[52a - 54 lines; 52b - 39 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 52a DH Yotz'in Nimshachim : ד"ה יוצאין נמשכים

The words "d'Netirusa Urcha Hu" דנטירותא אורחא הוא

should be "del'Netirusa Urcha Hu" דלנטירותא אורחא הוא

[2] Tosfos 52a DH u'Mazin : ד"ה ומזין

"Lo Yishaneh" לא ישנה

This emendation was made by the Maharshal. However, as the Melo ha'Ro'im points out, the Tosfos Yom Tov (on the Mishnah in Parah) proves that the correct Girsa is "Yishneh" (that is, he should dip the hyssop in the water a second time).

[3] Rashi 52b DH Yotz'os [at the end of the page] : ד"ה יוצאות

The words "u'Mihu l'Yabesh d'Mihadak Shapir" ומיהו ליבש דמהידק שפיר

should be "u'Mihu l'Yabesh Mihadak Shapir" ומיהו ליבש מיהדק שפיר


1)[line 1]דאיתותב דעתיהD'ITOSAV DAITEI- to put his mind at ease

2)[line 1]עסקיו רעיםASAKAV RA'IM- his manners/habits are bad

3)[line 3]אבוךAVUCH- your father

4)[line 4]שחקק לה (בין) [ב]קרניהSHE'CHAKAK LAH (BEIN KARNEHA) B'KARNEHA- that he hollowed out a hole in its horns (and tied a halter to the hole)

5)[line 7]לנתוחהL'NATUCHAH- to detach it

6)[line 8]זימנין דרפי ונפילZIMNIN D'RAFI V'NAFIL- at times it is loose and falls off

7)[line 9]בין קרניהBEIN KARNEHA- between her horns (of a cow)

8)[line 13]תסתייםTISTAYEM- conclude

9)[line 21]סמי הא מקמי האSAMI HA MI'KAMEI HA- do not make any conclusions from (lit. conceal) the second source brought in the Gemara, rather [conclude] from the first

10)[line 22]ומאי חזית?U'MAI CHAZIS?- what is your proof? (lit. and what did you see?)


If the owner of a red cow works with his cow, it becomes unfit for the Mitzvah of Parah Adumah, as learned from Bamidbar 19:2. Riding the cow, leaning against it, placing garments on it and the like also cause it to become unfit. If the owner placed a halter on it, it remains Kosher only if he thereby intended to guard it. Otherwise, the Poskim have ruled that this also is considered working with it.

12)[line 28]מוסרהMOSERAH- a halter

13)[line 32]מורדתMOREDES- a rebellious (wild) cow

14)[line 33]יוצאין כרוכיןYOTZ'IN KERUCHIN- they go out with a leash wrapped around their necks

15)[line 35]כרוכין לימשךKERUCHIN LIMASHECH- they go out with a leash wrapped around their necks in a such a way that they can be easily led with the leash, i.e. if the leash is very loosely wrapped around their neck so that a person can grab onto it or if the end of the leash hangs down a little

16)[line 36]עיגליIGLEI- calves

17)[line 38]מולאותMULA'OS- mules

18)[line 50]הפרדHA'PERED- a "Pered" is the same as "Mula'os"

19)[last line]טבעת בהמה וכליםTABA'AS BEHEMAH V'KELIM- and rings of an animal (e.g. its collar) and of vessels (e.g. the ring at the end of its handle with which it is hung on the wall)


20)[line 1]בבאין מנוי אדם לנוי בהמהB'BA'IN MI'NOI ADAM L'NOI BEHEMAH- the Mishnah refers to a ring which became Tamei when it was used by a person and was later designated to be used by an animal (the ring needs purification from its previous Tum'ah even though it no longer can receive Tum'ah)

21)[line 3]מקל של בהמהMAKEL SHEL BEHEMAH- (a) a stick used to beat an animal; (b) a stick tied around the animal's neck, used to lead it

22)[line 7]ריתכןRITCHAN- he beat the ring that was fixed in the Sheir until it was loose


(a)A utensil is considered ready to receive Tum'ah only after it is completely finished. If the artisan even decided that the utensil needs no more work, it is considered complete and may become Tamei. If the artisan afterwards decides to do more work on the utensil, it remains Tamei until an action is performed on the utensil that makes his intention clear (Kidushin 59a-b).

(b)The action that must be performed to change the status of a utensil must be an action that renders the utensil unfit for its original purpose. For example, if a tanner decided to use a hide as a rug, it may become Tamei from that moment on. If he then changes his mind and decides to make shoes out of it, it remains with its current status until he begins to cut the hide for shoes.

(c)If a utensil breaks and as a result is unusable, it becomes Tahor. Metal and glass utensils that become Teme'im may be immersed in a Mikvah to return them to a state of Taharah. An earthenware utensil that becomes Tamei has only the option of being broken (see Background to Nidah 60:10). In our Sugya, a bed that was Tamei was cut into two pieces. As a result, it becomes Tehorah and remains as such, even after it is put back together. TOSFOS DH she'Chilkuhah (1st answer) specifies that if a non-craftsman can put it back together, it remains Tamei.

(d)For a further discussion of the principles of Tum'os and Taharos, see Background to Nazir 54:13.

24)[line 14]מעשה לתקןMA'ASEH L'SAKEN- an action that is advantageous

25)[line 16]במחולליןB'MECHULALIN- where the rings were attached loosely in the first place

26)[line 20]דא ודא חדא היאDA V'DA CHADA HI- there is only one Halachah with regard to Tum'ah (lit. this and this are one)

27)[line 27]אלמוגALMOG- coral

28)[line 31]חורהCHORAH- its hole

29)[line 31]עוקצהUKTZAH- its point

30)[line 33]רישומה ניכרRISHUMAH NIKAR- (a) even though it is covered with rust, if the form of the needle is distinct, it is still considered a utensil which can become Tamei; (b) the meaning of Ikuv Tefirah is that rust comes off when sewing, thus classifying the needle as a broken utensil which makes it Tahor

31)[line 33]שיפאSHIFA- a needle from which all the rust was removed with a file (O.F. lima)

32)[line 36]גלמיGOLMEI- unfinished needles

33)[line 36]מרדעתMIRDA'AS- (O.F. bastel) a saddle pad which is made to support a load on an animal's back, or to keep it warm

34)[line 37]זכריםZECHARIM- rams

35)[line 37]לבוביןLEVUVIN- (a) Tusrei: (1) two rams tied together, to prevent them from running away (RASHI); (2) adorned with embroidered sweaters (ROSH); (b) with pieces of leather tied to their chests to prevent them from attack by wolves, who strike for the heart; (c) with pieces of leather tied over their male organs to prevent them from having relations with the females

36)[line 37]רחלותRECHELOS- female sheep

37)[line 37]שחוזותSHECHUZOS- with their tails tied up on their backs so that the males should have relations with them

38)[line 37]כבולותKEVULOS- with their tails tied down so that the males should not have relations with them

39)[line 38]כבונותKEVUNOS- wrapped with cloth around their wool so that it should not get dirty