[31a - 50 lines; 31b - 40 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 31b [line 19]
The words "Darash Rav Ula ... Al Tirsha Harbeh" דרש רב עולא ... אל תרשה הרבה
should be "Darash Rava bar Ula ... Al Tirsha Harbeh" דרש רבא בר עולא ... אל תרשה הרבה
(This is evident from the next Sugya in the Gemara, "Darash Rava bar Ula... Ki Ein Chartzubos," which is brought here only because the same Amora taught both statements, and the first involved a verse from Koheles.) This Girsa also appears in the Oxford manuscript and Yalkut Shimoni Koheles 7, #976 (see notes to Dikdukei Sofrim #30).
1)[line 1]המרו זה את זהHIMRU ZEH ES ZEH- they made a wager between themselves
2)[line 1]ויקניטYAKNIT- will anger
3)[line 3]חפףCHAFAF- washed
4)[line 5]מי כאן הלל?MI KAN HILLEL?- Is there any Hillel here? (This was a very disrespectful manner with which to ask for the Nasi of Bnei Yisrael.)
5)[line 8]סגלגלותSEGALGALOS- (a) elongated; (b) round
6)[line 9]חיות פקחותCHAYOS PIKCHOS- clever midwives
7)[line 11]תרמודייןTARMODIYIN- the people of Tarmod (Palmyra, an oasis in the Syrian desert)
8)[line 12]תרוטותTERUTOS- (a) tender, bleary; (b) round
9)[line 12]בין החולותBEIN HA'CHOLOS- in a sandy region
10)[line 15]אפרקייםAFRAKIYIM- Africans
11)[line 16]בצעי המיםBITZ'EI HA'MAYIM- swampland
12)[line 20]הוי זהיר ברוחךHEVEI ZAHIR B'RUCHACHA- be careful of haughtiness (lit. your spirit) (which causes anger)
13)[line 28]אמת הבניןAMAS HA'BINYAN- a stick that was one Amah long, used for planning and measuring buildings
14)[line 29]דעלך סניD'ALACH SANI- that is hateful to you
15)[line 30]זיל גמורZIL GEMOR- go and learn
16)[line 35]טכסיסי מלכותTACHSISEI MALCHUS- royal tactics
17)[line 40]מקלוMAKLO- his staff
18)[line 40]תרמילוTARMILO- his bag
19)[line 43]נזדווגוNIZDAVGU- they chanced to meet up with one another
20)[line 43]לטורדנו מן העולםL'TORDEINU MIN HA'OLAM- to make us lose our world [to come]
21)[line 45]"והיה אמונת עתיך חוסן ישועות חכמת ודעת יראת ה' היא אוצרו""V'HAYAH EMUNAS ITECHA CHOSEN YESHU'OS CHOCHMAS VA'DA'AS, YIR'AS HASH-M HI OTZARO"- "And the faith (of taking of your tithes, etc.) of your fixed times, shall be a force of salvation, wisdom, and knowledge; the fear of HaSh-m is His treasure." (Yeshayah 33:6)
22)[line 45]אמונת זה סדר זרעים"EMUNAS" ZEH SEDER ZERA'IM- This Derashah is brought here because it mentions Yir'as Shamayim (fear of HaSh-m), which is related to the story of Hillel and the converts. Anavah (humbleness), the quality of Hillel, leads to the fear of HaSh-m, as it states in Mishlei 22:4, "Eikev Anavah Yir'as HaSh-m" - "because of humbleness there is fear of HaSh-m." This is also apparent from the Gemara at the end of Sotah 49a: "mishe'Mes Rebbi, Batlah Anavah v'Yir'as Chet" - "When Rebbi died, humbleness and fear of sin ceased to exist," as Rav Nisim Ga'on discusses at length to Berachos 56b; see Insights to the Daf there.
23)[line 47]שמכניסין אדם לדיןSHE'MACHNISIN ADAM LA'DIN- that a person is brought in front of the Heavenly Tribunal
24)[line 47]צפית לישועה?TZIPISA L'YESHU'AH?- Did you eagerly await salvation and the coming of Mashi'ach? (i.e. the fulfillment of the promises of the prophets)
25)[line 48]פלפלת בחכמה?PILPALTA B'CHACHMAH?- Did you delve in-depth into the wisdom of the Torah?
26)[line 49]חומטוןCHUMTON- a sandy soil containing salty substances, used for the preservation of wheat
27)[line 1]גזברGIZBAR- the treasurer
28)[line 3]בהי עייל?B'HAI AYIL?- through which gate will he be able to enter?
29)[line 3]חבל על דלית ליה דרתאCHAVAL AL D'LEIS LEI DARTA- Woe to those who have no courtyard
30)[line 4]תרעא לדרתא עבידSAR'A L'DARTA AVID- build a gate for the courtyard. Rebbi Yanai continues the parable, lamenting over those who only learn books of Yir'ah and do not learn Torah
31)[line 7]חליף ואזילCHALIF V'AZIL- [Rebbi Yakov bar Acha] walked past them
32)[line 8]ניקו מקמיהNEIKU MI'KAMEI- Let us stand up for him, as a sign of honor
33)[line 9]דחיל חטאיןDACHIL CHET'IN- fears sin
34)[line 10]בר אורייןBAR ORAYAN- one who has learned much Torah
35)[line 12]תסתייםTISTAYEM- you may conclude
36)[line 22]ריחו נודףREICHO NODEF- his smell (the smell of the garlic) wafts
37)[line 22]יחזור ויאכלYACHZOR V'YOCHAL- should he eat [garlic] again?
38)[line 23]"כי אין חרצובות למותם ובריא אולם""KI EIN CHARTZUBOS L'MOSAM, U'VARI ULAM"- "For there are no pangs at their death; their body is firm" (Tehilim 73:4). Allegorically, this means "Because they are not afraid and distressed by the specter of their death; rather their hearts are hardy like the entrance of the Ulam."
39)[line 24]לא דייןLO DAYAN- it is not enough for them
40)[line 25]אולםULAM- the Hall of the Beis ha'Mikdash which stood before the Heichal. All entrances to the Mikdash were 10 Amos wide and 20 Amos high except for the entrance of the Ulam, which was 20 Amos wide and 40 Amos high.
41)[line 25]"זה דרכם כסל למו ואחריהם בפיהם ירצו סלע""ZEH DARKAM KESEL LAMO, V'ACHAREIHEM B'FIHEM YIRTZU SELA"- "This is their way in their folly; and their offspring who approve of their sayings." (Tehilim 49:14) Allegorically, this means, "The wicked know that their ways (Darkam) lead them to the grave ('Kirbam" of verse 12 is read 'Kivram' - 'their grave'), and even so they have fat over their kidneys (a symbol of stupidity, since the kidneys are considered by Chazal as the seat of advice), and of their afterlife (Gehinom) their mouths constantly speak soothingly."
42)[line 26]חלב על כסלםCHELEV AL KISLAM- fat on the top of their lower flanks, the location of the kidneys in Kosher animals (see Rashi to Vayikra 3:5)
43)[line 29]סותר על מנת לבנות במקומוSOSER AL MENAS LIVNOS B'MEKOMO
(a)All acts of destruction on Shabbos are Patur Aval Asur (exempt from those punishments that apply to transgressions of Torah law, but the act is prohibited and is liable to punishment mid'Rabanan), since the Melachos that were in the Mishkan were creative acts. The Melachah of Soser must be Al Menas Livnos (constructive) in order for it to be a transgression of a Torah law.
(b)There is an opinion that the person who destroys is only liable if he intends to build in the same place. If he destroys in order to build somewhere else, he is Patur Aval Asur.
44)[line 34]להבהבהL'HAVHAVAH- to singe it
By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she experienced bleeding only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she immerses in a Mikvah to become Tehorah, if the bleeding has stopped. (The current practice is to consider all women who experience bleeding to be Zavos — see Background to Nidah 71:34:b-e — and therefore they must count seven clean (i.e. bloodless) days before they go to the Mikvah.)
(a)With regard to the Mitzvah of Chalah, the verses state, "... b'Vo'achem El ha'Aretz... Reishis Arisoseichem Chalah Tarimu Serumah..." - "[Speak to the people of Yisrael, and say to them,] 'When you come into the land [where I bring you, when you eat of the bread of the land, you shall separate a Terumah (tribute) to HaSh-m.] You shall separate the first of your dough for a Terumah; [as you do with the Terumah separated from the grain of the threshing floor, so, too, shall you present this [to the Kohanim.']" (Bamidbar 15:18-20).
(b)Whenever a person kneads a large quantity of dough made from one of the five species of grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye or spelt), he must separate a small portion to be given to the Kohen before eating from the dough. This portion is called Chalah. (The requirement to separate Chalah with a Berachah only applies to dough made from the volume of 43.2 Beitzim of flour. The modern equivalent is approximately 10 1/2 cups or 2.48 liters; about half of that amount requires Chalah to be separated without a Berachah.) A baker must separate 1/48 of his dough as Chalah, while a normal homeowner must separate 1/24. If a person did not separate Chalah from the dough before it was baked, it must be separated after it is baked before the baked products can be eaten.
(c)Chalah has the Halachos of Terumah, and it must be eaten by Kohanim, their wives and children, while they are Tehorim. A non-Kohen who eats Chalah b'Mezid is liable to Malkus and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Makos 13a; RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 5:14 and Hilchos Terumah 6:6).
47)[line 37]הדלקת הנרHADLAKAS HA'NER
(a)The candles lit on Friday before sunset were needed for Shalom Bayis (Shabbos 23b), so that families would not sit in the dark or trip over things in the dark on Friday night. Even though both men and women are obligated to light the Shabbos candles, the custom is for women to light because they are in charge of running the house. The blessing, "Asher Kideshanu b'Mitzvosav v'Tzivanu l'Hadlik Ner Shel Shabbos," is recited after the candles are burning.
(b)Lighting candles for Shabbos is not optional, but it is also not a Mitzvah. The Gemara (25b) calls it a Chovah (obligation). Tosfos (ibid. DH Hadlakas) explains that the obligation is to eat the Friday night meal by the light of the candles, which is part of the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos (enjoyment of the Shabbos). Rashi (ibid. DH Chovah) writes that it is part of the Mitzvah of Kavod Shabbos (honoring the Shabbos), since important meals are never eaten in the dark.