[61a - 35 lines; 61b - 31 lines]

1a)[line 1]בלחיLACHEI- (O.F. aim) hooks

b)[line 2]וקוקריKOKAREI- traps for fish in the form of a long string from which needles were hung which would catch the fish as they tried to swim by

2)[line 7]להוצלHUTZAL- a city in Bavel, located between Sura and Neharde'a, that was walled from the time of Yehoshua bin Nun, where members of the tribe of Binyamin may have settled after they were taken into exile

3)[line 8]שדי אופייSHADI OFYEI- he was throwing sticks (at a tree to make the fruit fall down)

4)[line 9]נתרן תמריNASRAN TAMREI- dates fell down

5)[line 10]דבידאי שדיתינהוDEB'YADAI SHADISINHU- with my hands I have thrown them (the dates) down

6)[line 17]משאלתMASH'ELES- may lend

7)[line 18]השביעיתSHEVI'IS

(a)The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that:

1.They must be considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat;

2.The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 39:2);

3.The Torah requires that the fruits of Shevi'is be used only for eating or drinking (in the normal manner of eating for that type of fruit) or for burning to provide light (in the case of oil). They may not be wasted or used for medicinal purposes or animal fodder, etc.

(b)The Shemitah year is meant to teach the Jewish people to rely on HaSh-m for their sustenance, a fact that is not always clear to them during the six years in which they work their own fields.

8a)[line 18]נפהNAPAH- a sifter

b)[line 18]וכברהKEVARAH- a sieve for sifting grain (TIFERES YISRAEL to Shabbos 8:2)

9)[line 18]וריחיםRECHAYIM- a flour mill

10)[line 18]ותנורTANUR- an oven

11)[line 19]לא תבורLO SAVUR- she may not separate

12)[line 19]ולא תטחןV'LO SITCHAN- and she may not grind

13)[line 19]חברCHAVER - one who is meticulous in his observance of Halachah

(a)A person is called a Chaver if he accepts upon himself four things:

1.Never to give Terumah and Ma'asros to an Am ha'Aretz;

2.Never to prepare Taharos in the vicinity of an Am ha'Aretz;

3.To always eat Chulin b'Taharah;

4.To take Ma'aser from all produce that one eats, sells and buys (Tosefta Demai 2:2-3).

(b)The Gemara in Bechoros 30b explains exactly how one goes about accepting this distinguished status.

14)[line 21]ומרקדתU'MERAKEDES- and she may sift

15)[line 22]שאין מחזיקין ידי עוברי עבירהSHE'EIN MACHAZIKIN YEDEI OVREI AVEIRAH- that we may not help those who commit sins

16)[line 28]בעם הארץ דרבי מאירAM HA'ARETZ D'REBBI MEIR- an Am ha'Aretz as defined by Rebbi Meir (see next entry)

17)[line 30]כל שאינו אוכל חוליו בטהרהKOL SHE'EINO OCHEL CHULAV B'TAHARAH- anyone who does not eat his Chulin food while he is in a state of Taharah [is an Am ha'Aretz according to Rebbi Meir]

18)[last line]בטומאת חלהTUM'AS CHALAH

(a)CHALAH - Whenever a person kneads a dough made from one of the five species of grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye, or spelt), he must separate a small portion to be given to the Kohen, as specified in Bamidbar 15:17-21. This portion is called Chalah. The requirement to separate Chalah with a Berachah only applies to a dough made from the volume of 43.2 Beitzim of flour (about 10 1/2 cups or 2.48 liters). An amount about half that much requires Chalah to be separated without a Berachah. A baker must separate 1/48 of his dough as Chalah, while a normal homeowner must separate 1/24.

(b)It is forbidden, by the Torah, to actively cause Chalah to become Tamei, as is derived from the verse, "Es Mishmeres Terumosai" - "the guard of my Terumos" (Bamidbar 18:8), which implies that Terumah (of which Chalah is one form) must be guarded from Tum'ah. This prohibition applies only after the point at which the flour becomes obligated in Chalah - when water is mixed with the flour and it is kneaded into dough.


19)[line 1]ומפקידיןU'MAFKIDIN- and we may deposit

20)[line 8]שלבו גס בהSHE'LIBO GAS BAH- (O.F. privez) that he is closely familiar with it

21)[line 9]בכלי חרש המוקף צמיד פתילKLI CHERES HA'MUKAF TZEMID PESIL (TZEMID PESIL)

If a k'Zayis from a corpse is in an Ohel (a space that is at least a Tefach by a Tefach square and a Tefach high), Tum'ah spreads out in all directions to fill the entire Ohel. Any metal utensils (covered or uncovered) or food and drink that are in the Ohel become Teme'im. However, a Kli Cheres only becomes Tamei when Tum'ah enters it. Therefore, when it is covered with a Tzemid Pesil (a tight seal) it does not become Tamei even if it is in the Ohel. Similarly, a food that is in a Kli Cheres that is covered with a Tzemid Pesil does not become Tamei.

22)[line 10]תסיטנוTESITENU - she will carry it (HESET)

A Zav (see Background to Nazir 64:4a:a-e), Zavah (see Background to Nazir 64:4a:f-h), Nidah (see Background to Kesuvos 61:59), or Yoledes (see Background to Sotah 7:9), can cause Tum'ah through Heset, when they move (or outweigh on a balance scale) a person or object that is Tahor, whether they touch them or not. In all other types of Tum'ah besides Zav, Zavah, Nidah, and Yoledes, the Tamei who moves (without touching) a person or object that is Tahor does not Metamei the person or object. Only Zav (etc.) can Metamei people or objects, including earthenware utensils, in this way.

23)[line 11]בפירות שהוכשרוPEIROS SHE'HUCHSHERU - [detached] fruits [of Terumah] that became able to receive Tum'ah when they became wet (HECHSHER OCHLIN)

Foods may become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah only if they were wetted at some point in their history. Making foods wet in a manner that enables them to become Tamei is called "Hechsher." From then on, even after they dry, they can become Tamei. Wetting food with any one of seven liquids - water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey - can enable the food to become Tamei.

24)[line 13]כותיKUSI

(a)The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid (Geirei Emes) or not (Geirei Arayos).

(b)After the times of the Mishnah, the Kusim were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of Nochrim. (According to most Rishonim, this means that they decided to treat them like Nochrim l'Chumra, even if they were Geirei Emes. According to the RAMBAM (Peirush ha'Mishnayos), however, this means that they decided that their conversion was not sincere and deemed them Nochrim (Geirei Arayos) for all Halachic matters.)

(c)Even though the Kusim kept many Mitzvos of the Torah down to their last detail, there were other Mitzvos that they did not keep at all. For example, the Kusim did not refrain from causing others to sin (which is prohibited by the verse, "Lifnei Iver Lo Siten Michshol" - "You shall not put a stumbling block before the blind" - Vayikra 19:14).

25)[line 15]מאי רומיאMAI RUMYA- why is it comparable

26)[line 16]ודקארי לה מאי קארי להV'DEKA'ARI LAH, MAI KA'ARI LAH- and the one who asked this question, why did he ask it (since the answer is obvious)?

27)[line 18]ולחלופיV'LA'CHALUFEI- and for exchanging (the Gemara addresses whether an Am ha'Aretz is suspected of exchanging fruit that was deposited with him for other fruit)

28)[line 19]לחמותוCHAMOSO- his mother-in-law (who was the wife of an Am ha'Aretz)

29)[line 21]מחלפת המתקלקלMACHLEFES HA'MISKALKEL- she exchanges the spoiled [bread that she baked for her own fresh bread]

30)[line 24]לפונדקיתPUNDAKIS- a woman innkeeper (who is the wife of an Am ha'Aretz)

31)[line 26]מוריאMORYA- she rules [to herself that it is permitted to exchange the bread he gave her]