool, dyed red (ARUCH)

19a)[line 41]זבZAV

(a)A Zav (Vayikra 15:1-15), a man who emits Zov two or three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah (the Tum'ah generated by a Zav is discussed in Background to Nidah 71:35). Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter. A man who emits Zov one time is Tamei like a Ba'al Keri (see Background to Nidah 72:6) and must immerse and wait for nightfall to become Tahor.

(b)A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked" in seven ways to determine whether or not he becomes a Zav. If this discharge came about b'Ones (due to an external cause), he is Tahor. The seven external causes are: 1. eating too much; 2. drinking too much; 3. carrying a heavy load; 4. jumping; 5. being sick; 6. (a) seeing a frightening sight (RASHI to Nazir 65b); (b) seeing a woman, even without having unclean thoughts (ROSH to Nazir ibid.); 7. having unclean thoughts.

(c)In order to start his purification process, a Zav must count seven "clean" days ("Shiv'ah Nekiyim") in which he experiences no discharge of Zov (checking once in the morning and once towards evening), as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).

(d)If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. Even if the first time was b'Ones, as long as the second emission was not, he is Tamei. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor (on the eighth day) in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Bnei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

(e)In the case of three emissions, he is only obligated in a Korban if the first two were not b'Ones. The third emission may come about b'Ones according to the Rabanan. According to Rebbi Eliezer, he is only obligated in a Korban if all three emissions are not b'Ones (Nazir 65b). However, if the Zav had an emission during Shiv'ah Nekiyim, even b'Ones, all agree that this emission stops his count, and he must start counting again (Zavim ibid.; RAMBAM, Hilchos Mechusrei Kaparah 3:1). If the Zav emits Keri during the Shiv'ah Nekiyim, he loses that day, but he continues his count on the next day.

(f)If, however, the third time that a Zav emitted Zivah occurred during his Shiv'ah Neki'im, he is not required to bring a Korban. Rather, he begins a new count of Shiv'ah Neki'im. Even if he emits Zivah three times consecutively during Shiv'ah Neki'im, he need not bring a Korban (RAMBAM ibid. 3:4). Following this reasoning, a Zav will never be required to bring a Korban unless he emits Zivah three times during three or less consecutive days.

b)[line 42]לא יצא הזב בכיס שלוLO YETZEI HA'ZAV B'CHIS SHELO- a Zav may not go out with his bag, with which he covers his male organ and collects any Zov that may come out

20)[line 43]חסוםCHASOM- a muzzle

21)[line 43]סייחיםSAYACHIM- young donkeys

22)[line 45]קמיעKAMEI'A- amulet, charm

23)[line 46]מומחהMUMCHEH- proven to heal animals by having healed three animals (lit. authoritative)

24)[line 47]אגדEGED- a bandage

25)[line 47]קשישיןKESHISHIN- splints

26)[line 48]שיליא המדולדלת בהSHILYA HA'MEDULDELES BAH- the birth sack or placenta which started to emerge

27)[line 49]פוקקין לה זוגPOKEKIN LAH ZOG- we stop up the bell


28)[line 1]אמר מר ולא בקמיעAMAR MAR V'LO B'KAMEI'A- (The Gemara interjects this discussion of the above-quoted Beraisa before returning to its main point, whether one may be Tore'ach for an animal's enjoyment on Shabbos.)

29)[line 2]והא אנן תנן ולא בקמיעV'HA ANAN TENAN V'LO B'KAMEI'A- (The Gemara did not have to ask from a Mishnah later in the Perek. It could just as well have asked that the Beraisa itself has made an illogical statement by contending that "The laws of an animal are more stringent than those of a man in this respect," for the Gemara does not accept that there is a distinction between man and animal. -M. KORNFELD)

30)[line 5]מומחה לאדם ואינו מומחה לבהמהMUMCHEH L'ADAM V'EINO MUMCHEH L'BEHEMAH- The Kamei'a has been proven to heal people three times but not animals

31)[line 7]אית ליה מזלאIS LEI MAZALA- (a) he has an Angel in heaven who defends him (RASHI); (b) he psychologically can cause himself to be healed because he puts his trust in the Kamei'a (ME'IRI)

32)[line 10]סכיןSACHIN- we anoint [with oil]

33)[line 11]מפרכסיןMEFARKESIN- rub or scrape [scabs]

34)[line 13]גמר מכהGAMAR MAKAH- the wound has finished healing

35)[line 14]בהמה שאחזה דםBEHEMAH SHE'ACHAZAH DAM- an animal that turned red because of a sudden surge of its blood [(O.F. enfondre) an animal disease]

36)[line 18]נראה כמיקרNIR'EH K'MEIKAR- it appears as if he is just cooling himself off

37a)[line 20]תחוםTECHUM (TECHUM SHABBOS)

(a)A person is only allowed to walk a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin.

(b)This is accomplished by placing an amount of food that would be used for two meals nearly 2000 Amos away from his present location, in the direction in which he wishes to walk. The location where his food is placed is considered his new dwelling or place of Shevisah for that Shabbos or Yom Tov, and he may walk 2000 Amos in any direction from there.

b)[line 21]דילמא אתי לאתוייDILMA ASI L'ASUYEI- lest he carry it

38a)[line 23]שחיקת סממנין גופה תנאי היאSHECHIKAS SAMEMANIN GUFAH TANA'EI HI- there is a Tana'ic argument as to whether the Rabbinical decree that prohibits various healing treatments applies to animals or not

b)[line 24]כרשיניןKARSHININ- the beans of a species of vine, probably the horse-bean (which is rarely used as human food)

39)[line 24]לא יריצנהLO YERITZENAH- he should not make it run around

40)[line 24]תתרפהTISRAPEH- that her bowels should be loosened

41)[line 26]מיהדקMIHADAK- it is tightly attached

42)[line 27]תנאי שקלת מעלמאTANA'EI SHAKALT ME'ALMA- "Why do you not interpret that the Mishnah follows one Tana and the Beraisa follows another?" (lit. "Have you cast out all of the Tana'im from the world?")

43)[line 30]בית אנטוכיאBEIS ANTUCHYA- the district of Antioch, the ancient capital of Syria, which is situated on the Orontes

44)[line 34]שנשתנו לוSHE'NISHTANU LO- for whom [the laws of nature] were changed

45)[line 35]סדרי בראשיתSIDREI BERESHIS- the natural laws of creation

46)[line 36]מתרחיש ניסאMISRACHISH NISA- a miracle transpired

47)[line 36]לא אברו מזוניLO IVRU MEZONEI- food was not created instead

48)[line 37]גידמתGIDEMES- a woman whose hand was cut off

49)[line 40]תותריTUSREI- coupled. See Background to 52:35a

50)[line 41]"לבבתני אחותי כלה""LIBAVTINI ACHOSI KALAH"- "You have brought me close to you (lit. You have ravished my heart,) my sister, my bride" (Shir ha'Shirim 4:9)

51)[line 42]זאבים אזכרים נפלי אנקיבות לא נפלי?ZE'EVIM A'ZECHARIM NAFLEI, A'NEKEIVOS LO NAFLEI?- do wolves attack only the males and not the females?

52)[line 43]מסגו בריש עדראMASGU B'REISH EDRA- they walk at the front of the flock

53)[line 44]משום דשמניMISHUM D'SHAMNEI- because they (the males) are fat

54)[line 45]זקפי חוטמייהוZAKFU CHOTMAIHU- they stick up their noses

55)[line 45]מסגו כי דוMASGU KI DAVU- they walk while they are gazing in all directions

56)[last line]"והנה אשה לקראתו שית זונה ונצורת לב""V'HINEI ISHAH LIKRASO, SHIS ZONAH U'NETZURAS LEV"- "And behold, there is a woman to meet him, the Ervah of a harlot, and a heart surrounded with evil thought" (Mishlei 7:10)