[36a - 53 lines; 36b - 20 lines]

1)[line 5]נשתוק קרא מיניהNISHTOK KRA MINEI- the verse should remain silent from it (i.e. from the Gezeirah Shavah)

2)[line 10]אפילו קרח ארבע וחמש קרחותAFILU KARACH ARBA V'CHAMESH KERACHOS- even if he tore four or five bald spots

3)[line 23]נכתוב קרא 'קרח'NICHTOV KRA 'KERACH'- the verse should write "Kerach" (and not "Karchah," with the additional "Heh" at the end)

4)[line 34]בזמן שאתם נוהגים מנהג בנים אתם קרוים בניםBI'ZEMAN SHE'ATEM NOHAGIM MINHAG BANIM, ATEM KERUYIM BANIM- at a time when you are acting in the manner of children [with respect and obedience towards HaSh-m], you are called "children"

5)[line 38]"בנים סכלים המה""BANIM SICHLIM HEMAH"- "They are foolish children." (Yirmeyahu 4:22)

6)[line 38]"בנים לא אמון בם""BANIM LO EMUN BAM"- "Children in whom there is no trustworthiness." (Devarim 32:20)

7)[line 38]"זרע מרעים בנים משחיתים""ZERA MERE'IM, BANIM MASHCHISIM"- "Seed of evildoers, children who act destructively." (Yeshayah 1:4)

8a)[line 40]סכלי הוא דמקרי בניSICHLEI HU D'MIKREI BANEI- only when they act foolishly are they called "children"

b)[line 40]כי לית בהו הימנותייהוKI LEIS BEHU HEMNUSAIHU- [but] when they do not have trustworthiness [they are not called "children"]

9)[line 42]כי פלחוKI FALCHU- when they worship

10)[line 45]הסמיכותHA'SEMICHOS (SEMICHAH)

(a)Semichah refers to the Mitzvah for a person to press his hands with all his might on the head of his animal sacrifice (and not a bird sacrifice) before it is slaughtered, as described in Vayikra (1:4).

(b)Women are not required to perform Semichah since the verse states, "Daber El Benei Yisrael... v'Samach" - "Speak to the sons of Yisrael (and not to the daughters)... and he shall perform Semichah" (Vayikra 1:2-4).

11)[line 45]והתנופותTENUFOS (TENUFAH)

Waving portions of certain Korbanos and meal-offerings is called Tenufah; the Kohen, together with the owner of the Korban (when it is not a Korban Tzibur), waves them in all four directions and up and down (RASHI Menachos 62a DH Molich. TOSFOS to Sukah 37b DH Kedei, ponders whether all Tenufos were done in this fashion, or whether some Tenufos only required lifting and lowering).

12)[line 45]וההגשותHAGASHOS (HAGASHAH)

When a Korban Minchah (flour offering) is offered, a Kohen must take the utensil containing the Minchah and touch it to the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.

13)[line 45]והקמיצותKEMITZOS (KEMITZAH)

(a)When an individual who is not a Kohen offers a Korban Minchah (flour offering), a Kohen must take off a Kometz (handful), which is burned upon the Mizbe'ach.

(b)A Kometz is the amount that can be held by the middle three fingers when they are pressed upon the palm. The Kohen puts his hand in the dough or baked goods and removes one handful. He next wipes off the dough or baked goods that stick out, using his thumb and smallest finger, until only the Kometz remains.

(c)The remainder of the Minchah (the Sheyarei ha'Minchah) is eaten by male Kohanim.

(d)A Minchah that is brought by the Tzibur, a Minchah offered by a Kohen, and a Minchah that is brought together with an animal Korban (the Minchas Nesachim — see Background to Sotah 15:9) are entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.

14)[line 45]והקטרותHAKTAROS (HAKTARAH)

Haktarah refers to the burning of all or part of a Korban on the Mizbe'ach.

15)[line 45]והמליקותMELIKOS (MELIKAH)

Birds that were brought as Korbanos were not slaughtered from the neck. Instead, the Kohen performed Melikah by cutting the back of the neck of the bird with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut both Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus) of the Olas ha'Of or one Siman (either one) of the Chatas ha'Of. When performing Melikah on the Chatas ha'Of he would make sure not to sever the entire neck of the bird.

16)[line 46]והקבלותKABALOS (KABALAH / KABALAS HA'DAM)

The offering of a Korban is comprised of four main actions. These four "Avodos" are Shechitah (slaughtering), Kabalas ha'Dam (collecting the blood of the Korban that will be cast on the Mizbe'ach), Holachah (carrying the blood towards the Mizbe'ach), and Zerikah (casting the blood on the outer Mizbe'ach).

17)[line 46]והזאותHAZA'OS (HAZA'AH)

Haza'ah in our Mishnah refers to the procedure of sprinkling the blood of a Chatas ha'Of (bird offering) on the Mizbe'ach (Gemara 36b). The blood is sprinkled directly from the neck of the bird onto the Mizbe'ach.

18)[line 46]ממנחת סוטהMINCHAS SOTAH

The Minchas Sotah is the meal-offering brought by the husband of a Sotah during the Sotah procedure (see Background to Gitin 60:17). The husband must bring his wife to the Beis ha'Mikdash along with a sacrifice consisting of 1/10 of an Eifah (approx. 2 quarts) of barley meal as a Minchah offering. Before this Minchah offering is burned, the woman and the Kohen perform Tenufah with it (Sotah 19a).

19)[line 46]ונזירהNEZIRAH (NAZIR)

When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour), which are made into 20 loaves of Matzah, 10 Chalos (unleavened loaves of Matzah) and 10 Rekikin (flat Matzos). The Nazir, with a Kohen, performs Tenufah with the one Chalah and one flat Matzah together with the right foreleg of the cooked ram (Bamidbar 6:19-20). (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #377)



(a)The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired female cow is burned on Har ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei Mes. Only a cow that has not had a yoke placed upon it and has had no other work done with it is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. This is the "Haza'ah" to which the Gemara now suggests the Mishnah is referring. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the carcass of the cow while it is burning. (Bamidbar 19:1-22)

(b)If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a Mes or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah. (Bamidbar 19:17-19)

21)[line 2]'אלעזר' כתוב בה'ELAZAR' KASUV BAH- the Torah limits the Haza'ah of the blood of the Parah Adumah to "Elazar" (Bamidbar 19:4), i.e. the Segan or deputy Kohen Gadol. That is, HaSh-m commanded that the first Parah Adumah be prepared by the Segan. The Tana'im argue as to whether the subsequent ones were commanded to be prepared only by the Kohen Gadol or even by ordinary Kohanim, i.e. the Segan and the Kohanim Hedyotos (RAMBAN to Bamidbar 19:3, citing Sifrei Chukas 8). The Mishnah (Parah 3:5) records that only six Kohanim were involved with preparing Paros Adumos after Moshe Rabeinu. All of them were Kohanim Gedolim.

22)[line 2]דפניםD'PENIM (HAZA'AS PENIM) - the sprinkling of the blood of certain Korbanos bi'Fnim (inside) of the Mishkan or the Beis ha'Mikdash. Rashi brings two examples:


(a)The Par Kohen Mashi'ach is the young bull brought as a Korban Chatas by a Kohen Gadol who transgresses an Isur Kares thinking that the Torah did not prohibit such an act. (The bull is brought by a Kohen Gadol for the same sins that a Par He'elem Davar (see next entry, (a)) is brought when the people commit transgressions upon being misled by Beis Din in a Halachic matter.)

(b)The blood of the bull is sprinkled seven times on the Paroches, and is applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores in the Heichal. This is the "Haza'ah" to which the Gemara now suggests the Mishnah is referring. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) is poured on the Western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach while the Eimurim are offered on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.

(c)The meat of the bull, together with the other parts that are not sacrificed, is burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:3-12). Those who carry the carcass out of the Azarah are Metamei Begadim. (According to Rebbi Shimon, Yoma 67b, those who are involved in burning the meat are Metamei Begadim.)


(a)The Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court) must bring a Korban if they issued a mistaken ruling permitting an act that carries a Chiyuv Kares and the Jewish people in Eretz Yisrael (the majority of the people or the majority of the tribes) conducted themselves based on this ruling. The sages bring a young bull as a Chatas on behalf of each of the tribes. The people are exempt, since they relied on the Beis Din ha'Gadol. If the sin committed was idolatry, the sages bring a young bull as an Olah and a goat as a Chatas for each tribe. Each of these bulls is called a Par He'elem Davar Shel Tzibur (RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).

(b)The blood of these bulls was sprinkled in the Heichal on the Paroches and the Mizbe'ach ha'Zahav. This is the "Haza'ah" to which the Gemara now suggests the Mishnah is referring. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) was poured on the Western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach. The remains of the bulls were burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:13-21).

23)[line 3]'הכהן המשיח' כתוב בה'HA'KOHEN HA'MASHI'ACH' KASUV BAH- the Torah (Vayikra 4:5, 16) limits the sprinkling of the blood of "Penim" (see previous entry) to the "anointed Kohen," i.e. the Kohen Gadol

24)[line 3]הזאה דבן עוףHAZA'AH D'VEN OF (CHATAS HA'OF: MELIKASO V'HAZA'ASO) - the sprinkling of the blood of a bird offering on the Mizbe'ach (as mentioned in Vayikra 5:9)

(a)The offering of the Chatas ha'Of (e.g. in Vayikra 5:8-9) consists of three procedures:

1.MELIKAH - Standing on the floor of the Azarah near the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck (Orpo - similar to the word Arifah) of the bird with his right thumbnail. He makes sure to cut one Siman (either the trachea or the esophagus), but not to sever the entire neck of the bird.

2.HAZAYAH - The Kohen sprinkles its blood on the Mizbe'ach (directly from the neck of the bird), below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.

3.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach and squeezes its remaining blood onto the Mizbe'ach.

(b)The Chatas ha'Of is eaten by the Kohanim on the day that it is offered and the following night. No part of it was burned on the Mizbe'ach.

25)[line 4]דבן צאןBEN TZON (SHECHITASO V'HAZA'ASO)

A Korban offering of a sheep or goat does not need to be slaughtered by a Kohen. It may be slaughtered by a Yisrael, but yet requires that a Kohen cast its blood on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 1:11)

26)[line 8]לרבי יאשיה דדריהREBBI YOSHIYAH D'DAREI- Rebbi Yoshiyah of his generation; i.e. Rebbi Yoshiyah the Amora (and not Rebbi Yoshiyah the Tana who was also alive at the time; Rebbi Elazar who is mentioned here is Rebbi Elazar ben Pedas, the Amora, and not Rebbi Elazar ben Shamu'a, the Tana)

27a)[line 8]לא תיתיב! אכרעך!LO SEISIV! A'KAR'ACH!- Do not sit down, [but rather stand] on your feet! (TOSFOS to Nazir 24b DH Amar)

b)[line 9]עד דאמרת לי להא שמעתתאAD D'AMART LI L'HA SHEM'ATA- until you explain to me this teaching

28)[line 11]תנופה בבעליםTENUFAH B'VA'ALIM- the Tenufah procedure is done by the owner (of the Minchah offering that is being waved)

29)[line 14]"ידיו תביאנה""YADAV TEVI'ENAH"- "His (the owner's) hands shall bring it." (Vayikra 7:30)

30a)[line 15]כהן מכניס ידו תחת יד בעלים ומניףKOHEN MACHNIS YADO TACHAS YAD BE'ALIM U'MENIF- (a) the Kohen places his hands underneath (and touching) her hands (TOSFOS Sotah 19a DH v'Chohen, RASHI Kesav Yad to Menachos 94a DH Nisma'atah). (This is permissible even if the Kohen is young because the Yetzer ha'Ra has no power for that short moment — YERUSHALMI cited by TOSFOS ibid.); (b) the Kohen places his hands underneath her hands with a cloth intervening between their hands; (TOSFOS ibid., alternate explanation, as understood by the MINCHAS SOTAH); (c) the Kohen places his hands lower than her hands, at the bottom of the bowl, while she holds the edges of the bowl (and they do not touch) (TOSFOS Menachos 61b DH Kohen; see there how Tosfos shows that this is even the intention of the Yerushalmi)

b)[line 16]ומניףU'MENIF- and he waves it [in all four directions and up and down]