WHICH SADDLES ARE PERMITTED FOR AN ANIMAL TO WEAR ON SHABBOS?
(Mishnah): A donkey may go out with a Marda'as (a pack saddle for loads, it gives warmth - donkeys are always cold) that is tied to it;
Rams may go out Levuvim; female sheep may go out Shechuzos, Kevulos and Kevunos (all of these will be defined);
Goats may go out [with their udders] wrapped;
R. Yosi forbids all of these, except for sheep Kevunos.
R. Yehudah permits goats to go wrapped to be dry (not to produce milk), not for milk (wrapped loosely, so it will not inhibit milk or in order to catch drops; alternatively - to prevent dripping).
(Gemara - Shmuel): [A donkey may go out with a Marda'as] only if it was tied from before Shabbos.
Support (Rav Nachman - the coming Mishnah): A donkey may not go out with a Marda'as if it is not tied.
Question: What is the case?
If it is not tied at all, surely it is forbidden, lest it will fall, and the owner will carry it [in Reshus ha'Rabim]!
Answer: It was not tied from before Shabbos.
Inference: Our Mishnah discusses a Marda'as that was tied from before Shabbos.
Support (Beraisa): A donkey may go out with a Marda'as if it was tied from before Shabbos; it may not go out with an Ukaf (another kind of saddle), even if it was tied from before Shabbos.
R. Shimon ben Gamliel permits an Ukaf that was tied from before Shabbos, as long as he does not tie straps at the front or under the tail (the straps keep loads from slipping to the back or front).
Question (Rav Asi bar Noson): May one put a Marda'as on a donkey on Shabbos?
Answer (R. Chiya bar Rav Ashi): It is permitted.
Question (Rav Asi): Why is this different than an Ukaf?
R. Chiya did not answer. (Rav Asi thought that he did not bother to answer for he also permits an Ukaf.)
Question (Rav Asi - Beraisa): If an Ukaf is on a donkey on Shabbos, one may not move it; rather, one leads the donkey into the Chatzer, the Ukaf will fall by itself.
One may not take the Ukaf off, all the more so one may not put it on!
R. Zeira (to Rav Asi): Do not bother him - he holds like his Rebbi (Rav):
(R. Chiya bar Aba citing Rav): One may hang a [food] basket on [the neck of] an animal on Shabbos, all the more so a Marda'as;
We permit [a basket] for mere pleasure (so it can eat without bending down), all the more so [a Marda'as] to avoid pain (the cold)!
THINGS CARRIED ON ACCOUNT OF PAIN OR PLEASURE
(Shmuel): A Marda'as is permitted, a basket is forbidden.
R. Chiya bar Yosef told Rav's opinion to Shmuel.
Shmuel: If Rav said that, he does not know anything about laws of Shabbos!
(R. Binyamin bar Yefes citing R. Yochanan): One may hang a Marda'as on a donkey on Shabbos.
R. Zeira: Very good - Shmuel taught similarly in Bavel.
Question: Rav also said this! (Rav was greater than Shmuel, why did R. Zeira mention only Shmuel?)
Answer: R. Binyamin's teaching concluded'But not a basket' [unlike Rav].
Question: All agree that a Marda'as is permitted - why is it different from an Ukaf (one may not even remove it)?
Answer #1: An Ukaf can fall by itself (therefore, we need not permit removing it).
Answer #2 (Rav Papa): One may put on a Marda'as for warmth, to alleviate pain - removing an Ukaf is to cool the donkey, this is merely a matter of comfort;
People say that a donkey is cold even in the heat of summer.
Question (against Shmuel - Beraisa): A horse may not go out with a fox' tail [to ward off Ayin Ra'ah] or ribbon (for Noy) between its eyes, nor a Zav with a pouch [to collect Zivah, so he will know how many sightings he had], nor a goat with a pouch on its udder, nor a cow with a muzzle in its mouth, a colt may not go out to Reshus ha'Rabim with a basket under its mouth, an animal may not go out with a [metal] sandal, nor with a Kemi'a (an amulet containing writing or herbs), even though it is Mumcheh (established to heal);
This is a stringency of animals over people.
An animal may go out with a bandage tied over a wound, or a splint tied over a broken bone, or with an afterbirth dangling [from its womb]; if a bell's clapper is plugged up [so it will not clang], it may go out with it in a Chatzer.
Inference: A colt may not go out to Reshus ha'Rabim with a basket under its mouth - but it may go out in a Chatzer!
Suggestion: The Beraisa discusses a mature colt, a basket is permitted even though it is for mere pleasure!
Answer: No, it is permitted for young colts [with big legs and small necks], to avoid pain [of having to bend down to eat].
Support: Presumably, this is like the case of a Kemi'a [taught shortly afterwards, it is not for pleasure].
CURES FOR ANIMALS ON SHABBOS
(Beraisa): Nor with a Kemi'a, even though it is Mumcheh.
Question (Mishnah): A man may not go out with a Kemi'a that is not Mumcheh.
Inference: He may go out with a Kemi'a Mumcheh (an animal should also be permitted)!
Answer: The Beraisa forbids a Kemi'a that is not Mumcheh.
Question: The Beraisa says, even though it is Mumcheh!
Answer: It is Mumcheh for people, but not for animals.
Question: Surely, if it is Mumcheh for people, it is Mumcheh for animals!
Answer: No - people have Mazel (Rashi - angels that advocate for them; Me'iri - a person's confidence that the Kemi'a will work helps to cure him) - perhaps the Kemi'a will not help animals, which lack this.
Question: The Beraisa calls this a stringency of animals over people - if an animal may go out with a Kemi'a Mumcheh for animals, animals are not more stringent than people! (Maharsha - the Gemara must know that Mumcheh for animals is not Mumcheh for people (Me'iri - this is because animals are very physical) - if not, it is harder to be Mumcheh for animals, this is a stringency of animals!)
Answer: No, 'This is a stringency of animals over people' does not refer to a Kemi'a, rather, to going out with a sandal (if it would fall off an animal, one might carry it; if a person's sandal fell off, he would not carry it, he would put it on again)!
Question (against Rav and Shmuel - Beraisa): One may anoint and preen a person, but not an animal [on Shabbos].
Suggestion: The case is, there is a wound, it is on account of pain (nevertheless, it is forbidden on behalf of an animal)!
Answer: No, the wound healed, it is on account of pleasure. (Rashi - this answers for Shmuel; Rav is a Tana, he argues with the Beraisa.)
Question (against Rav and Shmuel - Beraisa): One may not put a sick animal in water to cool it; a sick person may enter water to cool off.
Answer (Ula): Chachamim decreed against cures on Shabbos, lest one grind up spices to make medicine.
Question: If so, why may a sick person enter water?
Answer: It looks like he enters the water to cool off [not for the sake of a cure].
Question: It should be permitted for an animal for the same reason!
Answer: People normally do so to cool off, animals do not.
Question: We do not decree against curing animals!
(Beraisa): If an animal was standing outside the Techum (outskirts of the city, the furthest that one may go on Shabbos), one may call for it to come - we do not decree lest he leave the Techum to bring it (people are not frantic about animals - similarly, he may cure an animal, he will not come to grind spices)!
Answer #1 (Ravina): [We decree against curing animals -] the case is, the animal was within the Techum of its owner, it was outside its Techum (it receives the Techum of its shepherd).
Answer #2 (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): Tana'im argue about whether or not one may cure animals:
(Beraisa): If an animal ate [too much] vetch, one may not make it run through the Chatzer [to induce diarrhea, to cure it];
R. Oshaya permits.
(Rava): The Halachah follows R. Oshaya.
PROTECTING THE UDDER OF THE ANIMAL ON SHABBOS
(Beraisa #1): A Zav may not go out with a pouch, nor a goat with a pouch on its udder.
Contradiction (Beraisa #2): A goat may go out with a pouch on its udder.
Answer #1 (Rav Yehudah): It may go out if it is tight fitting, not if it is loose (lest it fall and one will carry it).
Rav Yosef: You deny that Tana'im argue about this - but they argue!
Answer #2 (Rav Yosef): [Beraisa #1 is like the first Tana of out Mishnah, Beraisa #2 is like R. Yosi.]
(Mishnah): Goats may go out wrapped;
R. Yosi forbids all of these, except for sheep Kevunos;
R. Yehudah permits goats to go wrapped to be dry, not for milk.
Answer #3 (Rav Yosef): Both Beraisos are R. Yehudah - Beraisa #1 discusses wrapping for milk, Beraisa #2 discusses wrapping to dry.
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): The goats of Beis Antuchya had big udders, they went out with pouches, so they would not get scratched. (Maharsha asks, why did Rav Yosef reject Rav Yehudah - perhaps this was Rav Yehudah's answer! Ri - Answer #3 also forbids 'for milk' because it is loose, it might fall - but Rav Yehudah did not cite this Beraisa, he did not 'limit' the Beraisos to R. Yehudah. Rashi - Answer #3 forbids 'for milk' on account of carrying [milk that drops]; R. Pores - Answer #3 forbids 'for milk' for the pouch is a load [to prevent milk from dripping, not to guard the animal].)
(Beraisa): A case occurred, a woman died, leaving a nursing baby. The father could not afford to hire a wet nurse - a miracle occurred, he developed breasts and was able to nurse the baby.
Rav Yosef: This man had great merits to merit such a miracle!
Abaye: Just the contrary - it is demeaning that [he did not merit income, rather,] the order of creation had to be changed for him! (Ya'avetz - the miracle was in the merit of the baby. Ga'on Yakov - Abaye means, the man was left with little merits after deducting for a miracle like this.)
Rav Yehudah: This shows how difficult it is to merit income - Hash-m changed the order of creation for him, this was easier [for him to merit] than income!
Support (Rav Nachman): Many people are saved through miracles, but Hash-m does not create food (i.e. it does not grow by itself in storehouses)!
(Beraisa): A case occurred, a man married a woman missing a hand - he did not notice this until the day she died.
Rebbi: That woman was exceedingly Tzenu'ah (she dressed modestly)!
R. Chiya: Her Tzeni'us is not so outstanding, women normally cover themselves [and she had extra incentive, to cover up her blemish] - he was exceedingly Tzenu'a not to notice!
RAMS GO OUT LEVUVIM
(Mishnah): Rams may go out Levuvim.
Question: What does this mean?
Answer #1 (Rav Huna): They go out tied together in pairs [to prevent them from fleeing].
Question: What is the source that Levuvim denotes closeness?
Answer: "Libavtini Achosi Chalah".
Answer #2 (Ula): Hide is put over the Lev (heart) to protect from attacking wolves.
Question: [Why is this done only for males -] surely, wolves also attack females!
Answer #1: Rams go at the front of the herd.
Objection: Surely, wolves also attack the back of the herd!
Answer #2: Rather, rams are fat.
Objection #1: [Many] females are also fat!
Objection #2: Surely, wolves cannot distinguish males from females [before attacking them! Beitzah 20A - Talmidei Shamai saw Hillel bringing a Korban, they could not tell that it was a male [Olah], even though they were right there and suspected this.]
Answer #3: Rams stick up their noses and look to both sides when walking (wolves think that the rams want to attack them).
Answer #3 (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): [Levuvim is when] hide is tied under the Ever of rams to prevent them from mating.
Question: What is his source?
Answer: The Seifa permits female sheep to go out Shechuzos, i.e. with hide tied under the tail to enable rams to mate with them - presumably, the Reisha discusses a related matter.
Question: How do we know that Shechuzos refers to exposure [of Ervah]?
Answer: "V'Hinei Ishah Likraso Shis Zonah u'Ntzuras Lev" (Shis refers to Ervah; Shechuzos is like an acronym of Shis Zonah, if we interchange Sov and Ches which look similar).