GITIN 60 (9 Elul) - Dedicated in memory of Esther Miryam bas Harav Chaim Zev and her husband Harav Refael Yisrael ben Harav Moshe (Snow), whose Yahrzeits are 9 Elul and 10 Elul respectively. Sponsored by their son and daughter in law, Moshe and Rivka Snow.

[a - 47 lines; b - 49 lines]

1)[line 1]לא הוה בידיהLO HAVAH B'YADEI- lit. it was not in his hands; i.e., he did not know the answer to their question

2)[line 3]הממונין פרנסיםHA'MEMUNIN PARNASIM- who are appointed as spiritual and temporal community leaders

3)[line 6]ראשי כנסיותROSHEI KENESIYOS- leaders of congregations

4)[line 8]חומשיםCHUMASHIM- lit. fifths; scrolls containing only one of the five books of the Torah

5)[line 10]שאיל ביה מדרשאSHA'IL BEI MIDRASHA- they asked [this question] in the study hall

6)[line 12]יריעהYERI'AH- a section of parchment containing four columns of writing (see Insights)

7)[line 13]מחסר במילתיהMECHASER B'MILSEI- it is lacking in what it purports to be [as it is meant to be a full Sefer Torah, but it is not]

8)[line 16]ספר אפטרתאSEFER AFTARTA- a scroll in which the Haftarah portions are written in the order in which they are read

9)[line 17]לא ניתן ליכתבLO NITEN LI'KASEV- it is forbidden to write it [since it less than an entire book of Navi]

10)[line 19]לטלטוליL'TULTULEI (MUKTZAH - Objects one is Forbidden to Move on Shabbos or Yom Tov)

(a)Muktzah literally means "set aside" or "designated". With regard to Shabbos, this term is used to describe items which one has no intention of using on Shabbos, such as wood stacked in a barn. Anything that a person had no intention to use during Bein ha'Shemashos (twilight) at the start of Shabbos (or Yom Tov) - for any reason - is included in the category of Muktzah and may not be moved on Shabbos. That which is not Muktzah is termed "Muchan" - "designated" for use on Shabbos or Yom Tov.

11)[line 19]חזיCHAZI- fit

12)[line 21]מעייני בספרא דאגדתאME'AINEI B'SIFRA D'AGADTA- they were studying a scroll containing homiletic parts of the Talmud

13)[line 22]הא לא ניתן ליכתב!HA LO NITEN LI'KASEV!- it is forbidden to write it [since one may not transcribe any part of the Oral Torah (see 60b)]!

14)[line 23]כיון דלא אפשרKEIVAN D'LO EFSHAR- since it is impossible [in later generations to remember the entire Oral Torah by heart]

15)[line 23]"עֵת לַעֲשׂוֹת לה' הֵפֵרוּ תּוֹרָתֶךָ.""ES LA'ASOS LA'SH-M HEFERU TORASECHA."- "Hash-m has a set time to judge those who have nullified your Torah" (Tehilim 119:126). Our Gemara interprets this verse to mean, "[When] it is a time to act for Hash-m, they shall annul Your Torah." This grants permission to the Chachamim to decree that certain Halachos be ignored if this is necessary to preserve the Torah.

16)[line 24]כיון דלא אפשרKEIVAN D'LO EFSHAR- since it is impossible [for every congregation to purchase a full set of Nevi'im scrolls due to the great expense involved]

17)[line 26]מגילהMEGILAH- a scroll [containing one or two portions of the Torah]

18a)[line 27]תורה מגילה מגילה ניתנהTORAH MEGILAH MEGILAH NITNAH- the Torah was given one portion at a time; i.e., Moshe Rabeinu transcribed each portion of the Torah as he received it from Hash-m

b)[line 28]תורה חתומה ניתנהTORAH CHASUMAH NITNAH- the Torah was given as a sealed unit; i.e., Moshe Rabeinu transcribed the entire Torah as a whole only at the end of the forty years that Klal Yisrael were in the desert

19)[line 31]כיון דאידבק, אידבקKEIVAN D'IDBAK, IDBAK- once it was attached, it was [intended to always remain] attached

20)[line 33]לפי שאין כותביןL'FI SHE'EIN KOSVIN- a) since even he who maintains that the Torah was written part by part agrees that once it was attached it was intended to remain so (RASHI); b) because we have a tradition that it must be written as an entire unit only (ARUCH)

21)[line 33]היאHI- a) Queen Helene, monarch of Adiabene (SEFER YUCHASIN); alt. India (ARUCH), who converted to Judaism; b) Queen Helene, of the Chashmona'i dynasty (see Background to Yoma 16:1) (RASHI to Bava Basra 11a; TOSFOS to Kesuvos 7b)

22)[line 33]טבלאTAVLA- a tablet

23)[line 33]פרשת סוטהPARSHAS SOTAH

(a)A Sotah is a woman suspected of committing adultery due to that which she was witnessed secluding herself (Setirah) with a certain man after being warned by her husband in front of witnesses (Kinuy) against just such an action. Until she is proven innocent of adultery (see below), she is forbidden to both her husband and the suspected adulterer, even should her husband die or divorce her at that point.

(b)The husband of such a woman brings his wife to the Beis ha'Mikdash, along with a sacrifice consisting of 1/10 of an Eifah (approx. 2 quarts) of barley meal as a Minchah offering. Following this, the seventy-one member Sanhedrin (Supreme Court) that sit in the Beis ha'Mikdash frighten her with the description of the fate of a guilty Sotah (see (c) below). A Kohen reads Parshas Sotah - the portion of the Torah which describes the horrific fate that befalls a Sotah her if she is guilty - in front of her, in any language that she understands. The Sotah is made to swear that she has been faithful to her husband. She is then humiliated in various ways, such as through having her clothing ripped and then held together with a rope of woven branches. The purpose of these actions is to persuade her to admit her guilt, if she is indeed guilty, and thereby avoid erasing the name of Hash-m (see below).

(c)If the Sotah maintains her innocence, then an earthenware jug is filled with half a Log (approximately .17 or .3 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of water from the Kiyor (the large basin of water in the Azarah), and dirt from the floor of the Azarah (large courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash) is placed into the water. Parshas Sotah (which contains numerous appearances of Hash-m's name) is written on parchment and then immersed in the water, causing the ink to dissolve and the holy names to be erased. The Sotah then drinks from the water. If she had been unfaithful to her husband, the water enters her body and causes her belly to swell and her thighs to rupture. If, however, she had been faithful to her husband, she not only remains unharmed, but is blessed with children (Bamidbar 5:11-31).

24)[line 34]אל"ף בי"תALEP"H BEI"S- the first letter of each word [in Parshas Sotah]

25)[line 37]"אם שכב" "אם לא שכב""IM SHACHAV" "IM LO SHACHAV"- There is no verse in Parshas Sotah that reads "Im Shachav". Rather, the Beraisa here refers to the verses "Im Satis ... Im lo Satis" (Bamidbar 5:19-20) (TOSFOS DH Im; see Yoma 37b)

26)[line 37]סירוגיןSEIRUGIN- lit. in intervals; i.e., the first few words of each verse were spelled out, and the rest were referred to by their first letters only.

27)[line 39]בתורת כהנים עד "ויהי ביום השמיני"B'TORAS KOHANIM AD "VA'YEHI BA'YOM HA'SHEMINI"- [a further example of a complete subject that one may transcribe without the rest of the Sefer Torah is] in Sefer Vayikra [from the beginning] until "And it was on the eighth day" (see below, entry #31) [which includes the details of all of the various Korbanos]

28)[line 40]"אָז אָמַרְתִּי, 'הִנֵּה-בָאתִי'; בִּמְגִלַּת-סֵפֶר כָּתוּב עָלָי.""AZ AMARTI, 'HINEI VASI'; BI'MEGILAS SEFER KASUV ALAI."- "I then said, 'Behold, I am coming'; this is written regarding me in the scrolled book" (Tehilim 40:8). In its simple interpretation, this refers to Moshe Rabeinu, who accepted the Torah with the words "Na'aseh v'Nishmah" (Shemos 24:7). RASHI translates it to mean, "I (David ha'Melech) said at the time that it was determined that I was able to marry into Klal Yisrael, 'I am referred to in the Torah'." The reference was when the two daughters of Lot are referred to as "ha'Nimtza'os" (Bereishis 19:15); David is similarly called "Matzasi David Avdi" (Tehilim 89:21) (see Yevamos 77a).

29)[line 42]"לָקֹחַ אֵת סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה (הזאת) [הַזֶּה] ...""LAKO'ACH ES SEFER HA'TORAH (HA'ZOS) [HA'ZEH] ..."- "Take this Sefer Torah ..." (Devarim 31:26). The wording of the verse implies that it was first written as a complete entity.

30)[line 44]"וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי, 'מָה אַתָּה רֹאֶה?' וָאֹמַר, 'אֲנִי רֹאֶה מְגִלָּה עָפָה ...'""VA'YOMER ELAI, 'MAH ATAH RO'EH?' VA'OMAR, 'ANI RO'EH MEGILAH AFAH ...'"- "And [the Mal'ach] said to me, 'What do you see?' And I replied, 'I see a floating scroll ...'" (Zecharyah 5:2). The scroll that Zecharyah referred to in this vision was a Sefer Torah.

31)[line 46]יום שהוקם בו המשכןYOM SHE'HUKAM BO MISHKAN (SHIV'AS YEMEI HA'MILU'IM - The Seven Days Leading Up to the Permanent Erection of the Mishkan)

(a)The first seven days during which the Avodah was performed in the Mishkan were called the "Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im." The word "Milu'im" means "filling," and refers to the fact that during these days the position of Divine servants was finally "filled" by the Kohanim (RASHI to Vayikra 8:22). These seven days began on the 23rd of Adar and lasted until Rosh Chodesh Nisan, which was the eighth day.

(b)During the Yemei ha'Milu'im, the Kohanim along with all of the components and utensils of the Mishkan were anointed with Shemen ha'Mishchah (see Background to Shekalim 16:6). Many Korbanos, called Korbanos ha'Milu'im, were offered at this time. Moshe Rabeinu officiated as the Kohen Gadol, demonstrating the Avodah to Aharon and his sons. On each day, Moshe assembled and dissembled the Mishkan, until the eighth day, on which he left it standing. On that day, Aharon was officially appointed as the Kohen Gadol and the Shechinah descended to dwell permanently in the Mishkan (RASHI ibid. 9:23).

(c)Rebbi Levi in our Gemara discusses those Halachos taught on Rosh Chodesh Nisan. RASHI maintains that each of the Parshiyos listed here was germane to that which the Mishkan was erected on that day. Others argue that if this were the case, other Parshiyos should have been taught; rather, tradition teaches that these Parshiyos were transmitted to Moshe on that day (TOSFOS HA'ROSH).

32a)[line 46]פרשת כהניםPARSHAS KOHANIM- those parts of the Torah detailing the many laws of how the Kohanim must perform the Avodah (Divine Service) [necessary since it began on that day] (Vayikra 21)

b)[last line]פרשת לויםPARSHAS LEVIYIM- the part of the Torah dealing with the consecration of the Leviyim for their part of the Avodah (Bamidbar 8:5-26)

c)[last line]פרשת טמאיםPARSHAS TEME'IM- a) the part of the Torah teaching the Laws of one who is Tamei and therefore unfit to offer the Korban Pesach at its proper time (Bamidbar 9:6-14; see Background to Sukah 42:39 and 47:26). This issue was raised when the nation learned that they were obligated to stay away from the Mishkan when Tamei (see next entry) (RASHI); b) the parts of the Torah teaching that one who is Tamei may not come into contact with Korbanos (Vayikra 22:1-8) (TOSFOS DH Parshas)

d)[last line]פרשת שילוח טמאיםPARSHAS SHILU'ACH TEME'IM- the part of the Torah teaching the laws of various levels of Tum'ah and which of the three Machanos (areas of designated holiness) they must stay out of (Bamidbar 4:1-4; see Background to Moed Katan 16:3)

e)[last line]פרשת אחרי מותPARSHAS ACHAREI MOS- the part of the Torah detailing the service of the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim (see Background to Yoma 44:2). This was necessary for Rosh Chodesh Nisan since it included the prohibition against entering the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Holy of Holies) at any other time of year (Bamidbar 16:2).


f)[line 1]פרשת שתויי ייןPARSHAS SHESUYEI YAYIN- the part of the Torah prohibiting Kohanim who are inebriated from performing the Avodah (Vayikra 10:8-11)

g)[line 1]פרשת נרותPARSHAS NEROS- the part of the Torah teaching the proper procedure for lighting the Menorah (Bamidbar 8:1-4)

h)[line 1]פרשת פרה אדומהPARSHAS PARAH ADUMAH - The Laws of a Red Heifer

(a)A Parah Adumah (also referred to as a Paras Chatas) is a red cow; if there are as many as two hairs of any other color it is not a Parah Adumah (see Maseches Parah 2:5). Only a cow that has never had a yoke placed upon it nor performed any other work is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim (also known as Har ha'Mishchah; "Mishchah" means oil), opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. Its carcass is then burned. A cedar branch, some Ezov (hyssop) branches, and a length of combed wool dyed crimson are thrown into the carcass of the cow as it is burning (Bamidbar 19:1-22).

(b)Should a person or utensil become Tamei by touching a Mes or being in the same room as a Mes (or a part of a Mes which is Metamei b'Ohel), he/it must wait seven days before he/it is able to immerse in a Mikvah in order to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas is sprinkled on the person or utensil. Mei Chatas is a mixture of ashes of a Parah Adumah and spring water. A person who is Tahor dips three bound Ezov branches into the mixture, using them to sprinkle Mei Chatas upon the person or utensil which is Tamei. After this process is complete, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, the purification process is complete (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

(c)These laws were taught on Rosh Chodesh Nisan since the offering of the Korban Pesach (see Background to Sukah 42:39) was only two weeks away, and everyone needed to be Tahor then. The first Parah Adumah was burnt on the very next day, the second day of Nisan (YERUSHALMI, Megilah 3:5).

33)[line 2]רוב בכתב, ומיעוט על פהROV BI'CHESAV, U'MI'UT AL PEH- a majority of it is written, and a minority of it is transmitted orally (see Insights)

34)[line 3]"אכתוב- (אֶכְתָּב-) לוֹ רבו (רֻבֵּי) תּוֹרָתִי; כְּמוֹ-זָר נֶחְשָׁבוּ.""ECHTAV LO RUBEI TORASI; KEMO ZAR NECHSHAVU."- "I wrote for him much of My Torah; they were considered as a strange thing" (Hoshea 8:12). The plain meaning of this verse is that while Hash-m had rebuked His nation over and over, they reacted as if they had never heard it. Rebbi Elazar interprets it to mean that most of the Torah is written down.

35)[line 16]"[וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל-מֹשֶׁה,] כְּתָב-לְךָ אֶת-הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה; כִּי עַל-פִּי הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה [כָּרַתִּי אִתְּךָ בְּרִית וְאֶת-יִשְׂרָאֵל.]""[VA'YOMER HASH-M EL MOSHE,] KSAV LECHA ES HA'DEVARIM HA'ELEH; KI AL PI HA'DEVARIM HA'ELEH [KARATI ITCHA BRIS V'ES YISRAEL.]"- "[And Hash-m said to Moshe, write for yourself these words;] for it according to these words [that I have forged a covenant with you and Yisrael]" (Shemos 34:27). Rebbi Yochanan interprets this verse to mean that the covenant was forged upon the oral part of the Torah ("Al Pi") - presumably due to that which it comprises the majority of its wisdom.

36)[line 7]אתמוהי קא מתמהATMUHI KA METAMEH- he asked it rhetorically

37)[line 8]הלא כמו זר נחשבו!HALO KEMO ZAR NECHSHAVU!- a) [even that which I have already written for them] they treat as if it is strange! (RASHI); b) they will then be like every other nation! (TOSFOS DH Atmuhi)

38)[line 9]ההוא משום דתקיפי למיגמרינהוHA'HU MISHUM D'TAKIFEI L'MIGMERINHU- that [which the covenant was forged upon the Oral part of the Torah] is because it is difficult to learn

39)[line 11]מתורגמניהMETURGEMANEI- his Meturgeman [whose job was to a) repeat the lesson of the Rav in a louder voice (RASHI to Berachos 56a); b) translate the lesson of the Rav from Hebrew into the vernacular (RASHI to Yoma 20b)]

40a)[line 13]דברים שבכתב אי אתה רשאי לאומרן על פהDEVARIM SHEVI'CHESAV IY ATAH RASHAI L'OMRAN BE'AL PEH- you may not read by heart those parts of the Torah that were given in written form

b)[line 14]דברים שבעל פה אי אתה רשאי לאומרן בכתבDEVARIM SHEVI'VE'AL PEH IY ATAH RASHAI L'OMRAN BI'CHESAV- you may not transcribe those parts of the Torah that were given orally

41)[line 16]"[כְּתָב-לְךָ אֶת-הַדְּבָרִים הָ]אֵלֶּה""[KSAV LECHA ES HA'DEVARIM HA']ELEH"- see above, entry #35

42)[line 17]הלכותHALACHOS- Halachos l'Moshe mi'Sinai; orally transmitted laws with no basis in the written Torah

43)[line 17]כרתKARAS- forged

44)[line 21]כבודKAVOD- [the] honor [of the family who had housed the Eruv until this point]

45)[line 22]שיפוראSHIFORA- a) a horn [blown just before Shabbos commences to remind people to conclude their weekday activities prior to the onset of Shabbos] (RASHI, first explanation); b) a collection box [shaped like a horn in that were narrow on top where the slot to put the money was and wide on the bottom]. These features guarded against theft by allowing money into the box, but not allowing any out. These boxes were located in the house of the Rosh ha'Yeshivah, and the funds collected therein went toward supporting the students in the Yeshiva (RASHI, second explanation; TOSFOS DH Shipora)

46)[line 22]ביBEI- in the house of

47)[line 25]חשדאCHASHDA- suspicion [that a) the residents of the courtyard were carrying without an Eruv (RASHI); b) someone had stolen the food of the Eruv (RABEINU CHANANEL cited by TOSFOS DH Ela)]

48)[line 26]בני נהראBNEI NAHARA- those who own fields alongside a river

49a)[line 26]תתאי שתו מיא ברישאTATA'EI SHASU MAYA B'REISHA- [those who own fields] downstream [have the right to] irrigate [their fields] with water first

b)[line 27]עילאי שתו מיא ברישאILA'EI SHASU MAYA B'REISHA- [those who own fields] upstream [have the right to] irrigate [their fields] with water first

50)[line 28]בדמיזל, כולי עלמא לא פליגיBED'MEIZAL, KULEI ALMA LO PELIGEI- when [the river] continues to flow [as water is drawn from it], everyone agrees [that all are permitted to draw water from it as they wish, even if such action causes the river to dry up] (see TOSFOS DH b'Meizal)

51)[line 29]במיסכר ואשקוייB'MISKAR V'ASHKUYEI- when [the custom is to] dam the river [such that it overflows in order] to irrigate [the fields]

52a)[line 30]אנן מקרבינן טפי!ANAN MEKARVINAN TEFEI!- we are closer [to the river's source]!

b)[line 31]נהרא כפשטיה ליזיל!NAHARA CH'PASHTEI LEIZIL!- let the river flow naturally [for as long as possible]!

53)[line 34]באמה המתהלכת ע"פ בורוAMAH HA'MISHALECHES AL PI BORO- an irrigation ditch that flows through the mouth of the pit [such that it must first fill the pit in order to continue flowing onward]

54a)[line 36]סכר מיסכרSAKAR MISKAR- stop up [your pit]

b)[line 36]ואשקי בהינדזאV'ASHKEI B'HINDEZA- and irrigate [your fields] with [the water] that you manage (O.F. aventure) [to draw from your irrigation channel as we must]

55)[line 38]כל דאלים גברKOL D'ALIM GAVAR- whomever is stronger prevails (see Bava Basra 34b)

56)[line 40]לותבן מר בעידנאLOSVAN MAR B'IDNA- sit, Mar (a third-person term of respect), [and learn Torah with me] at a set time

57)[line 40]אית לי עידנא לדידיIS LI IDNA L'DIDI- I have time [only] for my own [Torah learning]

58)[line 43]לחייLECHAYEI- very well

59)[line 44]אדהכיAD'HACHI- meanwhile

60)[line 45]כבי תרי עבדת ליK'VEI TREI AVDAS LI- you acted for me according to two opposing views (see TOSFOS DH k'Vei)

61)[line 45]לא טעמינהוLO TA'AMINHU- he did not eat them

62)[line 46]שתאSHASA- year

63)[line 46]בני בי חרמךBNEI BEI CHARMACH- the residents of the city of Charmach

64a)[line 46]אזול כרו ברישא דשנוותאAZUL KARU B'REISHA D'SHANVASA- they dug where [the river] Shanvasa began [to flow past their field in order to partially divert it around the field]

b)[line 46]ואהדרוה ושדיוה בשילהי נהראV'AHADRUHA V'SHADYUHA B'SHILHEI NAHARA- and they directed it [around the field] and returned it to where the river finished [flowing past the field]

65)[line 47]קא מתקיל לנהריןKA MASKIL L'NAHARIN- [this diversion] causes the river to back up [since it cannot flow as fast as it used to when it flowed in a straight line]

66)[line 48]כרו בהדייהו טפי פורתאKARU BAHADAIHU TEFEI PURTA- deepen [the river] a bit where [it flows past] your [fields]

67)[line 48]קא יבשי פיריןKA YAVSHEI PEIRIN- our ditches will dry up [when the river slows]

68)[line 48]אמר להוAMAR LEHU- [Abaye] told [the residents of Charmach]

69)[line 48]זילו סליקו נפשייכו מהתםZILU SELIKU NAFSHAICHU ME'HASAM- go and remove yourselves from there; i.e., return the river to its original course

70a)[last line]אוזליOZLEI- nets woven from string

b)[last line]אוהריOHAREI- nets woven from reeds