[70a - 51 lines; 70b - 42 lines]

1)[line 1] HA'KOL METZUYIN ETZLAH BA'AVEIRAH- all would be available to sin with her

2)[line 3] TARTEIMAR BASAR- a measure of meat equal to the weight of 50 silver Zuz coins (a half-Maneh; approximately half a pound or 212.5 grams)

3)[line 3] CHATZI LOG YAYIN HA'ITALKI- a half-Log of fine Italian wine (approximately 5 ounces / 148 ml, 5.7 ounces / 169 ml, or 10.15 ounces / 300 ml, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions)

4)[line 4] , MANEH BASAR, V'LOG YAYIN- a Maneh's weight of meat, and a Log of wine (i.e., double the amount of the previous two entries)

5)[line 5] CHABURAS MITZVAH- in [the company of] a group involved in a Mitzvah

6)[line 5] IBUR HA'CHODESH

(a)During the times of Chazal, the date of Rosh Chodesh was determined monthly, based on the testimony of witnesses. See Background to Sanhedrin 10:36.

(b)Our Mishnah follows the opinion of Rebbi Elazar bar Rebbi Tzadok (Sanhedrin 10a) that Kidush ha'Chodesh, an official proclamation by Beis Din, was only performed when the new moon was sighted, making the previous month deficient (29 days). No official proclamation was made if the moon was not sighted, and the previous month was thirty days (Me'uberes) by default.

(c)How, then, was the matter publicized? In the early evening following the 30th of the month, at least ten men would assemble in an upper story. They would partake of a simple meal of bread and beans, but would make a commotion and remain there the entire night. Passerby who saw and heard the proceedings would spread the word that the previous month had been a full thirty days, making that night and day Rosh Chodesh, as the Gemara will explain (Amud Beis).


(a)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.

(b)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth, and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.

(c)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. See entry #71 below.

8a)[line 7]NEVEILOS

A Neveilah is a carcass of an animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering (or that was slaughtered improperly). The Torah states, "You shall not eat anything that dies by itself (Neveilah). You shall give it to the stranger who is in your gates, that he may eat it, or you may sell it to a Nochri, for you are a holy people to HaSh-m, your El-kim" (Devarim 14:21). The flesh of a Neveilah is prohibited to be eaten, and a k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes an object Tamei through Maga (contact) and Masa (carrying).

b)[line 7]TEREIFOS

A Tereifah is a person or an animal that has acquired or was born with a fatal defect that will result in his or its death within a year. The signs of a Tereifah are described in Chulin 42a et seq. (There are some who maintain that a Tereifah can live for more than a year - see Chulin 42a-b.) An otherwise kosher animal that is found to be a Tereifah is rendered non-kosher.

c)[line 7]SHEKATZIM- non-kosher species of fowl

d)[line 7]REMASIM- creeping organisms, insects

9)[line 13]"[ , ;] ""[V'AMERU EL ZIKNEI IRO, BENEINU ZEH SORER U'MOREH, EINENU SHOME'A B'KOLEINU;] ZOLEL V'SOVEI"- "[And they shall say to the elders of his city, 'this son of ours is wayward and rebellious, he does not obey our voice;] he eats and drinks gluttonously'" (Devarim 21:20).

10)[line 13] AF AL PI SHE'EIN RE'AYAH LA'DAVAR- although there is no proof to this matter (that only one who indulges in meat is called a Zolel, and only though wine is one called a Sovei- RASHI)

11)[line 14]" , ""AL TEHI V'SOVE'EI YAYIN, B'ZOLELEI VASAR LAMO"- "Do not be among those who drink wine excessively, who gluttonize over meat for themselves" (Mishlei 23:20).

12)[line 17]ZOL- cheaply

13a)[line 19] BASAR CHAI- raw meat

b)[line 19] YAYIN CHAI- undiluted wine [in concentrated form and unfit to drink]

14a)[line 21] MAZIG V'LO MAZIG- diluted minimally (and therefore more habit-forming)

b)[line 21] BASHIL V'LO BASHIL- cooked minimally

15)[line 21] BESAR KIVA D'ACHLEI GANAVEI- meat singed upon coals, which bandits eat

16)[line 22] BASAR MALI'ACH- meat preserved by salting

17)[line 22] YAYIN MI'GITO- wine fresh from the vat (which has not yet had the chance to ferment, e.g. grape juice)


(a)In the afternoon of the 8th day of Av, in the last meal eaten before Tish'ah b'Av, one may not eat two cooked dishes, eat meat, or drink wine (Ta'anis 30a). The Gemara discusses the parameters of the meat and wine that are included in this prohibition. (It should be noted that today we refrain from all meat, wine, and even grape juice, starting from Rosh Chodesh Av, with the exception of Shabbos or a Se'udas Mitzvah. When Tish'ah b'Av is observed on Motza'ei Shabbos, meat, wine, and a full meal are permitted at Se'udah Shelishis on Shabbos afternoon.)

(b)The Gemara (ibid.) cites opinions that one should diminish his enjoyment and his company during this meal. Rebbi Yehudah would sit between the oven and stove, and consume only bread and water, as if his deceased lay before him.

19)[line 25] KOL ZEMAN SHE'HU KI'SHELAMIM- as long as it within the time-span that a Korban Shelamim is eaten (i.e., two days and the intervening night, it may not be eaten on Erev Tish'ah b'Av)

20)[line 26] KOL ZEMAN SHE'HU TOSES- as long as it is still bubbling, sour (i.e., in the early stages of fermentation, it is permitted)

21)[line 26]() []TANYA- the Beraisa states

22)[line 26]GILUY - Drinks or Food Left Open

It is prohibited mid'Rabanan to consume uncovered water, wine, milk, honey, or fish brine that was left unattended. This is because of the possibility that a poisonous snake drank from the water, leaving behind a residue of venom (see RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach u'Shemiras ha'Nefesh 11:5-16). This prohibition does not apply to wine during the first three days of its fermentation, since one may assume that the fermentation would scare away a snake.

23)[line 27] ?HACHA, MAI?- what is the Halachah here (regarding the meat that a Ben Sorer u'Moreh is liable for)?

24)[line 28] NAMI IS BEI SIMCHAH- there still is happiness in [eating] it. (Devarim 27:7 associates the consumption of a Korban Shelamim with Simchah - RASHI.)

25)[line 28] MI'SHUM IMSHUCHEI- because it is habit-forming

26)[line 28] B'CHOL SHE'HU LO MIMSHICH- even with a small amount [of time], it is no longer habit-forming (even if merely left overnight - RASHI)

27)[line 29] ' AD ARBA'IM YOM- until it has aged for forty days, [the Ben Sorer u'Moreh is exempt]

28)[line 29] L'NACHEM AVELIM- to comfort mourners (see Kesuvos 8b)

29)[line 29] L'SHALEM SACHAR LA'RESHA'IM- to give reward to the wicked [in this world, for the Mitzvos that they have done]

30)[line 30]" ""TENU SHECHAR L'OVED, V'YAYIN L'MAREI NAFESH"- "Give intoxicating drink to the [one who is to be] destroyed, and wine to the embittered souls" (Mishlei 31:6).

31)[line 31]" ; [ , ]""AL TEIRE YAYIN KI YIS'ADAM..."- "Do not seek wine, though it be red; [when he puts his eye on the cup, he (imagines to) walk on the straight path]" (Mishlei 23:31).

32)[line 31] MA'A'DIM PENEIHEM SHEL RESHA'IM- it reddens the faces of the wicked (i.e., gladdens them)

33)[line 31] MALBIN PENEIHEM- and pales their faces

34)[line 32] ACHARISO DAM- its end is blood[shed]

35)[line 33]"[ - ; ] ""[V'YITEN LECHA HA'EL-KIM MI'TAL HA'SHAMAYIM U'MISHMANEI HA'ARETZ; V'ROV DAGAN] V'SIROSH"- "[May G-d give you of the dew of the heavens, and the fatness of the earth, and much grain] and wine" (Bereishis 27:28).

36a)[line 33]ROSH- head

b)[line 33]RASH- impoverished

37)[line 34]"[] [ , ; ]""[V'YAYIN] YESAMACH [LEVAV ENOSH...]"- "[And wine] shall gladden [the heart of man, of shining face from oil; and bread will satiate man's heart]" (Tehilim 104:15).

38a)[line 34], ZACHAH, MESAMECHO- if he merits [and knows to drink in moderation], it gladdens him

b)[line 34] , LO ZACHAH, MESHAMEMEHU- if he did not merit, it desolates him

39)[line 35] CHAMRA V'REICHANEI PAKCHIN- wine and aromatic spices have made me wise

40)[line 36]" [ '] , . , ""L'MI OY, L'MI AVOY, L'MI MIDYANIM, L'MI SI'ACH, L'MI PETZA'IM CHINAM, L'MI CHACHLILUS ENAYIM. LA'ME'ACHARIM AL HA'YAYIN, LA'BA'IM LA'CHKOR MIMSACH"- "To whom [are cries of] woe? To whom are quarrels? To whom banter? To whom pointless wounds? To whom are reddened eyes? To those who stay late over wine, who come to investigate the drinks' blend" (Mishlei 23: 29-30).

41a)[line 38] , , ...HAI KRA, MAN D'DARISH LEI ME'REISHEI L'SEIFEI, MIDRISH- this (above) verse, one who interprets it forwards, it is well understood (i.e., much evil comes to those who drink excessively)

b)[line 39] , ...U'MI'SEIFEI L'REISHEI, MIDRISH- and backwards, it is [also] well understood (i.e., whomever has experienced much sorrow, quarreling, or is corpulent, may go and drink)

42)[line 39]" "SHELOSH ESREH "VAY"IN- the syllable "Vay," (lit. "Woe!) is stated thirteen times

43)[line 39]"1) 2) . 3) 4) 5) . 6) 7) . 8) 9) 10) 11) ; [ ]. 12) 13) ""VA'YACHEL NO'ACH ISH HA'ADAMAH, VA'YITA KAREM. VA'YESHT MIN HA'YAYIN, VA'YISHKAR; VA'YISGAL B'SOCH AHOLOH. VA'YAR CHAM AVI CHENA'AN ES ERVAS AVIV, VA'YAGED LI'SHNEI ECHAV BA'CHUTZ. VA'YIKACH SHEM VA'YEFES ES HA'SIMLAH, VA'YASIMU AL SHECHEM SHNEIHEM, VA'YEILECHU ACHORANIS, VA'YECHASU ES ERVAS AVIHEM; U'FENEIHEM... VA'YIKETZ NO'ACH MI'YEINO, VA'YEDA ES ASHER ASAH LO BENO HAKATAN"- "1) And Noach, man of the earth started out; 2) and planted a vineyard. 3) And he drank of the wine 4) and became intoxicated, 5) and became uncovered in his tent. 6) And Cham, father of Kena'an, saw the nakedness of his father; 7) and he told his two brothers outside. 8) And Shem and Yefes took the garment, 9) and they placed it on both their shoulders, 10) and they walked backwards, 11) and they covered their father's nakedness; and their faces [were backwards, and they did not see their father's nakedness]. 12) And Noach awoke from his wine, 13) and he knew what his younger son had done to him" (Bereishis 9:20-24).

44a)[line 44]SERESO- he castrated him

b)[line 44]RIVE'O- he sodomized him

45a)[line 44] MI'TOCH SHE'KILKELO BI'REVI'I- because he ruined him [and prevented his having a] fourth son

b)[line 44] KILELO BA'REVI'I- Noach cursed him [Cham] by his fourth son [Kena'an]

46)[line 46]" [ , ]""VA'YAR OSAH SHECHEM BEN CHAMOR [...VA'YIKACH OSAH VA'YISHKAV OSAH VAY'ANEHA]"- "And Shechem, son of Chamor [the Chivite, prince of the land,] saw her; [and he took her and lay with her and afflicted her]" (Bereishis 34:2).

47)[line 47] N'LATYEI B'HEDYA- let him curse [Cham] outright!

48)[line 47] HA V'HA HAVA'I- [he committed] both this and that [offense]

49)[line 49] ?LO HAYAH LECHA LI'LMOD ME'ADAM HA'RISHON?- Shouldn't you have learned from the [sin and resulting punishment of] Adam ha'Rishon? [This is hinted to when the Torah refers to Noach as Ish ha'Adamah - RASHI.]


50)[line 1]YELALAH- wailing

51)[line 3] AD SHE'YIT'OM TA'AM DAGAN- until he tastes grain [this explains why the tree was called the "Tree of Knowledge" - RASHI)

52)[line 4] SHEBA'DAVAR SHEKILKELU BO NITKENU- (a) with the instrument that they were punished, they were healed - RASHI; (b) [only] using the object with which they sinned, were they able to repair [the damage]

53)[line 5]"[ , ;] [ ]""... VA'YISPERU ALEH SE'ENAH, [VA'YA'ASU LAHEM CHAGOROS]"- "[And the eyes of both of them were opened, and they understood that were naked;] and they sewed a fig leaf, [and made for themselves girdles]" (Bereishis 3:7).

54)[line 6]" , ""DIVREI LEMU'EL MELECH, MASA ASHER YISERATU IMO"- "The words of King 'Lemuel' (lit. 'for HaSh-m'), the prophetic words that his mother chastised him" (Mishlei 31:1).

55)[line 8] KEFA'ATO IMO AL HA'AMUD- she bound him onto the whipping-post

56)[line 8]" , ; ""MAH BERI, U'MAH BAR BITNI; U'MEH BAR NEDARAI?"- "What [have you done], my son? And what, son of my bosom? And what, son of my vows?" (ibid. v. 2).

57)[line 11] IMO GAREMAH LO- it was his mother who caused him [to act this way]

58)[line 12] KEIVAN SHE'MIS'ABERES- once they became pregnant

59)[line 14] BEN MEZURAZ U'MELUBAN- a robust and whitened child

60)[line 17] HAGUN LI'NEVI'US- fit for prophecy

61)[line 17]" , ; ""AL LA'MELACHIM, LEMO'EL, AL LA'MELACHIM SHESO YAYIN; UL'ROZENIM, 'EY SHECHAR'"- "It is not for kings, Lemoel, not for kings to drink wine; nor for rulers [to say] 'where is intoxicating drink?'" (Mishlei 31:4).

62a)[line 19] RAZEI OLAM- the world's secrets

b)[line 20] ROZENEI OLAM- the world's rulers

63)[line 21]" , ""KI VA'AR ANOCHI ME'ISH, V'LO VINAS ADAM LI"- "For I am more foolish than man ('Ish'), nor do I have human wisdom ('Adam')" (Mishlei 30:2).

64)[line 24] B'CHABURAH SHE'KULAH SERIKIN- in company that was completely empty [of virtue]

65)[line 27] ?L'MEIMERA D'VASAR V'YAYIN MASKU?- do you mean to say that they bring up meat and wine [to the Ibur ha'Chodesh meal] (see entry #6 above)?

66)[line 28] PAS DAGAN V'KITNIS BILVAD- grain bread and legumes only

67)[line 28] V'IHU ASIK BASAR V'YAYIN, V'ACHAL- and [the Ben Sorer u'Moreh] brought up meat and wine, and consumed it

68)[line 31] L'OHR IBURO- the evening [following] its fullness (i.e., following the thirtieth day - RASHI)

69a)[line 33] ACHARIFU V'ULU- hasten and ascend [while it is still day]

b)[line 33] ACHARIFU U'FUKU- hasten and leave [in the morning, so it will be obvious that you spent the entire night there]

70)[line 33] KI HEICHI D'LISHME'U VECHU INSHI- so that people will hear (i.e., take notice of) you

71)[line 34] KEIVAN D'CHI URECHEI HU D'KA ACHIL LEI- because he eats [the Ma'aser Sheni] in the normal manner (as described by the verse, "And you may spend the money for anything that your soul desires, for cattle, for sheep, for wine or for other intoxicating beverage, or for anything for which your soul desires..." (Devarim 14:26).)

72)[line 36] ...HA TEHORIN...- ["Shekatzim" implies forbidden species of fowl,] this implies that if he ate permitted [species]...

73)[line 37]L'HASHLIM- to complete the [prohibited] quantity

74)[line 38] TANCHUMEI AVELIM- a meal eaten to comfort mourners (wine was consumed at such a meal; see Kesuvos 8b)

75)[line 39]"", "B'KOLENU," V'LO B'KOLO SHEL MAKOM- [the Ben Sorer u'Moreh is liable for disobeying] "our voice;" this exclude [a case of disobeying] the voice of HaSh-m

76)[line 41] DEVEILAH KE'ILIS- preserved figs from Ke'ilah, a town in the lowland district of Judea, which are intoxicating

77)[last line] , []V'NICHNAS LA'MIKDASH, [CHAYAV]- and [the Kohen] then entered to the Beis ha'Mikdash to perform Avodah, [he is liable to receive Malkus for performing the Avodah while intoxicated - see Background to Kerisus 12:13]