PAST DEDICATION
BAVA KAMA 110 (23 Nisan) - dedicated by Mr. Avy Reichman of Queens, NY, l'Iluy Nishmas his father, Dovid ben Avraham, for the day of his Yahrzeit, and in honor of the Siyum of Seder Moed that he is making with his grandson, Simcha Dovid Lebovic of Beitar Illit, Israel.

[110a - 52 lines; 110b - 47 lines]

1)[line 4]ואי דלא מצי עביד עבודה שליח היכי משויV'IY D'LO MATZI AVID AVODAH, SHALI'ACH HEICHI MESHAVI?- and if he cannot perform the Avodah (because he is ill), then how can he appoint a Shali'ach [to do it]? (There is a rule that a person can appoint a Shali'ach to do only something that he himself is able to do.)

2)[line 6]שיכול לעשות על ידי הדחקSHE'YACHOL LA'ASOS AL YEDEI HA'DECHAK- he is able to do [the Avodah], but with great difficulty

3)[line 7]עבודה דכי עביד ליה ע''י הדחק עבודה היא ומשוי שליחAVODAH, D'CHI AVID LEI AL YEDEI HA'DECHAK AVODAH HI, U'MESHAVI SHALI'ACH- Avodah, when done with great difficulty is still a [valid] Avodah, and thus he may appoint a Shali'ach

4)[line 9]אכילה גסה היא ואכילה גסה לאו כלום הואACHILAH GASAH HI, V'ACHILAH GASAH LAV KELUM HU- it is a forced, gluttonous form of eating, and such a form of gluttonous eating is nothing (it is not considered eating)

5)[line 11]אם היה כהן טמא בקרבן צבורIM HAYAH KOHEN TAMEI B'KORBAN TZIBUR - if the Kohen was Tamei when bringing a communal sacrifice (TUM'AH D'DECHUYAH HI B'TZIBUR)

(a)The Torah permits offering Korbenos Tzibur (communal sacrifices) b'Tum'ah. Therefore, Korbenos Temidim and the Musafim of Shabbos, Yom Tov and all other Korbanos and Menachos that are brought for the Tzibur, such as Minchas ha'Omer and the Shtei ha'Lechem, may be offered even if there is a need to offer them b'Tum'ah (as will be explained below).

(b)The Tana'im argue whether Tum'ah is Hutrah b'Tzibur or Dechuyah b'Tzibur (Pesachim 77a, Yoma 7b).

The Gemara in Yoma explains that according to all opinions, if certain Kohanim in the Mikdash are Teme'im and others are Tehorim, the Tehorim do the Avodah. However, if all of the Kohanim of the Beis Av (the group of Kohanim whose day it is to do the Avodah) are Teme'im, there is a dispute as to whether the Korbanos are offered b'Tum'ah. One opinion holds that the Torah entirely cancelled the prohibitions against Tum'ah with regard to Korbenos Tzibur ("Hutrah"); therefore the Kohanim who are Temei'im may perform the Avodah. Others rule that Kohanim from other Batei Avos who are Tehorim should be sought to do the Avodah, since only with reluctance did the Torah permit offering Korbenos Tzibur b'Tum'ah ("Dechuyah"). The prohibitions of Tum'ah are only pushed aside in the event of great necessity.

6)[line 16]אימא לבעלי מומין טהורין שבאותו משמרEIMA L'VA'ALEI MUMIN TEHORIN SHEB'OSO MISHMAR- say that the meat and hide of the Korban is given to the Kohanim of that Mishmar (see Background to Bava Kama 109:7) who are Ba'alei Mum (see Background to Bava Kama 109:16). While a Kohen who is a Ba'al Mum may not perform the Avodah and offer the Korban, if he is Tahor he may eat its meat.

7)[line 18]כהן גדול אונןKOHEN GADOL ONEN - a Kohen Gadol who is an Onen (ANINUS - The Halachic status of a mourner immediately after a close relative's death)

(a)A person is called an Onen mid'Oraisa on the day of death of one of his seven closest relatives for whom he is required to arrange for burial (i.e. father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter, and wife). Chazal (Zevachim 101a) learn the Halachah of Aninus from the verse, "v'Achalti Chatas ha'Yom, ha'Yitav b'Einei HaSh-m?" (Vayikra 10:19). Among the Halachos that apply to an Onen is that a Kohen Onen is prohibited from doing the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash unless he is the Kohen Gadol (Vayikra 10:7, 21:1-4). Moreover, an Onen (even the Kohen Gadol) may not eat Kodshim, Terumah, and Ma'aser Sheni.

(b)Besides the prohibition against an Onen performing the Avodah, eating Kodshim, etc. mid'Oraisa, the Rabanan extended the prohibitions even after Aninus mid'Oraisa has passed. However, the Tana'im and Rishonim argue as to the nature of this Gezeirah. They also argue as to whether Aninus mid'Oraisa always applies for the entire day or for part of the day in certain cases. With regard to these questions, Aninus may be broken into five time periods, as follows:

1.The day of death, before burial: According to all opinions Aninus mid'Oraisa applies, as above.

2.The day of death, after burial: According to Rashi (Pesachim 90b DH ha'Onen, Zevachim 15b DH Onen) only Aninus mid'Rabanan applies. According to the Ramban (Toras ha'Adam) Aninus mid'Oraisa still applies.

3.The night after the day of death (according to Rashi in #2, before burial; according to Ramban in #2, even after burial): The Tana'im argue if the Aninus is mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan (Zevachim 99b). Most of the Rishonim rule that the Aninus is not mid'Oraisa but rather mid'Rabanan.

4.The days after the day of death, even if the body has not been buried: Aninus only applies mid'Rabanan (Zevachim 100b) until the end of the day of burial. Also on the day of "Likut Atzamos" (when the remains of one of the close relatives are exhumed and re-buried elsewhere), the Rabanan decreed that the person is an Onen for that entire day.

5.The night after the day of burial: The Tana'im (Zevachim 100b) argue whether the person is an Onen mid'Rabanan or not at all, and the Halachah follows the opinion that he is not an Onen at all.

8)[line 24]הגוזל את הגרHA'GOZEL ES HA'GER (GEZEL HA'GER)

If someone (a) steals from a Ger who has no descendants (and therefore no legal relatives) and (b) swears falsely to the Ger denying the theft, then (c) later, after the Ger dies, admits to the theft, he must bring a Korban Asham, give to the Kohanim the value of the stolen object and add a fifth (see Bamidbar 5:8).

9)[line 30]ירעה עד שיסתאבYIR'EH AD SHE'YISTA'EV (ASHAM SHE'MESU BE'ALAV) - it should graze until it becomes blemished

(a)An Asham that is in one of the 5 categories for which a Chatas is put to death (see (b) below) is put out to pasture until it develops a Mum, after which it is redeemed. Its value is used to purchase an Olas Nedavah for the Tzibur.

(b)There are five Chata'os that are put to death (Chamesh Chata'os Mesos) by locking them up without food until they die:

1.The offspring of a Chatas

2.The Temurah (see Background to Yoma 50:10) of a Chatas

3.A Chatas, the owner of which has died

4.A Chatas of a sheep or goat that became a year old (and is therefore invalid as a Korban Chatas), the owner of which brought a different Chatas to atone for his sins

5.A Chatas that was lost and was later found with a Mum, the owner of which brought a different Chatas to atone for his sins (Temurah 21b)

10)[line 31]ויפלו דמיו לנדבהV'YIPLU DAMAV LI'NEDAVAH (KAYITZ HA'MIZBE'ACH) - and its money (received in return for its sale) should be used for a Nedavah

(a)In many places the Gemara states that when certain items are sold (e.g. Kodshim that become unfit to offer on the Mizbe'ach) their value is designated as a Nedavah ("v'Yiplu Demeihem l'Nedavah"), a contribution towards a Korban. This money was used to purchase Korbenos Tzibur (offerings brought by the entire people) and not Korbenos Yachid (personal Korbanos). A person may also volunteer money as a Nidvas Tzibur. In both cases, the money was placed in one of the six Shofaros (boxes) that were kept in the Mikdash and was used to buy Korbenos "Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach" to be sacrificed as Korbenos Olah (burnt offerings) when the Mizbe'ach was not otherwise in use (Shekalim 6b).

(b)(Rashi to Sukah 56a DH Kayitz explains that these offerings were also called "Kayitz," because they were like a "dessert" [Kayitz = cut figs, a common dessert food] to the Mizbe'ach.)

11)[line 34]ליהויריב / לידעיהYEHOYARIV / YEDAYAH - the family names of two of the 24 Mishmaros of Kohanim. The 24 Mishmaros, as listed in Divrei ha'Yamim I 24:7-18, are:

1.YEHOYARIV

2.YEDAYAH

3.CHARIM

4.SE'ORIM

5.MALKIYAH

6.MIYAMIN

7.HAKOTZ

8.AVIYAH

9.YESHU'A

10.SHECHANYAHU

11.ELYASHIV

12.YAKIM

13.CHUPAH

14.YESHEV'AV

15.BILGAH

16.IMER

17.CHEZIR

18.HAPITZETZ

19.PESACHYAH

20.YECHEZKEL

21.YACHIN

22.GAMUL

23.DELAYAHU

24.MA'AZYAHU

12)[line 37]גזילוGEZEILO- the stolen item (or its monetary value) [that must be given to the Kohanim when the original owner was a Ger who died with no heirs; see above, entry #8]

13)[line 48]בממון המשתלם בראשMAMON HA'MISHTALEM B'ROSH- money that is paid back without the addition of Kefel

110b----------------------------------------110b

14)[line 7]מהו שיחלקו גזל הגר כנגד גזל הגר?MAHU SHE'YECHALKU GEZEL HA'GER KENEGED GEZEL HA'GER?- what is the law with regard to dividing up [among the Kohanim] one item stolen from a Ger against another item stolen from a Ger? (Can they divide up the items themselves, or must each Kohen receive a share of each item?)

15)[line 9]אין חולקין אשם כנגד אשםEIN CHOLKIN ASHAM KENEGED ASHAM- the flesh of one Asham cannot be divided against the flesh of another Asham (rather, each Asham must be divided equally among all of the Kohanim in the Mishmar)

16)[line 18]היינו האי דירתי מוריתHAINU HAI D'YARSEI MORIS- this item that was bequeathed to him is the same item that he is inheriting

17)[line 26]מעשרMA'ASER (MA'ASER BEHEMAH)

(a)Every year, a person must collect all of the kosher animals that were born during that year into a corral. As they leave the corral through a narrow opening, one by one, the owner counts them and marks every tenth one as Ma'aser Behemah. The Mitzvah of Ma'aser Behemah is stated in Vayikra (27:32), "v'Chol Ma'asar Bakar va'Tzon, Kol Asher Ya'avor Tachas ha'Shavet, ha'Asiri Yiheyeh Kodesh la'Sh-m" - "And all of the herds and flocks shall be tithed as they are counted under the rod, every tenth one being consecrated to HaSh-m."

(b)Ma'aser Behemah is eaten by its owner. If it has no Mum (blemish or defect), it is offered as a Korban on the Mizbe'ach and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. If it has a Mum, the owner may slaughter and eat it anywhere.

18)[line 27]קנו בתפיסת הביתKANU BI'TEFISAS HA'BAYIS- they acquired/owned them by their being part of the inherited estate

19)[line 30]מתנות כהונהMATENOS KEHUNAH- any of the 24 priestly gifts which a person must give to a Kohen. The Gemara soon will list all 24, dividing them into categories of where they must be given - in the Beis ha'Mikdash, in Yerushalayim, or in all parts of Eretz Yisrael. See below, entry #22.

20)[line 31]בכלל ופרט וכללKLAL U'FRAT U'CHLAL

(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael, who is Doresh Klalei and Pratei (see Background to Kidushin 21:15), lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is Klal u'Frat u'Chlal Iy Atah Dan Ela k'Ein ha'Prat.

(b)When a Klal (general term) is followed by a Prat (specification), which is followed in turn by another Klal, then everything belonging to the general category that is similar to the Prat is included. Anything that is not in the general category of the limiting Prat is not included.

(c)Our Gemara is teaching that one who fulfills the Mitzvah of giving the Matenos Kehunah to Kohanim is considered to have fulfilled the entire Torah, which was given to be expounded through "Klal u'Frat u'Chlal."

21)[line 31]וברית מלחBRIS MELACH- an everlasting covenant (similar to salt which does not spoil and is used as a preservative for food)

22)[line 32]כל המקיימןKOL HA'MEKAIMAN...- when one gives the gifts of Kehunah, it is considered as if he has kept all the laws of the Torah, which we were told to observe in a general statement followed by specific statements, and as if he offered all the sacrifices, through which Hash-m sealed with us an everlasting covenant.

23)[line 34]בגבוליםGEVULIM- all of Eretz Yisrael to the exclusion of the Beis ha'Mikdash

24)[line 35]ואלו הןV'ELU HEN- these are the 24 Matenos Kehunah:

25)[line 34]חטאת בהמהCHATAS BEHEMAH

If a person commits a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he would be Chayav Kares if he would have committed it b'Mezid (intentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas. He brings a female goat or female sheep as his Korban Chatas. Since it is one of the Kodshei Kodashim (the highest sanctity of sacrifices), it may be slaughtered only in the northern part of the Azarah. Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah) and confesses his sin.

(b)The offering of the Chatas Behemah consists of five procedures: Shechitah, Kabalas ha'Dam, Holachah, Nesinas ha'Dam, and Haktaras ha'Eimurim (see Background to Sotah 32:25b for detailed descriptions of these procedures).

(c)The Kohanim eat the rest of the Chatas Behemah in the Azarah.

26)[line 34]וחטאת העוףCHATAS HA'OF

(a)The offering of the Chatas ha'Of (which is brought by a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes and Nazir Tamei, and by a Metzora who is poor, and by a poor person who was Nishba l'Sheker, or who transgressed Shevu'as ha'Edus, or was Metamei Mikdash v'Kodashav; see Background to Kinim 22:9:b for references) consists of three procedures (see, for example, Vayikra 5:8-9): Melikah, Hazayah, and Mitzuy (see Background to Kidushin 36:24 for detailed descriptions).

(b)The Chatas ha'Of is eaten by the Kohanim, in the Azarah, on the day that it is offered and the following night. No part of it was burned on the Mizbe'ach.

27)[line 35]ואשם ודאיASHAM VADAI

The Torah specifies five cases where the Korban Asham Vadai is brought. The animal offered is usually a ram that costs at least two Sela'im. The first three involve transgressions:

(a)ASHAM ME'ILOS: a person who has benefit from Hekdesh b'Shogeg must bring a Korban Asham, besides paying the amount he benefited plus a fine of Chomesh (Vayikra 5:14-16; see Background to Kidushin 55:5a).

(b)ASHAM GEZEILOS: a person who steals money from a fellow Jew, swears in Beis Din that he holds no such money and later admits his sin, must return what he stole, pay a fine of Chomesh, and bring a Korban Asham to receive atonement (Vayikra 5:20-26).

(c)ASHAM SHIFCHAH CHARUFAH: a person who has relations with a Shifchah Charufah (e.g. a maidservant who was owned by two partners, and freed by one of them, who is betrothed to a Jewish slave) must bring a Korban Asham, whether he did the sin b'Mezid or b'Shogeg (Vayikra 19:20-22; see Background to Kidushin 23:11b).

(d)ASHAM NAZIR: this Korban (a sheep within its first year) is brought by a Nazir who becomes Tamei during his period of Nezirus (Bamidbar 6:12; see Background to Nazir 60:2).

(e)ASHAM METZORA: this Korban (a sheep within its first year) is brought by a Metzora upon the completion of his Taharah process (Vayikra 14:12; see Background to Kidushin 35:24).

28)[line 35]ואשם תלויASHAM TALUY

(a)If a person is in doubt whether or not he committed a transgression for which he must bring a Korban Chatas, he temporarily brings a Korban Asham Taluy, which is a ram worth two Sela'im (Vayikra 5:17-19). If he later discovers that he did indeed sin, he must offer a Korban Chatas; the Asham Taluy only provides temporary atonement during the period of doubt.

(b)Certain Tana'im, including Isi ben Yehudah, rule that a person is only obligated to bring an Asham Taluy if there are "two pieces, one of which was eaten" (Chatichah mi'Shtei Chatichos). For example, if a person ate one out of two pieces of fat, where one was Shuman (permitted fat) and the other was Chelev (forbidden fat), and he later found out that he may have eaten the forbidden piece, he has to bring an Asham Taluy. If he has a doubt whether one piece of fat that he ate was Shuman or Chelev, he does not bring an Asham Taluy. Other Tana'im, including Rebbi Akiva, rule that even in the latter case he brings an Asham Taluy.

29)[line 35]וזבחי שלמי צבורZIVCHEI SHALMEI TZIBUR (KIVSEI ATZERES)

The Torah commands to bring a Minchah offering on Shavuos called the Shtei ha'Lechem (Vayikra 23:16-17). Besides Korbenos Olah, two sheep that are Zivchei Shelamim are to be offered in conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem (ibid. 23:19). (These sheep were the only Shelamim brought by the Tzibur, and the only Shelamim that were Kodshei Kodashim.)

30)[line 35]ולוג שמן של מצורעLOG SHEMEN SHEL METZORA (TAHARAS NEGA'IM)

(a)THE PROCESS BY WHICH A METZORA BECOMES TAHOR - On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a new clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent off to the fields.

(b)The Metzora next shaves with a razor all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He waits seven days (Yemei Sefiro), and on the seventh day he once again shaves and immerses. He is then completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Nedarim 35:9).

(c)On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring Korbanos to complete his Taharah. The animal Korbanos are two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, the other as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas. If he could not afford to buy all these animals, he is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves) as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still brought as his Asham. An ordinary Metzora or a poor Metzora brings Nesachim with all of his animal Korbanos (Menachos 91a).

(d)The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live Korban Asham with the Log of oil resting upon it. After the Asham is slaughtered, some of the blood is placed on the body of the Metzora: on the middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, on his right thumb and on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor (TY #18; the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for the man who donated the brass doors of the gate; see Yoma 38a). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah had the Kedushah of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor only had the Kedushah of Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that the Metzora could stick his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the archway of the gate.

(e)After all of the Korbanos were offered, a Kohen pours some of the oil in his left hand and sprinkles it seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. He must dip his right finger in the oil each time. Oil is also put on the body of the Metzora, on the places where the blood of the Asham was placed. The remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed on the Metzora's head. The rest of the Log which was not poured into the Kohen's hand was given to the Kohanim, and must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah (it is one of the Kodshei Kodashim). (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusarei Kaparah 4:2-3)

31)[line 36]ומותר העומרMOSAR HA'OMER (OMER)

(a)There is a Mitzvah to bring the Korban ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall after the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.2, 2.5 or 4.3 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is baked and offered as a Korban Minchah on the 16th of Nisan. It is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim - Vayikra 2:14-16).

(b)In addition, a lamb is offered as an Olah, as it states in Vayikra 23:12.

(c)The Korban ha'Omer is the first offering of the new grain of the year (Chadash), and as such it removes the prohibition against eating from the new grain.

32)[line 36]ושתי הלחםSHTEI HA'LECHEM

(a)The Shtei ha'Lechem is an offering of two loaves of bread (that are Chametz) that is brought on Shavuos. It is baked from the newly grown wheat (Vayikra 23:17). One loaf is given to the Kohen Gadol and the other is divided among the rest of the Kohanim in the Mikdash at the time. They are eaten on the day of Shavuos and the night afterwards, until midnight (RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:11).

(b)Afterwards, all new wheat is permitted to be used for Menachos.

33)[line 36]ולחם הפניםLECHEM HA'PANIM

The Lechem ha'Panim (Showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah), which are arranged in two Sedarim (stacks), six loaves to each Seder, on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Table every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed (Vayikra 24:5-9).

34)[line 36]ושירי מנחותSHEYAREI MENACHOS

(a)When an individual who is not a Kohen offers a Korban Minchah (flour offering), a Kohen must take off a Kometz (handful), which is burned upon the Mizbe'ach.

(b)A Kometz is the amount that can be held by the middle three fingers when they are pressed upon the palm. The Kohen puts his hand in the dough or baked goods and removes one handful. The excess of dough or baked goods that sticks out is then wiped off by the thumb and the smallest finger until only the Kometz remains.

(c)The remainder of the Minchah (the Sheyarei ha'Minchah) is eaten by male Kohanim.

(d)A Minchah that is brought by the Tzibur and a Minchah offered by a Kohen are entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach

35)[line 37]הבכורהBECHORAH (BECHOR BEHEMAH TEHORAH)

(a)The Kedushah of Bechor rests on every firstborn male of an ox, goat or sheep when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for a person to sanctify it himself (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.

(b)If the animal has no Mum (blemish), the Kohen must bring it as a Korban during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Yevamos 7:8 and 100:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, its meat is eaten in Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night. If the animal has or develops a Mum, it must be slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen can give it away or sell it, even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner. It may not be redeemed with money.

36)[line 37]והביכוריםBIKURIM

(a)The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing the first fruits to emerge in one's field every year to the Beis ha'Mikdash. The verse states, "v'Hayah Ki Savo El ha'Aretz... vi'Rishtah v'Yashavta Bah... v'Lakachta me'Reishis Kol Pri ha'Adamah..." - "And it shall be that when you come to the land... and you inherit it and you settle in it. You shall take of the first fruits of the land..." (Devarim 26:1-2). Each farmer enters the Azarah (courtyard) of the Beis ha'Mikdash with his Bikurim fruit in a decorative basket. While the basket is on his shoulder, he recites the Mikra Bikurim, specific verses from Devarim (26:3, 5-10) thanking HaSh-m for taking us out of Egypt and giving us the land of Yisrael. He then places the basket of fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 3:12) and bows down before HaSh-m. Afterwards, he gives the Bikurim to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1).

(b)The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the land of Eretz Yisrael was blessed (Devarim 8:8) - wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2).

(c)Kohanim eat the Bikurim within the walls of Yerushalayim. If a person eats them outside of Yerushalayim after the Bikurim have entered Yerushalayim (according to the Rambam, or after the Bikurim have entered the Azarah according to Rashi in Makos 18b), he receives Malkos. They must be returned to, and eaten in Yerushalayim.

37a)[line 37]והמורם מן התודה ואיל נזירHA'MURAM MIN HA'TODAH V'EIL NAZIR (TODAH/LACHMAH)

(a)The Todah (thanksgiving offering) is a form of Shelamim that is eaten for only one day and one night (Vayikra 7:15). Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a meal offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar ibid.

(b)An animal that was sacrificed as a Todah was brought together with forty loaves of bread, ten each of the following:

(1) Chalos Matzos - Matzos mixed with oil;

(2) Rekikin - flat Matzos saturated with oil;

(3) Soles Murbeches - Matzos made of boiled flour mixed with oil;

(4) Loaves of leavened bread. (Vayikra 7:12-13)

(c)One loaf of each type of bread was given to the Kohen who performed the Zerikas ha'Dam of the Todah (Vayikra 7:14). (These four loaves were known as Terumas Lachmei Todah.) The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim were given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban were offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten on the day that it is slaughtered and the following night.

b)[line 37]והמורם מן התודה ואיל נזירHA'MURAM MIN HA'TODAH V'EIL NAZIR (NAZIR)

(a)If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. If the person stipulates a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for whatever amount of time he stipulated. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to 1. cut his hair; 2. become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or 3. consume any products of the grapevine (Bamidbar 6:1-21, SEFER HA'CHINUCH #377). Transgressing any one of these prohibitions makes the Nazir liable to Malkos, as long as he was warned beforehand.

(b)When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour), which are made into 20 loaves of Matzah, 10 Chalos (unleavened loaves of Matzah) and 10 Rekikin (flat Matzos). He then shaves off the hair of his head and burns it under the cauldron in which the Zero'a of the Shelamim is cooked (Bamidbar 6:18). (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #377)

(c)Like the parts of the Korban Todah that are given to the Kohen, the Nazir must give parts of his Korban Shelamim to the Kohen.

38)[line 37]ועורות קדשיםOROS KODASHIM

The hides of Korbenos Olah, Chatas, and Asham are given to the Kohen. (In contrast, the hides of Kodshim Kalim, such as Korbenos Shelamim, belong to the owners of the Korban.)

39)[line 38]תרומהTERUMAH

(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.

(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been removed, and it is known as Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim.

40)[line 38]ותרומת מעשרTERUMAS MA'ASER- see previous entry

41)[line 38]וחלהCHALAH

(a)Whenever a person kneads a large dough made from one of the five species of grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye or spelt), he must separate a small portion to be given to the Kohen before eating from the dough. This portion is called Chalah (Bamidbar 15:18-20). A baker must separate 1/48 of his dough as Chalah, while a normal homeowner must separate 1/24. If a person did not separate Chalah from the dough before it was baked, it must be separated after it is baked before the baked product can be eaten. Before Chalah is separated, the dough is called "Tavul l'Chalah," and anyone who eats it b'Mezid (intentionally) is liable to the punishments of Malkos and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Makos 13a).

(b)Chalah has the Halachos of Terumah, and it must be eaten by Kohanim, their wives and children, while they are Tehorim. A non-Kohen who eats Chalah b'Mezid is liable to Malkos and Misah b'Ydei Shamayim (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 5:14 and Hilchos Terumah 6:6).

42)[line 38]וראשית הגזREISHIS HA'GEZ

(a)Every time a flock of sheep is shorn, it is a Mitzvas Aseh to give the first shearings to a Kohen, as stated in Devarim (18:4), "v'Reishis Gez Tzoncha Titen Lo." Although the Mishnah (Chulin 135a) states that this Mitzvah applies both in Eretz Yisrael and in Chutz la'Aretz, the Halachah follows the ruling of Rebbi Ila'i (ibid. 136b, Berachos 22a) who rules that the Mitzvah applies only in Eretz Yisrael (Rambam Hilchos Bikurim ch. 10).

(b)The owner is obligated to give the first shearings to the Kohen only when a minimum amount of fleece is shorn from a minimum number of sheep. The minimum number of sheep is two according to Beis Shamai and five according to Beis Hillel. The Halachah follows Beis Hillel (Chulin 135a). The minimum amount of fleece that must be shorn from each of the five sheep is the amount of fleece that weighs a "Maneh u'Feras" (a Maneh and a half) according to Rebbi Dosa ben Harkinas (ibid.). (A Maneh is one hundred silver Dinerin, each one of which occupies the volume of 96 grains of barley - Kidushin 12a.) As such, the total minimum amount of fleece that must be shorn according to Rebbi Dosa is 750 silver Dinerin. According to the Rabanan, the weight of twelve Sela'im must be shorn from each sheep, for a total of 60 Sela'im (i.e. 240 Dinerin), according to Shmuel, who holds the Halachic opinion - Chulin 137b. Rav maintains that according to the Rabanan the wool of all five animals must weigh 150 Dinerin.

(c)After all of one's sheep are shorn, one must give to the Kohen one-sixtieth of all of the shearings, whether it is a lot or a little (as long as the minimum required amount is fulfilled, as mentioned above). When one gives the wool to the Kohanim, he must not give less than the weight of five Shekalim (ten Dinerin) of wool to each Kohen, which is the amount that suffices to make a belt (Chulin 138a).

43)[line 38]והמתנותMATANOS (ZERO'A LECHAYAYIM V'KEIVAH)

(a)Whenever a person slaughters an ox, sheep, or goat (that is not Kodesh), he must give to a Kohen the Zero'a, Lechayayim, and Keivah (the foreleg, the [lower] jaw, and the maw or abomasum [the last of a cow's four stomachs] (Devarim 18:3). 1. The ZERO'A consists of the two upper limbs of the right foreleg, from the knee until the top of the shoulder blade; 2. The LECHAYAYIM consists of the lower jaw, from the joint where it is attached to the upper jaw until the thyroid cartilage, including the tongue; 3. The KEIVAH consists of the maw together with its Chelev, but the Minhag of the Kohanim is to let the animal's owner keep the Chelev.

(b)Although one must give the Zero'a, Lechayayim, and Keivah to a Kohen, they may be eaten by a non-Kohen.

44)[line 38]ופדיון הבןPIDYON HA'BEN - the redemption of the firstborn son

(a)The Torah requires that every Yisrael sanctify the firstborn male of his children, Kosher animals and donkeys, as it is written, "Kadesh Li Kol Bechor, Peter Kol Rechem bi'Vnei Yisrael, ba'Adam uva'Behemah; Li Hu." - "Sanctify to Me every firstborn that initiates the womb among the children of Yisrael, among both man and beast; it is Mine." (Shemos 13:2)

(b)The Mitzvah of Pidyon ha'Ben applies to a Yisrael and not to a Kohen or a Levi. The first male born to a mother (who is the daughter of a Yisrael) must be redeemed by his father (as stated in Shemos 13:13, "v'Chol Bechor Adam b'Vanecha Tifdeh."

(c)The Bechor must be redeemed when he is one month old by giving five silver Shekalim of Kodesh (each of which weighs 19.2 or 17 grams; see Midos v'Shi'urei Torah, C. P. Benish, Bnei Brak, 5760, pp. 487-488) to a Kohen as stated in Bamidbar (18:16). This applies only if the son was the first issue (i.e. he was not preceded by a Nefel - stillborn) and was delivered through the womb (i.e. he was not delivered by Caesarian section). (Sefer ha'Chinuch #392)

45)[line 39]ופדיון פטר חמורPIDYON PETER CHAMOR

(a)There is a Mitzvah to redeem each firstborn male donkey, as the verse states, "v'Hayah Ki Yevi'acha HaSh-m El Eretz ha'Kena'ani... v'Chol Peter Chamor Tifdeh v'Seh, v'Im Lo Sifdeh va'Arafto" - "And it shall come to pass that when HaSh-m brings you to the land of the Kena'ani... And every firstborn donkey must be redeemed with a sheep [that is given to a Kohen]. If it is not redeemed, you must decapitate it" (Shemos 13:11-13).

(b)The Kedushah of Bechor rests on every firstborn male of an ox, goat, or sheep when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for a person to sanctify it himself (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.

46)[line 39]ושדה אחוזהSEDEH ACHUZAH

See Background to Bava Kama 109:11.

47)[line 39]ושדה חרמיםSEDEH CHARAMIM

See Background to Bava Kama 109:13.

48)[line 39]וגזל הגרGEZEL HA'GER

See above, entry #8.

49)[line 41]כסף מכפר מחצהKESEF MECHAPER MECHETZAH- the fulfillment of one's obligation to give money (to the Kohanim when one must atone for his sin of stealing from a Ger) atones for him partially

50)[line 42]חטאת שמתו בעליהCHATAS SHE'MESU BE'ALAV

See above, entry #9(b).

51)[line 43]לא אפרשהLO AFRESHAH- he did not separate it (designating it to be a Korban)

52)[line 44]הלכתא גמירי להHILCHESA GEMIRI LAH- we know it from the tradition that Moshe received on Mount Sinai, i.e. it is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai

53)[line 45]כל שבחטאת מתה באשם רועהKOL SHEB'CHATAS MESAH B'ASHAM RO'EH

See above, entry #9.

54)[line 46]יבמהYEVAMAH (YIBUM)

(a)If a married man dies childless and has brothers who survive him, his widow (or widows) may not remarry until one of the deceased husband's brothers performs Yibum (levirate marriage) or Chalitzah (levirate release) with the widow (or one of the widows), as it states in Devarim 25:5-10. Chazal learn from the verses that if there are a number of brothers, there is a preference for the oldest brother to perform Yibum or Chalitzah (Yevamos 24a). If the conditions for the Mitzvah of Yibum do not exist, marital relations between a man and his brother's wife are prohibited and make them liable to the punishment of Kares.

(b)Yibum is a type of marriage. Unlike ordinary Kidushin, though, it can be accomplished only through Bi'ah and not through Kesef or Shtar (see Background to Kidushin 2:1:II:b). Nevertheless, the Rabanan instituted that one should precede Yibum with an act similar to Kidushei Kesef or Shtar, which is known as Ma'amar (see Background to Kidushin 43:19). The Bi'ah must be performed with the intention of fulfilling the Mitzvah.

55)[line 46]מוכה שחיןMUKEH SHECHIN- a man afflicted with boils (or leprosy)

56)[last line]דאדעתא דהכי לא קדשה עצמהD'ADA'ATA D'HACHI LO KIDSHAH ATZMAH- for she did not consent to be betrothed with this intention (that is, had she known that she would have to do Yibum with a Mukeh Shechin, she would not have accepted the Kidushin from her husband)

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