THE MEAT AND WINE HE MUST EAT
(Mishnah): He is liable after he eats Tartimar (this will be explained) of meat and drinks half a Log of Italki wine; (a Log is four Reviyos, about a half liter.
R. Yosi says, he must eat a Maneh (the weight of 100 Dinarim or 9600 barley seeds, about half a kilo) of meat and drinks a Log of wine.
In the following cases, he is exempt:
He ate with a group doing a Mitzvah, such as the meal to signify Ibur Chodesh (when a 30th day is added to the month), or if he ate (Rashi - meat and wine bought with money of) Ma'aser Sheni in Yerushalayim;
He ate Neveilos, Treifos, Shekatzim u'Rmashim (insects and swarming creatures), Tevel, Ma'aser, Ma'aser Sheni and Hekdesh that were not redeemed;
He ate something that is a Mitzvah or a transgression;
He ate many foods, but not meat. He drank many beverages, but not wine;
"Zolel v'Sovei" - he must eat meat and drink wine.
"B'Sov'ei Yayin b'Zolelei Vasar" is not a proof, but it hints at this law.
(Gemara - R. Zeira): I do not know (from elsewhere) what Tartimar is, but since R. Yosi requires twice as much wine as Chachamim, presumably he requires twice as much meat, i.e. Tartimar is half a Maneh.
(R. Chanan bar Moldah): He is liable only if he buys meat and wine cheaply and eats them - "Zolel v'Sovei"
(R. Chanan bar Moldah): He is liable only if he eats raw meat and drinks unmixed wine.
Question: Rabah and Rav Yosef say that he is exempt for these!
Answer (Ravina): R. Chanan refers to wine that is semi- diluted (i.e. it is stronger (less diluted) than people usually drink) and meat that is half-cooked, like thieves (who fear to wait until it is fully cooked) eat.
(Rabah and Rav Yosef): If he ate salted meat or drank unfermented wine, he is exempt. (They are not addicting.)
(Mishnah): On Erev Tishah b'Av, one may not eat two different cooked dishes, nor eat meat or drink wine;
(Beraisa): He may eat salted meat or drink unfermented wine.
Question: When is meat considered salted (regarding Erev Tishah b'Av)?
Answer (R. Chanina bar Kahana): It is after the time allowed to eat Shelamim, i.e. two days.
Question: How long is wine considered unfermented?
Answer: It is as long as it is Toses (stings, because it is fermenting).
(Beraisa): We are not concerned if Toses wine was left uncovered (snakes do not drink it).
Question: How long is it considered Toses?
Answer: It is three days.
Question: Regarding Ben Sorer u'Moreh, when are meat and wine considered salted/unfermented?
Answer: On Erev Tishah b'Av we may not eat things that cause Simchah. Within two days (of slaughter), meat gives Simchah;
Here, he is liable for addicting meat and wine. Meat after a small delay (Rashi - one night), and wine until 40 days are not addicting.
THE USES AND RESULTS OF WINE
(R. Chanan): "Tenu Shechar l'Oved v'Yayin l'Marei Nafesh" - wine was created to console mourners and to give to Resha'im their reward in this world.
Question (R. Yitzchak): What is the meaning of "Al Tere Yayin Ki Yis'adam"?
Answer #1 (R. Yitzchak): Do not be drawn after wine, for it reddens the faces of Resha'im (gladdens them) in this world and whitens their face (shames them) in the world to come.
Answer #2 (Rava): Do not be drawn after wine, for Yis'adam (it leads to bloodshed).
Question (Rav Kahana): We read "Tirosh", but sometimes it is written "Tirash"!
Answer (Rav Kahana): If he merits, he will become the Rosh (head). If not, he will become Rash (poor).
Question (Rava): We read "Yesamach", and it is written (in a way that allows reading it) "Yeshamach"!
Answer (Rava): If he merits, it will gladden him. If not, it will make him Shamem (desolate).
(Rava): Wine and nice fragrances made me clever.
Question (Rav Amram brei d'Rav Shemen bar Aba): What do we learn from "l'Mi Oy l'Mi Avoy l'Mi Midyanim l'Mi Si'ach l'Mi Petza'im Chinam l'Mi Chachlilus Einayim; La'Me'acharim Al ha'Yayin."
Answer (Rav Amram): People who drink much wine suffer all these.
(Rav Dimi): In Eretz Yisrael, some expound this from beginning to end (like Rav Amram). Some expound it in reverse order (one who suffers all these should indulge in wine).
(Over Galila'ah): In the Parshah that discusses Noach's drunkenness, 13 words begin with 'Vov-Yud' (suggesting Vai, woe) - "va'Yachel Noach..."
(Rav or Shmuel): "Va'Yeda Es Asher Osah Lo Beno ha'Katan" - Cham castrated Noach.
(The other of Rav and Shmuel): He raped him.
The first opinion says that Cham prevented Noach from having a fourth son. This explains why Noach cursed Cham's fourth son;
The second opinion learns from a Gezerah Shavah "va'Yar-va'Yar":
It says here "va'Yar Cham", like it says (about the rape of Dinah) "va'Yar Osah Shechem."
Question: The first opinion explained why Noach cursed Cham's fourth son. According to the second opinion, why did he curse the fourth son?
Answer: The second opinion says that Cham raped and castrated Noach.
(Rav Chisda): "Va'Yachel Noach Ish ha'Adamah" - Hash-m told Noach, you should have learned from Adam ha'Rishon (who was created from earth). Wine was his downfall.
This is like the opinion that the Etz ha'Da'as was a grapevine.
(Beraisa - R. Meir): The Etz ha'Da'as was a vine, which brings more misery to the world than anything else.
R. Yehudah says, it was wheat. A child does not know to call to his parents until he tastes grain.
R. Nechemyah says, it was a fig tree. Their remedy ("va'Yisperu Ale Se'enah", clothes made from fig leaves) was from the same thing that they sinned with.
(R. Yochanan): "Divrei l'Mu'el... Asher Yisarto Imo" - Bas Sheva tied Shlomo to a beam and lashed him (for eating too much);
"Mah Bri..." - people know that your father was a Tzadik. They will assume that I am responsible for you!
"U'Mah Bar Bitni" - David would not have Bi'ah with his other wives when they were pregnant. I asserted myself, for this improves the fetus;
"U'Meh Bar Nedarai" - David's other wives (prayed and) vowed what they would do if they would have a son proper for kingship. I vowed in order that my son should be zealous, a Chacham, and proper for prophecy.
"Al la'Melachim Sheso Yayin" - why should you be with kings who drink, get drunk and renounce Hash-m?
Version #1: "Ul'Roznim Ei Shechar" - you know all the secrets of the world. Will you drink and get drunk?!
Version #2: "Ul'Roznim Ei Shechar" - those (the Sanhedrin) who engage in the secrets of the world, seek your counsel every day. Will you drink and get drunk?!
(R. Yitzchak): Shlomo admitted to his mother - "Ki Ba'ar Anochi...";
"Ki Ba'ar Anochi me'Ish" - I am more foolish than Noach, about whom it says "va'Yachel Noach Ish ha'Adamah";
"V'Lo Vinas Adam Li" - I lack the understanding of Adam ha'Rishon.
A MEAL THAT IS A MITZVAH OR TRANSGRESSION
(Mishnah): He ate with a group doing a Mitzvah...
(R. Amah): He is liable only if all the people he ate with are worthless.
Question (Mishnah): If he ate with a group doing a Mitzvah, he is exempt.
Inference: If they were not doing a Mitzvah, he is liable, even if they are not all worthless!
Answer: No. It teaches that even if they are all worthless, if the meal was a Mitzvah, he is exempt, for he will not become habituated to this.
(Mishnah): The meal to signify Ibur Chodesh.
Inference: This implies that they eat meat and wine at the meal of Ibur Chodesh.
Question (Beraisa): They bring only bread of grain and legumes to this meal.
Answer: The Mishnah teaches that even though they brought only bread of grain and legumes, and he brought meat and wine, since it is a Mitzvah, he will not become habituated.
(Beraisa): The meal of Ibur Chodesh must have at least 10 men. They bring only bread of grain and legumes. They enter (the place where they will eat) on the night after the 30th, at night, and not during the day.
Contradiction (Beraisa): They enter during the day, and not at night.
Answer: They enter during the day to publicize the matter. The meal itself is at night.
FOOD THAT IS A MITZVAH OR TRANSGRESSION
(Mishnah): If he ate (Rashi - meat and wine bought with money of) Ma'aser Sheni in Yerushalayim.
Since he eats it according to Halachah, he will not become habituated.
(Mishnah): If he ate Neveilos, Treifos, Shekatzim u'Rmasim.
(Rava): If he ate fowl, he is exempt.
Question (Mishnah): If he ate Neveilos, Treifos, Shekatzim u'Rmasim, he is exempt;
Inference: He is exempt for Shekatzim u'Rmasim because they are forbidden. If he ate Tehorim, he would be liable, even though they are not animals!
Answer: The Mishnah teaches that he is exempt even if he ate most of the Tartimar of meat, and completed the quantity with forbidden food. (Had he completed it with Tahor species, he would be liable. Rava exempts when he ate only (or mostly) fowl.)
(Mishnah): He ate something that is a Mitzvah or a transgression.
'A Mitzvah' is consolation of mourners. 'A transgression' is eating on a fast day.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: "Einenu Shome'a b'Koleinu", but he does not ignore what Hash-m says.
(Mishnah): If he ate many foods, but not meat; he drank many beverages, but not wine (he is exempt).
'If he ate many foods' includes dates of Ke'ilis (even though they intoxicate, they are not addicting);
'He drank many beverages' includes milk and honey.
(Beraisa): If one ate dates of Ke'ilis or drank milk and honey and entered the Mikdash, he is liable.