[113a - 59 lines; 113b - 10 lines]
1)[line 3]אפילו דעלמא נמיAFILU D'ALMA NAMI- even [food purchased with money of Ma'aser Sheni] of an ordinary city [that was not an Ir ha'Nidachas becomes Tamei]
2)[line 13]כל מקום שאתה מוצא כלל בעשה ופרט בלא תעשה אין דנין אותו בכלל ופרטKOL MAKOM SHE'ATAH MOTZEI KLAL B'ASEH, U'FRAT B'LO TA'ASEH, EIN DANIN OSO B'CHLAL U'FRAT - any time you find a generalization expressed as a positive commandment, followed by a specification expressed as a negative commandment, we do not expound it as an ordinary Klal u'Frat (KLAL U'FRAT EIN B'CHLAL ELA MAH SHEB'FRAT)
(a)In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is Klal u'Frat Ein b'Chlal Ela Mah sheb'Frat.
(b)This rule states that when the Torah records a Halachah using a generalization, and then follows that generalization with a specific case or instance wherein that Halachah applies, then the latter expression is accepted as primary, and the Halachah is applicable only in that specific case or instance.
(c)In the Gemara here, Rebbi Avin says that wherever a Klal (generality) is given in a Mitzvas Aseh, and a Prat (detail) in a Lo Ta'aseh, we do not expound according to the rule of Klal u'Frat. (Here, the general command to leave the burnt ruins of the Ir ha'Nidachas as an eternal heap would not necessarily be limited to the specific injunction not to build on the site.)
3)[line 21]"והיתה העיר חרם היא וכל אשר בה לה' [רק רחב הזונה תהיה היא וכל אשר אתה בבית, כי החבאתה את המלאכים אשר שלחנו]""V'HAYESAH HA'IR CHEREM HI V'CHOL ASHER BAH LA'SH-M; [RAK RACHAV HA'ZONAH TICHYEH HI V'CHOL ASHER ITAH BA'BAYIS KI HECHBE'ASAH ES HA'MAL'ACHIM ASHER SHALACHNU]" - "And the city (Yericho) shall be utterly destroyed, it and all that is in it, for HaSh-m. [Only Rachav the inn-keeper shall live, she and all who are with her in the house, because she hid the messengers that we sent]" (Yehoshua 6:17) (THE JEWS ARRIVE AT YERICHO)
(a)These words were said to Yehoshua on the last day of the siege of Yericho, the first city to be attacked in the conquest of Kena'an. The army had just encircled the city of Yericho six times, once each day from Sunday to Friday, while seven Kohanim walked in front of the Aron blowing Shofaros.
(b)On the seventh day (Shabbos), Yehoshua commanded them to do the same thing seven times. This time, however, after the Kohanim had blown the final Teki'ah Gedolah, all of the people were to blow a Teru'ah, at which point HaSh-m would deliver the city into their hands. He warned them that the entire city was to be a Cherem for HaSh-m, and all of the people in it were to be killed (with the sole exception of Rachav ha'Zonah and her family). All objects of value were to be given over to the treasury of Hekdesh while the rest of the town was to be utterly destroyed.
(c)The people obeyed the instructions. They killed every man, woman, child, ox, sheep and donkey, and they handed over all the valuables that they captured to Bedek ha'Bayis. Achan, however, could not resist the temptation, and he helped himself to a beautiful coat, silver and gold which he hid in his tent. They also razed the city to the ground, and Yehoshua issued a curse on whoever would rebuild Yericho (see next entry).
4)[line 21]"וישבע יהושע בעת ההיא לאמר; ארור האיש לפני ה' אשר יקום ובנה את העיר הזאת את יריחו, בבכורו יְיַסְּדֶנָּה ובצעירו יציב דלתיה""VA'YASHBA YEHOSHUA BA'ES HA'HI LEIMOR: ARUR HA'ISH LIFNEI HASH-M ASHER YAKUM U'BANAH ES HA'IR HA'ZOS ES YERICHO. BI'VECHORO YEYASDENAH, UVI'TZE'IRO YATZIV DELASEHAH"- "And Yehoshua adjured [the people] on that day saying: Cursed be the man before HaSh-m who rises up and rebuilds this city Yericho. With his firstborn son will he lay the foundation, and with his youngest son will he set up the doors" (Yehoshua 6:26).
5)[line 25]"[בימיו] בנה חיאל בית האלי את יריחו באבירם בכורו יסדה ובשגוב צעירו הציב דלתיה [כדבר ה' אשר דבר ביד יהושע בן נון]""[B'YAMAV] BANAH CHI'EL BEIS HA'ELI ES YERICHO; BA'AVIRAM BECHORO YISDAH UV'SEGUV TZE'IRO HITZIV DELASEHAH, [KI'DVAR HASH-M ASHER DIBER B'YAD YEHOSHUA BIN NUN]" - "[In his (Achav's) days,] Chi'el from Beis El rebuilt Yericho; with Aviram his firstborn he lay the foundation-stone, and with his youngest son Seguv he set up its doors, [like the word of HaSh-m that He spoke through Yehoshua bin Nun]" (Melachim I 16:34) (CHI'EL BEIS HA'ELI)
(a)Some commentaries explain the term "Beis ha'Eli" not "from Beis El" but "the house of the curse," because Chi'el took upon himself the curse of Yehoshua (see previous two entries).
(b)The Chachamim explain that Chi'el was actually from the tribe of Binyamin, and Yericho belonged to the territory of Yehoshafat, king of Yehudah. Why does the verse associate Chi'el's act with the reign of Achav, who was the king of Yisrael? The reason is that the verse prefers to associate a curse with sinners.
(c)This was not Chi'el's last rebellious act. The Midrash explains that when Eliyahu built the Mizbe'ach on Har ha'Carmel and confronted the 250 prophets of Ba'al, Chi'el attempted to trick the Navi by placing an agent underneath the Mizbe'ach of the false prophets and providing him with the means to set fire to their bull from inside the Mizbe'ach at the time he would give the signal to light it. Their plan failed due to the fact that a snake bit him and he died. This confrontation took place on Har ha'Carmel, in the north of Eretz Yisrael, in the territory of Achav.
6)[line 32]מקבר והולךMEKAVER V'HOLECH- Chi'el kept on burying one son after another
7)[line 33]שושביניה הוהSHUSHVINEI HAVAH- he (Achav) was a close friend of his (Chi'el's)
8)[line 34]למשאל בשלמאL'MISH'AL BI'SHLAMA- to seek the welfare of (to pay a condolence call to)
9)[line 34]בי טמיאBEI TAMYA- (a) a house of mourning; (b) alt. Girsa BEI TA'AMA - a house where they provide words of reason to comfort the mourner
10)[line 37]לווטתאLEVATSA- the curse of
11)[line 40]תלםTELEM- a furrow
12)[line 41]מיטראMITRA- rain
13)[line 41]מסגד ליהMISGAD LEI- to bow down to it (the idol)
14)[line 42]"ויאמר אליהו התשבי מתושבי גלעד [אל אחאב] חי ה' א-לקי ישראל [אשר עמדתי לפניו] אם יהיה [השנים] האלה טל ומטר [כי אם לפי דברי]""VA'YOMER ELIYAHU HA'TISHBI MI'TOSHVEI GIL'AD [EL ACHAV], 'CHAI HASH-M EL-KEI YISRAEL [ASHER AMADTI LEFANAV] IM YIHEYEH [HA'SHANIM HA'ELEH] TAL U'MATAR [KI IM LEFI DEVARAI]"- "And Eliyahu ha'Tishbi, a resident of Gil'ad, said [to Achav], 'By the life of HaSh-m, the G-d of Yisrael, [before whom I stood,] that there will not be dew and rain [during these years], except through my command' " (Melachim I 17:1).
15)[line 44]אקלידא דמטראAKLIDA D'MITRA- the key of rain
16)[line 45]"ויהי דבר ה' אליו לאמור לך מזה ופנית לך קדמה ונסתרת בנחל כרית [אשר על פני הירדן]""VA'YEHI DEVAR HASH-M ELAV LEIMOR, LECH MI'ZEH U'FANISA LECHA KEDMAH, V'NISTARTA B'NACHAL KRIS [ASHER AL PENEI HA'YARDEN]" - "And the word of HaSh-m came to him, saying, 'Go from here and turn eastwards, and hide beside the River Kris [which is in front of the Jordan River']" (Melachim I 17:2-3) (ELIYAHU IS TOLD TO FLEE)
(a)This episode follows a meeting that took place between Eliyahu and Achav in the house of Chi'el of Beis El, where they had both arrived to comfort Chi'el on the loss of his youngest son.
(b)Yehoshua had decreed that whoever rebuilds Yericho (the first town to be captured during the conquest of Kena'an) would lose his firstborn son when placing the foundation-stone, and his youngest son when building the door of the city (see above, entries #3-5). Chi'el was the first person to violate Yehoshua's decree, and so his youngest son died.
(c)Achav expressed surprise that the curse of the Talmid, Yehoshua, came true, whereas the curse of the Rebbi, Moshe Rabeinu, did not.
(d)That was when Eliyahu took upon himself to sanctify HaSh-m's Name. He decreed that no rain would fall until he would rescind the decree.
17)[line 46]"העורבים מביאים לו לחם ובשר בבקר [ולחם ובשר בערב ומן הנחל ישתה]""V'HA'ORVIM MEVI'IM LO LECHEM U'VASAR BA'BOKER, [V'LECHEM U'VASAR BA'EREV, U'MIN HA'NACHAL YISHTEH]"- "The ravens brought him bread and meat each morning, [and bread and meat each evening, and he drank from the river]" (Melachim I 17:6). See entry #19 below.
18)[line 47]מבי טבחיMI'BEI TAVCHEI- from the slaughterhouse
19)[line 50]"יהי דבר ה' אליו לאמור קום לך צרפתה [אשר לצידון וישבת שם הנה צויתי שם אשה אלמנה לכלכלך]""VA'YEHI DEVAR HASH-M ELAV LEIMOR, 'KUM LECH TZORFATAH [ASHER L'TZIDON V'YASHAVTA SHAM. HINEH TZIVISI SHAM ES ISHAH ALMANAH L'CHALKELECHA']" - "And the word of HaSh-m came to me saying, 'Get up and go to Tzorfat [which is in Tzidon, and stay there. Behold, I have commanded [the heavenly hosts to arrange for] a widow there to sustain you" (Melachim I 17:8-9) (ELIYAHU FLEES TO THE HOUSE OF A WOMAN IN TZORFAS)
(a)After Eliyahu was forced to flee from the wrath of Achav and his wicked wife Izevel, HaSh-m instructed Eliyahu to flee to the River Kris. The water of the river would provide Eliyahu with drink, while HaSh-m ordered the ravens to bring him food.
(b)After the Great Flood in the times of Noach, HaSh-m promised the raven that he would be HaSh-m's agent to sustain Eliyahu when the need would arise.
(c)Why was Eliyahu permitted to eat the meat that the ravens brought? He did not know who slaughtered the animals and prepared the meat. The Gemara explains that the ravens brought the meat from the butchery of Achav, king of Yisrael. Although Achav himself was an idolater, his sevants were Tzadikim. According to the Midrash, the ravens refused to enter the wicked Achav's home, so they brought the meat from the butchery of the righteous Yehoshafat, king of Yehudah.
(d)After a short time, however, the river dried up, and Eliyahu was forced to move again. This was HaSh-m's strategy to force Eliyahu, with whom He had entrusted the key to rain, to decree that the rain return. HaSh-m was upset that the people of Yisrael were suffering and even dying due to the famine, so He made it uncomfortable for Eliyahu.
(e)Arriving in Tzorfas (a city in Eretz Yisrael) and not knowing the widow to whom HaSh-m had referred, Eliyahu did as Eliezer, the servant of Avraham Avinu, did, and searched for a woman who would serve him water. When he saw a woman collecting wood, he asked her for a little water in her container to drink. When she replied positively, he asked her for a slice of bread. She replied that she had nothing in the house except for a spoonful of flour in a jar and a little oil in a bottle, and that she was collecting some wood to light a fire in order to bake a small cake for her and her son.
(f)Eliyahu instructed her to continue to do as she had spoken, but that she should first bake a small cake for him. He assured her in the Name of HaSh-m that "the jar of flour would not become empty and the bottle of oil would not terminate until the day that HaSh-m would send rain." She obeyed the Navi's instructions and merited to benefit from the flour and the oil for a long period, just as he had promised her.
(g)Eliyahu still held the key to rain and did nothing to rescind his decree, until HaSh-m forced him to return the key to Him (see next entry).
20)[line 51]"ויהי אחר הדברים האלה חלה בן האשה בעלת הבית [ויהי חליו חזק מאד עד אשר לא נותרה בו נשמה]""VA'YEHI ACHAR HA'DEVARIM HA'ELEH, CHALAH BEN HA'ISHAH BA'ALAS HA'BAYIS, [VA'YEHI CHOLYO CHAZAK ME'OD AD ASHER LO NOSRAH BO NESHAMAH]" - "And it came to pass after these things, that the son of the woman the Ba'alas ha'Bayis became ill; [his illness was very serious, until there was no more breath left in him]" (Melachim I 17:17) (ELIYAHU REVIVES THE DEAD)
(a)This verse begins the description of the strategy which HaSh-m employed to force Eliyahu, who currently held the key for rain and who refused to ease the three-year drought to relinquish his control over the fall of rain. Based on the fact that under no circumstances does HaSh-m allow more than one of the three keys (the key for rain, the key for Techiyas ha'Mesim, and the key to childbirth) out of His jurisdiction, He brought about a situation in which Eliyahu would require the key to Techiyas ha'Mesim, the revival of the dead. To obtain that key, he was forced to return the key of rain, enabling HaSh-m to send rain to the starving nation.
(b)When the Tzorfatis woman confronted Eliyahu, she blamed him for the death of her son, because he had revealed her deficiencies. That is, before he had arrived, she had been considered a Tzadekes, compared to the other people of her town, who was worthy of a miracle. Now that Eliyahu was there, her righteousness was no longer recognizable.
(c)Eliyahu's response was to take the dead child up to the attic. There, he asked HaSh-m why He was not satisfied with punishing him personally to make him wander, but that He also saw fit to punish the woman who had taken him into her home and sustained him. He then placed his body on top of the boy three times and offered a short prayer to HaSh-m, beseeching Him to revive the boy, which He did. He then took the boy downstairs and presented him to his mother, who was now convinced beyond a doubt that Eliyahu was a genuine prophet. Meanwhile, Eliyahu had relinquished control over the key to rain, which now returned to HaSh-m.
21)[line 56]"[ויהי ימים רבים ודבר ה' היה אל אליהו בשנה השלישית לאמור] לך הראה אל אחאב ואתנה מטר [על פני האדמה]""[VA'YEHI YAMIM RABIM U'DEVAR HASH-M HAYAH EL ELIYAHU BA'SHANAH HA'SHELISHIS LEIMOR:] LECH HERA'EH EL ACHAV V'ETNAH MATAR AL PENEI HA'ADAMAH" - "[And it was after many days, that the word of HaSh-m came to Eliyahu, in the third year (of the famine, and He said):] Go and show yourself to Achav, and I will give rain on the surface of the earth" (Melachim I 18:1) (ELIYAHU GIVES BACK THE KEY TO RAIN)
(a)After three years of severe draught, many people were drawn to Teshuvah, besides the seven thousand who had not bent their knees in prostration to Ba'al in the first place (RADAK).
(b)HaSh-m had mercy on the Jewish people and brought about a situation whereby Eliyahu would need the key to Techiyas ha'Mesim, for which he would have to return the key to rain, allowing HaSh-m to send rain to the nation. (See previous entry.)
22)[line 58]דטרקיה לגליהD'TARKEI L'GALEI- that he locked the gate
23)[line 59]אבא אליהוABA ELIYAHU- literally, father Eliyahu. The word "father" is used as a term of reverence and affection.
24)[line 1]קפדןKAPDAN- a person who gets offended and will not let an affront or provocation pass. Achav acted with impunity when he remarked that he was able to worship idols. Eliyahu was so outraged that he caused a terrible drought to descend upon Eretz Yisrael. According to the RAMBAM (Shemoneh Perakim #7), it was for this reason that HaSh-m took Eliyahu from the world shortly thereafter.
25)[line 1]איכסי מיניהICHSEI MINEI- he (Eliyahu) hid himself from him (Rebbi Yosi)
26)[line 3]הא דקמן דקא קפיד מרHA D'KAMAN D'KA KAPID MAR- for this incident the master took offense.
27)[line 6]חרוןCHARON- wrath
HADRAN ALACH KOL YISRAEL YESH LAHEM CHELEK U'SELIKA MASECHES SANHEDRIN
TAM V'NISHLAM SHEVACH LA'KEL BOREI OLAM