[34a - 45 lines; 34b - 40 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 34a [line 23]:

"Af Al Gav d'Amur Rabanan Sheloshah Devarim" אף על גב דאמור רבנן שלשה דברים

In the Gemara Gitin 6b, the Girsa is "Ha d'Amur Rabanan..."

[2] Rashi 34a DH mishe'Chashechah ד"ה משחשכה:

The words "Gezeirah Shema" are a new Dibur ha'Maschil.


1)[line 1]לאקופיL'AKUFEI- to go around

2)[line 3]כאן קיצץ בן זכאיKAN KITZETZ BEN ZAKAI- here, Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai [planted and] picked

3a)[line 3]תורמסי תרומהTURMESEI TERUMAH- lupines of Terumah, a type of pod or bean of the pea family

b)[line 4]עבד איהו נמי הכיAVAD IHU NAMI HACHI- Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai also picked bean-pods like Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai. He tested (miraculously) for Tum'ah by dropping the bean-pods (which were Chulin) and causing the corpses to rise (RASHI). Alternatively, Rebbi Shimon also did something to help the town, like Yakov Avinu (TOSFOS). He clarified where the corpses were by applying his knowledge of science.

4)[line 4]דהוה קשיD'HAVAH KASHI- [ground] that was hard

5)[line 5]דהוה רפיD'HAVAH RAFI- [ground] that was soft

6)[line 5]צייניהTZAINEI- he marked it

7)[line 10]מפרכסות זו את זוMEFARKESOS ZU ES ZU- dye one another's hair


(a)By Torah Law, a person is required to tithe his grain only if he harvests it in a normal manner. This includes completing the stalk-to-grain process in the field, piling up the grain there, and bringing it through the front door of his house or yard (Berachos 35b). It is then Hukba l'Ma'aser (designated for tithing). If one of these steps is missing, the produce may be eaten in an irregular fashion (Achilas Ara'i) without separating Terumos and Ma'asros. Two examples of Achilas Ara'i are eating the produce while it is still in the field and feeding it to one's livestock.

(b)Even if the process for Kevi'us l'Ma'aser described above is not completed, there are certain conditions which in and of themselves cause the produce to need tithing. Designating the food to be eaten on Shabbos is one of them. Even though one may not tithe on Shabbos, if the food was designated for Shabbos it may not be eaten after Shabbos without tithing (Gemara Beitzah 34b.)

(c)After the crop is harvested, and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at approximately one fiftieth.

(d)After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given to a Levi.

(e)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.

(f)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth, and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought to and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. The food which is bought with that money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah.


See Background to Shabbos 23:18.

10)[line 17]הודאיHA'VADAI- the produce from which Terumos and Ma'asros have definitely not been taken

11)[line 19]הדמאיHA'DEMAI

(a)Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance; see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" — "What is this?").

(b)Yochanan Kohen Gadol decreed that Terumas Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling the produce. Terumah Gedolah, however, because of its stringency, is presumed to have been separated. Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani are separated from the produce, but they are eaten by the owner and not given to the Levi or the Ani (in keeping with the principle "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah").

12)[line 19]טומנין את החמיןTOMNIN ES HA'CHAMIN- hot food is wrapped on Friday in substances that do not add their own heat (see the beginning of the fourth Perek, ba'Meh Tomnin)

13)[line 21]"וידעת כי שלום אהלך ופקדת נוך ולא תחטא""V'YADATA KI SHALOM OHALECHA; U'FAKADTA NAVECHA V'LO SECHETA"- "And you shall know that your tent is at peace; and you shall visit your residence and shall miss nothing" (Iyov 5:24) - The Rosh (end of #21) explains that "v'Yadata Ki Shalom Ohalecha" refers to lighting Shabbos candles, which are for Shalom Bayis (see Background to Shabbos 31:46); "u'Fakadta Navecha" refers to Eruv Techumin, in which a person changes his place of residence; "v'Lo Secheta" refers to Ma'asros. If a person does not remember to separate Ma'asros, he will be lacking food for Shabbos.

14)[line 25]דליקבלינהו מיניהD'LIKBELINHU MINEI- that they should accept and do what he says

15)[line 31]סימן בגופיא זימרא ציפרא בחבלא דמילתאSIMAN B'GUFYA ZIMRA TZIFRA B'CHAVLA D'MILSA- This Siman (mnemonic) refers to all of the statements in Maseches Shabbos of Rebbi Aba said in the name of Rav Chiya bar Rav Ashi who said them in the name of Rav. Based upon this Siman, the Gemaras which have mistakes in the names quoted may be corrected (MAHARSHA). The statements represented by the Siman are:

1 ."Gufya" is our Sugya which starts with the words "Ha Gufa Kashya."

2."Zimra" is on Daf 73b, where he states that Zomer (pruning) falls under the category of Note'a (planting).

3."Tzifra" is at the top of Daf 107a, when a Tzipor (bird) flies into a person's cloak

4."b'Chavla" is on Daf 113a, a person may bring a Chevel (rope) to tie a cow to its trough

5."d'Milsa" is on Daf 124b, brooms of Milsa (rags) are not Muktzah and may be moved on Shabbos.

16)[line 44]שאינו מוסיף הבלSHE'EINO MOSIF HEVEL- a substance that does not add heat to the food

17)[line 44]שמא ירתיחSHEMA YARTI'ACH- he might heat up the food on Shabbos (when he sees that it has cooled off); see Insights to the Daf


18)[line 2]שמא יטמין ברמץSHEMA YATMIN B'REMETZ- he might keep the food warm by placing it in hot coals mixed with ash

19)[line 8]פני מזרח מאדימיןPENEI MIZRACH MA'ADIMIN- eastern sky has a reddish appearance

20)[line 8]הכסיף התחתוןHICHSIF HA'TACHTON- if the lower part of the eastern sky became dark

21)[line 9]לא הכסיף העליוןLO HICHSIF HA'ELYON- the top part of the eastern sky did not turn dark

22)[line 10]השוה לתחתוןHISHVAH LA'TACHTON- became the same as the bottom part of the sky

23)[line 13]כהרף עיןK'HEREF AYIN- like the blink of an eye

24)[line 17]ראה שני ימיםRA'AH SHNEI YAMIM (ZAV)

(a)A Zav (Vayikra 15:1-15), a man who emits Zov two or three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah (the Tum'ah generated by a Zav is discussed in Background to Nidah 71:35). Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter. A man who emits Zov one time is Tamei like a Ba'al Keri (see Background to Nidah 72:6) and must immerse and wait for nightfall to become Tahor.

(b)A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked" in seven ways to determine whether or not he becomes a Zav. If this discharge came about b'Ones (due to an external cause), he is Tahor. The seven external causes are:

1.eating too much;

2.drinking too much;

3.carrying a heavy load;


5.being sick;

6.(a) seeing a frightening sight (RASHI to Nazir 65b); (b) seeing a woman, even without having unclean thoughts (ROSH to Nazir ibid.);

7.having unclean thoughts.

(c)In order to start his purification process, a Zav must count seven "clean" days ("Shiv'ah Nekiyim") in which he experiences no discharge of Zov (checking once in the morning and once towards evening), as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).

(d)If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. Even if the first time was b'Ones, as long as the second emission was not, he is Tamei. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor (on the eighth day) in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Bnei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

(e)In the case of three emissions, he is only obligated in a Korban if the first two were not b'Ones. The third emission may come about b'Ones according to the Rabanan. According to Rebbi Eliezer, he is only obligated in a Korban if all three emissions are not b'Ones (Nazir 65b). However, if the Zav had an emission during Shiv'ah Nekiyim, even b'Ones, all agree that this emission stops his count, and he must start counting again (Zavim ibid.; RAMBAM, Hilchos Mechusrei Kaparah 3:1). If the Zav emits Keri during the Shiv'ah Nekiyim, he loses that day, but he continues his count on the next day.

(f)If, however, the third time that a Zav emitted Zivah occurred during his Shiv'ah Neki'im, he is not required to bring a Korban. Rather, he begins a new count of Shiv'ah Neki'im. Even if he emits Zivah three times consecutively during Shiv'ah Neki'im, he need not bring a Korban (RAMBAM ibid. 3:4). Following this reasoning, a Zav will never be required to bring a Korban unless he emits Zivah three times during three or less consecutive days.

25)[line 24]כרוך ותניKEROCH V'TANI- put the statements together (lit. wrap) and learn as follows:

26)[line 32]אזדו לטעמייהוAZDU L'TAIMAIHU- they (Rabah and Rav Yosef) each follow their own reasoning elsewhere