CHIYUVIM FOR COOKING ON YOM TOV
Objection #1 (Abaye): You contradict yourself!
Question (Rabah, of Rav Chisda or Rav Huna): If one brought a sheep from the swamp (it does not normally go near people, it is Muktzeh) and slaughtered it for the Tamid (daily offering) on Yom Tov, what is the law?
Answer (Beraisa): [A verse in Yechezkeil specifies what may be offered (Tosfos - for Pesach) -] "V'Seh" - not a Bechor; "Achas" - not Ma'aser; "Min ha'Tzon" - not a Palgas (a sheep in its 13th month - it is no longer a Keves (lamb), but it is not yet an Ayil (ram));
"Min ha'Masayim" - [regarding Nesachim, if a volume of Orlah fell into a pit, one may bring] from the remaining 200 volumes in the pit [after deducting the amount that fell in];
This alludes to the [mid'Rabanan] law that Orlah is Batel in 200 times its own volume of Heter.
"Mi'Mashke Yisrael" - from what is permitted to Yisrael, but not from Tevel.
Suggestion: Perhaps one may not bring from Muktzeh!
Rejection: One may not bring from something intrinsically forbidden, like Tevel - Muktzeh is not intrinsically forbidden, rather, it is Asur on account of something else (Shabbos).
If Muktzeh is mid'Oraisa, is makes no difference whether or not the Isur is intrinsic!
Objection #2 (Abaye): You yourself say that the Melachos are separate regarding Shabbos (if one forgot several Melachos and transgressed them, he brings a Korban for each), but not regarding Yom Tov (he is lashed only once for several Melachos - why is he lashed for cooking on Yom Tov and for using Muktzeh?)!
Answer #3 (to Question 2:m, 47B - Rava): Rather, it should omit burning; the wood was from an Asherah, he transgresses "V'Lo Yidbak b'Yadcha Me'umah Min ha'Cherem"!
Objection: (Rav Acha brei d'Rava): If so, he also transgresses "V'Lo Savi To'evah El Beisecha"!
Answer #4 (Rav Acha brei d'Rava): Rather, the wood was Hekdesh, he transgresses "Va'Ashereihem Tisrefun ba'Esh ...; Lo Sa'asun Ken la'Shem Elokeichem."
THE ARGUMENT OF R. ELIEZER AND R. YEHOSHUA
(Rami bar Chama): Rav Chisda and Rabah argue like R. Eliezer and R. Yehoshua:
R. Eliezer says Ho'il [to allow baking all of them, even though one will be made Chalah]; R. Yehoshua does not say Ho'il.
Rejection #1 (Rav Papa): Perhaps R. Eliezer allows baking all of them only because he himself could eat from every loaf he puts in the oven (he could make part of each loaf Chalah) - but he would not permit just because others (guests) might eat them!
Rejection #2 (Rav Shisha brei d'Rav Idi): Perhaps R. Yehoshua does not say Ho'il because one of them may not be eaten by anyone - but he would permit when everything could be eat by guests!
R. Yirmeyah agreed with Rami bar Chama; R. Zeira did not.
R. Yirmeyah: For many years we did not understand the argument of R. Eliezer and R. Yehoshua - now that a great Chacham explained it, surely we should accept it!
Question (R. Zeira - Beraisa): R. Yehoshua told R. Eliezer 'according to you, he transgresses "Lo Sa'aseh Chol Melachah'"; R. Eliezer was silent.
R. Eliezer did not answer 'I say Ho'il [therefore, he does not transgress]!'
Counter-question (R. Yirmeyah - Beraisa): R. Eliezer told R. Yehoshua 'according to you, he transgresses Bal Yera'eh and Bal Yimatzei'; R. Yehoshua was silent.
You cannot say that R. Yehoshua did not answer!
(Mishnah - R. Yehoshua): He is not commanded Bal Yera'eh and Bal Yimatzei regarding this Chametz!
You must say that he was silent in the Beraisa and answered in the Mishnah - likewise, R. Eliezer was silent in the Beraisa and answered in another Beraisa! (They argue about Tovas Hana'ah k'Mamon and Ho'il.)
(Beraisa #1 - Rebbi): The Halachah follows R. Eliezer.
(R. Yitzchak): The Halachah follows Ben Beseira.
Question: How large a dough may one make on Pesach? (A large dough is forbidden, for it is hard to bake it before it becomes Chametz.)
Answer #1 (R. Yishmael, son of R. Yochanan ben Brokah): One may make up to two Kavim of wheat, or three Kavim of barley (wheat is more prone to become Chametz than barley).
Answer #2 (R. Noson citing R. Eliezer): One may make up to three Kavim of wheat, or two Kavim of barley (see note 30 in Appendix).
Contradiction (Beraisa #2 - R. Yishmael, son of R. Yochanan ben Brokah): One may make up to three Kavim of wheat, or four Kavim of barley.
Resolution: Beraisa #1 discusses good grain, and Beraisa #2 discusses poor grain.
Inference (Rav Papa): This teaches that poor wheat is worse than good wheat more than poor barley is worse than good barley:
One Kav of poor wheat is like (makes as much flour as) two thirds of a Kav of good wheat, whereas one Kav of poor barley is like three quarters of a Kav of good barley.
THE SHI'UR TO OBLIGATE SEPARATING CHALAH
(Rav): One may knead up to a Kav of Melugna'ah (a certain place) on Pesach; this is also the Shi'ur from which Chalah must be taken.
Question (Mishnah): Chalah must be taken from a dough of slightly more than five Lugim (quarter Kavim) of flour (see note 31 in Appendix).
Answer: Rav teaches that this is equal to one Kav of Melugna'ah.
(Rav Yosef): Nowadays, women do not bake more than three Lugim at a time.
Objection (Abaye): You intend to be stringent - but this causes a leniency, it exempts the dough from Chalah!
Answer (Rav Yosef): They do like R. Eliezer:
(Mishnah - R. Eliezer): If one removed loaves [each is less than the Shi'ur to obligate separating Chalah] from an oven and put them in a basket, the basket makes them join [to the Shi'ur].
(Rav Yehudah): The Halachah follows R. Eliezer.
Question: But R. Yehoshua ben Levi taught that this is only regarding [wide round] loaves of Bavel that stick to each other in the oven, but not to long thin loaves that do not!
Answer: R. Chanina taught that it applies even to long thin loaves (Rav Yosef holds like R. Chanina).
Question (R. Yirmeyah): Does a board without a rim join [loaves] for Chalah?
Perhaps a Keli with an interior is required, so it does not;
Or, perhaps we only require the loaves to be in the airspace of (i.e. above) a Keli!
This question is not resolved.
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer): A basket joins [loaves for Chalah].
R. Yehoshua says, the oven joins them (Gra - but not a basket; Rashi - either of them joins them);
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, loaves of Bavel that stick to each other join [but long thin loaves do not].
SHARING AN OVEN TO BAKE MATZOS
(Mishnah - R. Gamliel): Three women may knead at the same time [enough dough to fill a small oven] to bake in the same oven, one after the other [even though one of them will need to wait after kneading until the others finish baking];
Chachamim say, three women may work with dough at the same time [doing different steps] - while one kneads, another arranges [the loaves], and the third bakes.
R. Akiva says, different women work at different paces, different wood and ovens bake at different speeds [therefore they may not work together, lest the dough become Chametz while one waits to use the oven];
The general rule is - if one sees that the dough starts to rise, she should put her hands in [cold] water and smear the dough [to impede Chimutz].
(Gemara - Beraisa): Rachel kneads; when she arranges, Leah kneads; when Rachel bakes, Leah arranges and Sarah kneads;
When Rachel finishes baking, she kneads, Leah bakes, and Sarah arranges;
They continue in this rotation; as long as one works with dough, it will not become Chametz.
(Mishnah - R. Akiva): Different women...
(Beraisa - R. Akiva (to R. Gamliel)): Do you discuss zealous women, or lethargic women? Is the wood wet or dry? Is the oven hot or cold?
R. Gamliel: Chachamim said that if one sees that the dough starts to rise, she should put her hands in water and smear the dough [to impede Chimutz - therefore, we are not concerned if one must wait].
EARLY STAGES OF CHIMUTZ
(Mishnah - R. Yehudah): Sei'or (partially fermented dough) must be burned; one who eats it is exempt;
Siduk [a dough which has cracks on account of Chimutz] must be burned; one who eats it is Chayav Kares.
Sei'or is a dough with cracks resembling grasshopper antennae (isolated cracks in different areas); Siduk is when the cracks intersect;
Chachamim say, one is Chayav Kares for eating either of these!
Rather, Sei'or is a dough that turned white, like one whose hair stands up [from fright].
(Gemara - Beraisa - R. Meir): Sei'or is a dough that turned white, like one whose hair stands up;
Siduk is a dough with cracks resembling grasshopper antennae.
Chachamim say, Sei'or is like antennae; Siduk is when the cracks intersect.
One is Chayav Kares for [eating] either of these.
Question: (We do not find a third Tana'ic opinion, so surely the Chachamim that argue with R. Meir hold like R. Yehudah.) In our Mishnah, R. Yehudah says that Sei'or must be burned, and one who eats it is exempt!
Answer: It means, R. Meir is Mechayev Kares for either of these.
Question (Rava): What is R. Meir's reason?
Answer: For every crack visible above [on the surface] there are many cracks below (if we see antennae, surely the cracks intersect below the surface).