[87a - 37 lines; 87b - 37 lines]
1)[line 1]במופלא שבבית דיןMUFLA SHEB'VEIS DIN- a renowned Torah sage who is an expert judge (According to the RAMBAM Hilchos Mamrim 3:8 he must have Semichah (Halachic ordination). However, it appears that RASHI has no such requirement; as long as he is fit to be a judge ("Ra'uy l'Hora'ah") and has reached the age of forty, he can become a Zaken Mamrei - YOSEF DA'AS.)
2)[line 2]יועץYO'ETZ - adding an extra (thirteenth) month to the year, one of the categories of Halachah to which the law of Zaken Mamrei applies; that is, if he argues with a ruling of the Sanhedrin in this category of Halachah, he can be punished as a Zaken Mamrei (IBUR SHANIM)
(a)A solar year is approximately eleven days longer than a lunar year (see Background to Sanhedrin 10:36). In order to ensure that the lunar months occur in the proper seasons, Beis Din will declare a Shanah Me'uberes (leap year) every 2-3 years. A Shanah Me'uberes has thirteen months instead of twelve. The extra month is an additional month of Adar; the second Adar is the one in which Purim is observed (i.e., the first Adar is the extra month). The decision to make the year Me'uberes must be made prior to accepting witnesses for the sanctification of the month (see Background to Sanhedrin ibid.) that follows Adar. If the year is to be a leap year, then it is declared Adar ha'Sheni; if not, then it is declared Nisan. (In the current fixed calendar, a Shanah Me'uberes occurs seven times in every nineteen-year cycle.)
(b)The principle consideration in adding an extra month to the year is to insure that Pesach falls in the season of Aviv (spring; lit. "ripening grain") (see Devarim 16:1). Beis Din determines the time of Aviv based upon the following three variables:
1.The vernal equinox. If the spring equinox will fall on the 16th of Nisan or later (i.e., on the day of the Omer offering it will still be winter), then that month should be declared Adar ha'Sheni instead.
2.The next two variables are interrelated. The Chachamim first observe the development of the ripening grain (Aviv) in the districts of Yehudah, Ever ha'Yarden, and the Galil.
3.The Chachamim then observe the timely blossoming of the fruit trees, and reckon whether or not those fruits which are normally ripe when Pesach arrives will have ripened. If the grain and fruits are each late in two out of the three aforementioned districts, then the month is declared Adar ha'Sheni, even if the equinox would fall before the 16th of Nisan.
(c)Besides the principal signs mentioned above, the Chachamim list four more reasons to add an extra month, based upon necessity:
1.If the roads are impassable and will prevent the Diaspora Jews from getting to the Beis ha'Mikdash in time for the Pesach sacrifice.
2.If bridges are washed out and the journey is impossible or dangerous for the Diaspora Jews.
3.If the Diaspora Jews have started their journey, but will not arrive in Yerushalayim on time.
4.If the ovens that were meant to be used for roasting the Pesach sacrifices in Yerushalayim were destroyed during the rainy season, and there are no substitutes for them (RAMBAM Hilchos Kidush ha'Chodesh 4:1-5).
3)[line 2]"ממך יצא חושב על ה' רעה יועץ בליעל""MIMECH YATZA CHOSHEV AL HASH-M RA'AH, YO'ETZ BELIYA'AL"- "From you came out one who plotted evil against HaSh-m, and counseled villainy" (Nachum 1:11) - In this verse the word "Mimech" (similar to "Mimecha") is used together with "Yo'etz."
4)[line 3]הלכהHALACHAH- the laws passed orally to Moshe Rabeinu at Mount Sinai (Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai. If a Torah sage argues with a ruling of the Sanhedrin regarding a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai, he can be punished as a Zaken Mamrei.
5)[line 4]הדיןHA'DIN - (lit. the law) this word actually refers to the exegetical method known as "Gezeirah Shavah." If a Torah sage argues with a ruling of the Sanhedrin regarding a Halachah learned from a Gezeirah Shavah, he can be punished as a Zaken Mamrei (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH)
(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is Gezeirah Shavah, which is a Halachic device by which two similar words in the Torah from different subjects teach that laws from one subject apply to the other.
(b)A sage is only permitted to use the method of Gezeirah Shavah if he received a tradition from his teachers that a Gezeirah Shavah exists between the two words. However, the comparison that he makes regarding which laws are applied from one subject to the other may be his own, if he did not learn it directly from his teachers.
(c)MUFNEH MI'SHENEI TZEDADIM - If two similar words in the Torah are free of any Derashah, they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezeirah Shavah between the two topics.
(d)MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If only one of the words is free, there is a Machlokes whether they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezeirah Shavah (Lemedin v'Ein Meshivin), or if they can only be used for a Gezeirah Shavah if we have no logical argument against learning the Gezeirah Shavah (Lemedin u'Meshivin).
(e)EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If both words are used for another Derashah, there is a Machlokes whether they can only be used for a Gezeirah Shavah if we have no logical argument not to learn the Gezeirah Shavah, or if they cannot be used at all for a Gezeirah Shavah.
6a)[line 4]דם נדהDAM NIDAH
By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she immerses in a Mikvah to become Tehorah. (The current practice is to consider all women who have a show of blood to be a Zavah, and therefore they must have seven clean days before they go to the Mikvah.
b)[line 4]דם לידהDAM LEIDAH (YOLEDES)
(a)In Vayikra 12:1-8, the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. (The same Halachos apply to a woman who miscarries after the fetus has reached a certain stage of development.) After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages:
1.During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is known as a "Tevulas Yom Aroch" (a "long" Tevulas Yom - see Background to Nidah 71:23b), and she is permitted to her husband and to eat Ma'aser Sheni.
2.During the second stage, any bleeding that she experiences does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. This blood is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Terumah, Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even if she experiences bleeding during the period of Dam Tohar - see Insights to Nidah 25a.)
(b)Any bleeding that the woman experiences after the conclusion of the above two terms is the start of her regular cycle (Dam Nidah).
(c)At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
c)[line 4]דם זיבהDAM ZIVAH (ZAVAH)
(a)The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah (see above, entry #6a) are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, whether the bleeding is b'Ones (due to an external cause, see Background to Bava Kama 24:5:b) or not, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah.
(b)If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah during the day to become Tehorah. She may even immerse on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom, because she must watch the following day to confirm whether or not she sees blood.
(c)If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11 days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she has no other show of blood. On the morning of the seventh clean day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Vayikra 15:25-30).
7a)[line 6]נגעי אדםNIG'EI ADAM
(a)When a Jew develops a mark on his body the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) that looks like the skin disease of Tzara'as, a Kohen must be summoned to ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. (Depending on the type of mark, this is determined by different factors - see below, (b).) The Kohen inspects the mark during the day, but not in bright sunshine and not under conditions that obstruct the sunlight, such as a cloudy day or a darkened room. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen pronounces him Tamei, initiating a one or two-week period of quarantine or "Hesger" (depending on the type of blemish). During this period, he is known as a Metzora Musgar. If no "Simanei Tum'ah" (signs of Tum'ah - see below, (b)) appear in the mark during that time, the Kohen pronounces the Metzora Musgar to have become Tahor. If Simanei Tum'ah do appear in the mark at the end of the first or second week of Hesger - or even when the Kohen first sees the Nega or after the Metzora has become Tahor - the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah go away, after which the Kohen pronounces him to have become Tahor.
(b)There are four types of blemishes that constitute Neg'ei Tzara'as that affect a Jewish person: Nig'ei Basar; Shechin or Michvah; Nesek; Karachas or Gabachas.
1.NIG'EI BASAR refers to Tzara'as that affects normal skin. It appears as a white blotch of one of four bright shades of white, sometimes with some red mixed in. The period of Hesger for Nig'ei Basar is two weeks. A Kohen inspects the Nega at the end of each week, and at the end of the two-week period he declares the Metzora to be either Tahor or Muchlat. The signs of Tum'ah for Nig'ei Basar are:
i.the lesion spreads ("Pisyon");
ii.two or more white hairs ("Se'ar Lavan") grow inside the lesion after it appears on the skin;
iii.a patch of normal looking skin ("Michyah"), measuring two by two hairs or more, appears in middle of the Nega.
2.SHECHIN or MICHVAH refer to the Tzara'as of a boil or a burn. It appears as a white blotch of one of four bright shades of white, sometimes with red mixed in, that develops over a partially healed pustule, boil or blister produced by non-fire heat or by friction (in the case of Shechin), or over a burn produced by the heat of a fire (in the case of Michvah). The period of quarantine for Shechin and Michvah is only one week, after which the Kohen declares the Metzora either Tahor or Muchlat. (The Halachos of Shechin and Michvah are identical. They are distinct only in that a half-Gris of one of them does not combine with a half-Gris of the other to make a person Tamei (Nega'im 9:2). Their signs of Tum'ah are:
i.the mark spreads (Pisyon);
ii.two or more white hairs (Se'ar Lavan) grow inside the mark after the Nega Tzara'as appears.
3.NESEK (pl. Nesakim) refers to Tzara'as that appears beneath the hair of the scalp or beard. According to most Rishonim, a Nesek appears as normal skin that is revealed when a cluster of hair (measuring the size of a Gris) falls out from parts of the scalp or beard that are normally covered with hair, such that a bald spot without even two normal hairs is created (see RAMBAN to Vayikra 13:29). The period of Hesger for a Nesek is two weeks. At the beginning of the Hesger, the Kohen shaves the hair surrounding the Nesek, only leaving a two-hair-thick ring around the Nesek. A Kohen inspects the Nesek at the end of each week, and at the end of the two-week period he declares the Metzora to be either Tahor or Muchlat. The signs of Tum'ah or Taharah of a Nesek are:
i.the Nesek spreads ("Pisyon") - that is, more hair falls out around the periphery of the original Nesek;
ii.two or more thin, golden hairs ("Se'ar Tzahov Dak") grow inside the Nesek after it appears on the skin.
iii.Nesek, unlike the other Nega'im, also has a Siman Taharah, which can make it Tahor at any time: If normal, black hairs grow in the Nesek, the Kohen pronounces the Metzora to be Tahor.
4.KARACHAS or GABACHAS refer to Tzara'as that affects a completely bald scalp (which became bald through exposure to a balding agent, or through a normal balding process - see RASH to Nega'im 10:10A and RAMBAN to Vayikra 13:29), either in the fore part of the head (Gabachas) or the back part of the head (Karachas). Their Halachos are identical to those of Nig'ei Basar (above, 1) that appear on a normal, non-hairy part of the skin, except that it lacks the Siman Tum'ah of Se'ar Lavan (since it is on a part of the body on which hair does not grow). (The Halachos of Karachas and Gabachas are identical. They are distinct only in that a half-Gris of one of them does not combine with a half-Gris of the other to make a person Tamei, Nega'im 10:10.)
(c)The names and colors of four types of marks that make a person a Metzora through Nig'ei Basar, Shechin or Michvah and Karachas or Gabachas are:
1.Baheres, which is the color of snow;
2.Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool;
3.Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash;
4.Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg. (For a full discussion of the process by which a Metzora becomes Tahor, see Background to Kidushin 35:24.)
b)[line 6]נגעי בתיםNIG'EI BATIM - Tzara'as that infects houses
(a)The marks of Tzara'as for houses consist of intense green or intense red streaks or spots that are at least the size of two Gerisin (a Gris is a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) (Nega'im 12:3). If Tzara'as is found on the walls of a house, it is put into quarantine by a Kohen for a week. Before the Kohen puts the house into quarantine, he commands that the house be emptied of its contents to prevent its utensils from becoming Tamei.
(b)The Torah states (Vayikra 14:39) "v'Shav ha'Kohen," to prescribe that the Kohen return six days later to check the house. If the Tzara'as has spread, one must remove (Choletz) the stones with Tzara'as from the house, scrape off the surrounding plaster, insert new stones and re-plaster the entire house. The house is then put into quarantine for another week. If the Tzara'as returns to the house during the following week, the owner must dismantle (Notetz) the entire house (Vayikra 14:45). The stones from the house must be taken out of the city, and they remain Asur b'Hana'ah forever.
(c)On the other hand, if the Tzara'as did not change after the first week, the Kohen leaves it as is and returns again six days later. The verse states (Vayikra 14:44) "u'Va ha'Kohen," which means "if, when the Kohen comes back to the house to inspect it a second time, he finds that the spot of Tzara'as has spread, the house is Tamei." Chazal teach that this verse is referring to a spot of Tzara'as that does not spread during its first week. The Kohen "comes back to the house" after a second week to see whether the spot has spread, remains, or has disappeared. If the Tzara'as has either spread or remained, one must remove (Choletz) the stones with Tzara'as from the house, scrape off the surrounding plaster, insert new stones and re-plaster the entire house. The house is then put into quarantine for another week (Vayikra 14:40). If the Tzara'as returns to the house during the following week, the owner must dismantle (Notetz) the entire house (Vayikra 14:45).
(d)Even though the words "v'Shav" and "u'Va" are not identical, they are referring to the same action; namely, the Kohen entering the house to inspect it. This relates the two verses to each other with a Gezeirah Shavah. Just as the house is not dismantled if the Tzara'as spreads during the first week - unless the stones are scraped and the Tzara'as returned to the house after a week of quarantine - so, too, the house is not dismantled if the Tzara'as spread during the second week unless it returns to the house after the quarantine period that follows the scraping.
(e)If during one of the inspections at the end of the first or second week the Kohen finds that the Tzara'as has disappeared or diminished in intensity such that it can no longer be classified as a Nega, the location of the spot alone is scraped and the house is declared Tahor after the owner follows the procedure for being Metaher houses (see Background to Sukah 13:11:IV). (RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Tzara'as 15:2)
c)[line 7]נגעי בגדיםNIG'EI BEGADIM - Tzara'as that infects clothing
(a)The marks of Tzara'as for clothes consist of intense green or intense red marks that are at least the size of one Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) (Nega'im 11:4).
(b)If Tzara'as is found on a garment, it is put into Hesger (quarantine) by a Kohen for a week. If the spots remained the same size, the garment is washed and put into quarantine for yet another week (ibid. 11:5).
(c)If, either when the Kohen first sees them or at the end of one week, the spots are seen to have increased in size, the garment is termed "Muchlat" and the entire garment is burned.
(d)If after the second week the Tzara'as has either remained the same or spread, the garment becomes "Muchlat" and the entire garment is burned. If the marks of Tzara'as remain but have faded somewhat, then only the part of the garment that bears the marks of Tzara'as is cut out from the garment and burned and the rest of the garment is Tahor. A patch is sewn in place of the parts that were removed. If Tzara'as returns to either the garment or the patch after the original Tzara'as has been removed, the entire garment is burned.
(e)Garments that are Muchlat (i.e. that contain Tzara'as that must be burned) are Asur b'Hana'ah.
(a)There are two types of Charamim (a type of vow or pledge in which one pronounces "This object should be a Cherem"):
1.Chermei Kohanim, which are given to the Kohanim for their personal use and cannot be redeemed from the Kohen;
2.Chermei Gavo'ah, which are given to the Beis ha'Mikdash for the Bedek ha'Bayis and can be redeemed like any other Hekdesh.
(b)The Tana'im argue (Erchin 28b) as to whether Stam Charamim (Charamim that are pledged without designating the recipient) are allocated to the Kohanim or to the Beis ha'Mikdash.
b)[line 7]ערכיןARACHIN (ERECH)
(a)An Erech (endowment valuation) refers to a special form of vow. If a person declares, "Erech Ploni Alai" ("I accept upon myself to give the endowment value of so-and-so [to Hekdesh]"), he must give the specific value that the Torah designates for the person's gender and age group as stated in Vayikra 27:1-8. It makes no difference at all whether the person is healthy or sick, strong or weak.
(b)If one wishes to pledge the value of an individual - whether his own or that of someone else:
1.For ages 1 month to 5 years - the Erech for males is 5 Shekalim and for females is 3 Shekalim
2.For ages 5 years to 20 years - the Erech for males is 20 Shekalim and for females is 10 Shekalim
3.For ages 20 yrs. to 60 years - the Erech for males is 50 Shekalim and for females is 30 Shekalim
4.For ages 60 years and older - the Erech for males is 15 Shekalim and for females is 10 Shekalim
c)[line 8]הקדשותHEKDESHOS (PIDYON HEKDESH)
(a)If a person consecrates (is "Makdish") an object to the Beis ha'Mikdash and that object is of no benefit to the Mikdash "as is," the object may be sold by the appointees of Hekdesh (Gizbarim), who determine its selling price based on the estimate of a group of experts. When a person buys the object from Hekdesh, the object loses its Kedushah and its value becomes Kodesh in its stead. This is called "Pidyon Hekdesh," redeeming from Hekdesh.
(b)If the object that is being redeemed from Hekdesh is anything other than land, three experts must be present to determine its value. If the object is land, ten experts, one of the them a Kohen, must be present. The same applies if a person donates his own value to Hekdesh; ten experts, one of them a Kohen, must determine the amount that he will pay Hekdesh. (Erchin 19b and RASHI, RAMBAM Hilchos Erchin 8:2)
9)[line 8]השקאת סוטהHASHKA'AS SOTAH
(a)A Sotah is a woman who is suspected of committing adultery because she was warned by her husband not to seclude herself with a certain man and she violated the warning. The process of warning her in front of witnesses is called Kinuy. The witnesses who see her seclude herself with the suspected adulterer are called Eidei Stirah. The time of seclusion must be at least for the time that it takes to roast an egg and swallow it. The woman is forbidden to her husband and the alleged adulterer until she drinks Mei Sotah (see (d), below).
(b)The husband must bring his wife to the Beis ha'Mikdash to perform the ceremony of the Mei Sotah. On the way there, Beis Din appoints two Torah scholars to accompany them to make sure that they do not engage in marital relations, which are forbidden to them. Moreover, if the couple does have marital relations at this point, the Mei Sotah will not work, since the husband must be "Menukeh me'Avon," clear (lit. cleaned) of sin for the ceremony to work. The Gemara (Sotah 47b) explains that this means that he did not have relations with his wife from the time that she became prohibited to him or with any other woman (ever) who was prohibited to him (RASHI to Sotah ibid.)
(c)The husband brings a sacrifice consisting of 1/10 of an Eifah (approx. 2 quarts) of barley meal as a Minchah offering. In the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen reads Parshas Sotah, the portion of the Torah describing the curses with which a Sotah is cursed, out loud (in any language that the Sotah understands) and makes the Sotah swear that she has been faithful to her husband.
(d)An earthenware jug is then filled with half a Log of water from the Kiyor, and dirt from the floor of the Azarah is placed on top of the water. Parshas Sotah (that contains numerous appearances of Hash-m's name) is written on parchment and then immersed in the water, which causes the ink to dissolve, erasing the Holy Names. The Sotah afterwards drinks from the water. If she was unfaithful to her husband and allowed herself to become defiled, the water would enter her body and poison her, causing her belly to swell out and her thigh to rupture. If she was faithful to her husband, she remained unharmed and would be blessed that she would become pregnant (Bamidbar 5:11-31). In times when there is no Mei Sotah such as in the present day, she must be divorced and does not receive her Kesuvah.
10)[line 8]ועריפת עגלהARIFAS EGLAH (EGLAH ARUFAH)
(a)If a Jew is found murdered in a field (in Eretz Yisrael) and it is not known who the murderer is, the Torah requires that an Eglah Arufah be brought in order to atone for the blood that was spilled (Devarim 21:1). The procedure is as follows:
(b)Five elders (according to the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah, which is the Halachah) of the Beis Din of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish Supreme Court) measure the distance between the dead body and the cities around it to determine which city is closest to it.
(c)The elders of the city that is closest to the corpse must bring a female calf that has never been worked (see Background to Bava Metzia 30:12:b) to a Nachal Eisan (a swiftly flowing stream - RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:2; a valley with tough soil - RASHI). They strike it on the back of its neck (Arifah) with a cleaver, severing its spinal column, gullet and windpipe.
(d)The elders of the closest city then wash their hands there and say, "Our hands have not spilled this blood, and our eyes did not see [the murder]" (Devarim 21:7). This includes a proclamation that the dead man was not sent away from the city without the proper food for his journey or the proper accompaniment. The Kohanim that are present say, "Atone for Your people Yisrael whom You have redeemed, HaSh-m, and do not place [the guilt for] innocent blood in the midst of Your people Yisrael" (ibid. 21:8). After this procedure, HaSh-m will grant atonement for the innocent blood that was spilled (RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:3).
11)[line 9]וטהרת מצורעTAHARAS METZORA
(a)THE PROCESS BY WHICH A METZORA BECOMES TAHOR - On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent off to the fields.
(b)The Metzora next shaves with a razor all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He counts seven days (Yemei Sefiro), and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Sanhedrin 83:14). (For a description of the Korbanos that the Metzora brings on the eighth day, see Background to Bava Kama 110:23:6:c-e.)
"Leket" refers to individual (one or two) stalks of grain that inadvertently slipped out of the reaper's hand while he harvested them (by cutting them underneath with a sickle) or while he uprooted them (if he is not using a sickle) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #218; see Pe'ah 4:10 and Chidushei Anshei Shem). Such stalks may not be retrieved by the owner but must be left for the poor, as described in Vayikra (19:9-10), "v'Leket Ketzircha Lo Selaket...le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam" - "Do not pick up the individual stalks that have fallen from the harvest...you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger." If three stalks fall together, they are not considered Leket and may be retrieved by the owner.
(a)If one or two sheaves of grain were forgotten in the field when the other sheaves were collected, they must be left for the poor, as described in Devarim (24:19). From the moment the owner of the field turns away from the remaining sheaves with the intention of ending the collection, it is prohibited for him to return for the remaining sheaves (Mishnah Pe'ah 6:4).
(b)If three sheaves of grain were forgotten in the field, then they do not have the status of Shichechah and a poor person may not take them.
The corner, or end, of the harvest must be left in the field for the poor, as it states "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadecha Liktzor... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam" - "Do not completely harvest the corner of your field... you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger" (Vayikra 19:9-10).
13a)[line 10]מלמד שבית המקדש גבוה מארץ ישראלMELAMED SHE'BEIS HA'MIKDASH GAVO'AH ME'ERETZ YISRAEL- this teaches that the Beis ha'Mikdash is higher than any point in Eretz Yisrael (that is, (a) except for Ein Eitam; (b) the walls of the Beis ha'Mikdash are higher than any point in Eretz Yisrael, including Ein Eitam - TOSFOS DH she'Beis)
b)[line 11]וארץ ישראל גבוה מכל הארצותV'ERETZ YISRAEL GAVO'AH MI'KOL HA'ARATZOS- (lit. and Eretz Yisrael is higher than all of the lands) that is (a) it is the center of the world (MAHARSHA to Kidushin 68a); (b) it is spiritually higher than all of the lands (MAHARAL); (c) it is higher than all of its surrounding lands, and anyone travelling to it must walk upward (MEROMEI SADEH)
14)[line 12]מלמד שהמקום גורםMELAMED SHEHA'MAKOM GOREM- to teach that the place [of the Sanhedri Gedolah in the Lishkas ha'Gazis] causes [the sage to be convicted of being a Zaken Mamrei; if he argues with the Sanhedri Gedolah elsewhere, he cannot be convicted of being a Zaken Mamrei.]
15)[line 15]"לכן הנה ימים באים...""LACHEN, HINEH YAMIM BA'IM..."- "Therefore, behold days are coming, says HaSh-m, and they will no longer say, 'By the life of HaSh-m, Who raised up the children of Yisrael from the land of Egypt,' but rather, 'By the life of HaSh-m, Who raised up and Who brought the seed of the house of Yisrael from the land of the north and from all of the lands to which I banished them there;' and they shall dwell in their own land" (Yirmeyahu 23:7-8).
16a)[line 20]זקן ממרא אינו חייב אלא על דבר שזדונו כרת ושגגתו חטאתZAKEN MAMREI EINO CHAYAV ELA AL DAVAR SHE'ZEDONO KARES V'SHIGEGASO CHATAS- a sage does not become a Zaken Mamrei unless he argues with the Sanhedri Gedolah with regard to a ruling that has an outcome where a person may transgress a sin for which intentional transgression bring about the punishment of Kares and unintentional transgression bring about the obligation to offer a Korban Chatas
b)[line 22]דבר שעיקרו מדברי תורה ופירושו מדברי סופריםDAVAR SHE'IKARO MI'DIVREI TORAH U'FEIRUSHO MI'DIVREI SOFRIM- a Mitzvah, the source of which is in the Torah and the precise explanation of it comes from the tradition handed down by the true Torah sages
c)[line 23]אפילו דקדוק אחד מדקדוקי סופריםAFILU DIKDUK ECHAD MI'DIKDUKEI SOFRIM- (a) even for one decree of the Rabanan [that leads to an outcome of a sin she'Zedono Kares v'Shigegaso Chatas] (RAMBAM Hilchos Mamrim 1:4, Sefer ha'Mitzvos Shoresh Rishon, p.19 in the Shabse Frankel edition - see RAMBAN there); (b) a law of the Torah that is learned from one of the methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah (RAMBAN ibid., RAN)
17)[line 26]"... ונעלם דבר מעיני הקהל...""... V'NE'ELAM DAVAR ME'EINEI HA'KAHAL..."- "[And if the whole congregation of Yisrael sins through ignorance,] and a matter became obscured from the eyes of the assembly, [and they have transgressed any of the negative commandments of HaSh-m, and are guilty]" (Vayikra 4:13).
18)[line 28]"על פי התורה אשר יורוך" ... "אשר יגידו לך...""AL PI HA'TORAH ASHER YORUCHA"... "ASHER YAGIDU LECHA..."- "According to [the laws of] the Torah that they shall teach you, [and according to the judgment that they shall tell you, you shall do; you shall not stray from the law] that they shall declare to you, [to the right or to the left]" (Devarim 17:11).
19)[line 29]"אשר יגידו לך""ASHER YAGIDU LECHA"- (Devarim 17:11) - see previous entry
20)[line 29]כל דהוKOL DEHU- anything [that they say to you - see above, entry #16c]
21)[line 30]תרגמא ליTIRGEMA LI- explain to me [how all of the cases stated previously (Ibur Shanim, Gezeirah Shavah, Dam Nidah, etc.) can fit into Rebbi Meir's opinion that a sage does not become a Zaken Mamrei unless he argues with the Sanhedri Gedolah with regard to a ruling that has an outcome where a person may transgress a sin she'Zedono Kares v'Shigegaso Chatas]
22)[line 30]פוקPUK- go out
23a)[line 31]לעבר שניםL'ABER SHANIM (IBUR SHANIM)
See above, entry #2.
b)[line 32]ולקבוע חדשיםLIKVO'A CHODASHIM - to determine the beginning of the new month (according to the MARGOLIYOS HA'YAM) (KEVI'AS CHODASHIM)
24)[line 32]הן העידוHEN HE'IDU- they testified (source: Eduyos 7:7; Rebbi Yehoshua and Rebbi Papeyas, who are mentioned in the previous Mishnah in Eduyos, are the Tana'im who testified)
25a)[line 34]הלכות אחד עשרHILCHOS ACHAD ASAR (ZAVAH: YOM ACHAD ASAR)
(a)See above, entry #6c.
(b)Rebbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish argue with regard to the status of the tenth day of the Zivah period. Rebbi Yochanan rules that the tenth day is like the ninth day, that is, it is exactly like all the rest of the days of Zivah. A woman who sees blood on one (or two) of the days of Zivah must watch the next day to make sure that there are no three consecutive days of bleeding. Similarly, a woman who sees blood on the tenth day must watch the eleventh day for Dam Zivah (even though there is never a possibility of three consecutive days of Dam Zivah, since the twelfth day begins a new cycle of Dam Nidah). Reish Lakish rules that the tenth day is like the eleventh day. A woman who sees blood on the eleventh day does not have to watch for Dam Zivah on the twelfth day (since that blood will be Dam Nidah). So, too, a woman who sees blood on the tenth day does not have to watch for blood on the eleventh day, since there is no possibility of three consecutive days of Dam Zivah. (For the alternate reading of the argument between Rebbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish to which Rashi alludes, see Nidah 72b and Insights to Nidah 72:1.)
(c)The Halachos of the eleventh day is one of the categories of Halachah to which the law of Zaken Mamrei applies; that is, if he argues with the Sanhedrin as Rebbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish did, he can be punished as a Zaken Mamrei. If a woman sees blood on the tenth day of Zivah and a person has relations with her on the eleventh day, according to Rebbi Yochanan that person is Chayav Kares, like anyone who has relations with a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom. According to Reish Lakish he is not Chayav Kares, since she is not a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom.
b)[line 34]הלכות אחד עשרHILCHOS ACHAD ASAR- (RASHI DH Hilchos Achad Asar writes that a woman who sees blood and becomes a Zavah Gedolah needs to offer a Korban and immerse in Mayim Chayim, flowing spring water. See Rashi to Shabbos 65b where he brings this opinion in the name of his Rabosav. However, to refute this opinion, he brings a Tosefta that rules that only a Zav is required to immerse in Mayim Chayim, not a Zavah (RAV YITZCHAK ISAAC CHAVER, RASHASH). The Rashash changes the Girsa to read, "l'Korban ule'Sefiras Shiv'ah Neki'im," - "and to count seven clean days.")
26a)[line 35]עשירי כתשיעיASIRI KI'TESHI'I- the tenth [day of Zivah] is like the ninth [day of Zivah] (see previous entry, (b))
b)[line 35]עשירי כאחד עשרASIRI K'ACHAD ASAR- the tenth [day of Zivah] is like the eleventh [day of Zivah] (see previous entry, (b))
27)[line 36]מה תשיעי בעי שימורMAH TESHI'I BA'I SHIMUR- just like (according to Rebbi Yochanan) [a woman who sees blood on] the ninth day needs to "watch" [the next consecutive days to make sure that there are not three consecutive days on which she saw Dam Zivah (see above, entry #25)]
28)[last line]אף עשירי לא בעי שימורAF ASIRI LO BA'I SHIMUR- (according to Reish Lakish,) so, too, [a woman who sees blood on] the tenth day does not need to "watch" [the next day for Dam Zivah, because there is no possibility of three consecutive days on which she will see Dam Zivah (see above, entry #25)]
29)[line 5]דם הירוקDAM HA'YAROK- (lit. yellow blood) a flow that has a yellow color
30a)[line 7]מעין אחד הואMA'AYAN ECHAD HU- there is a common source for the flow of Dam Tamei and Dam Tohar
b)[line 9]שני מעיינות הןSHNEI MA'AYANOS HEM- there are two different sources for the flow of blood; one for Dam Tamei and one for Dam Tohar
31)[line 11]קישתהKISHESAH (DAM KISHUY / YOLEDES B'ZOV)
(a)A woman who has labor pains and sees a flow of blood is not a Zavah as long as she gives birth due to the labor. The blood is known as Dam Kishuy. If the labor pains stop after she saw blood on three consecutive days, it is possible that she will be Yoledes b'Zov when she gives birth. The Halachah understands that since the labor pains stopped, the three days of blood are considered Dam Zivah, as long as there is a prominent interval between the end of her flow and the day that she gave birth. The Tana'im argues as to how long the interval must be when she is not in labor for her to be considered a Yoledes b'Zov.
(b)By Torah Law, a woman who gives birth may immerse in a Mikvah after her Yemei Tum'ah (seven days upon the birth of a boy and fourteen days upon the birth of a girl). Blood that she sees after the Yemei Tum'ah is Dam Tohar and she is Tehorah, until she sees blood 41 days after the birth of a boy or 81 days after the birth of a girl (see above, entry #6b).
(c)The laws of Yemei Taharah do not apply if she had been a Zavah before she gave birth. Under such circumstances, she remains Temei'ah after the birth until she counts seven clean days when she sees no blood. According to some, a Yoledes b'Zov must begin her count of seven clean days after the Yemei Tum'ah have ended - Nidah 29b, 37a. Others say that the count of clean days may begin during the Yemei Tum'ah, if the blood flow has stopped.
32)[line 12]אם שפתה מעת לעתIM SHAFSAH ME'ES L'ES- if she rested (i.e. the labor pains stopped) for a twenty-four hour period
33)[line 15]ששפתה מן הצער ולא מן הדםSHE'SHAFSAH MIN HA'TZA'AR V'LO MIN HA'DAM- if the pains stopped, even though the flow of blood did not stop
34)[line 19]בית דין חצוףBEIS DIN CHATZUF- an "arrogant" Beis Din
35)[line 20]לדברי הכלL'DIVREI HA'KOL- according to all opinions
36)[line 30]אם בהרת קדם לשער הלבןIM BAHERES KADAM L'SE'AR LAVAN
See above, entry #7a.
37)[line 32]כהה טהורKEHAH, TAHOR- [it is as if the mark of Tzara'as became] dull, [which is a sign that the Metzora is Tahor]
38)[line 33]אין הבית טמאEIN HA'BAYIS TAMEI
See above, entry #7b.
39)[line 34]כשני גריסיןKI'SHNEI GERISIN- [marks of Tzara'as the size of] two Cilician beans (each are approximately the size of a dime)
40)[line 34]בקרן זויתB'KEREN ZAVIS- in a corner
41a)[line 35]כתיב "קיר"KESIV "KIR"- the verse states "u'Mar'eihen Shafal Min ha'Kir" - "and their appearance seems to be set in to the wall (lit. lower than the wall)" (Vayikra 14:37)
b)[line 35]וכתיב "קירות"KESIV "KIROS"- the verse states "v'Hinei ha'Nega b'Kiros ha'Bayis" - "and behold, the plague is in the walls of the house" (Vayikra14:37)