PESACHIM 48 (1 Elul) - Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Esther Chaya Rayzel (Friedman) bas Gershon Eliezer (Yahrzeit: 30 Av, Yom Kevurah: 1 Elul) by her daughter and son-in-law, Jeri and Eli Turkel of Raanana, Israel. Esther Friedman was a woman of valor who was devoted to her family and gave of herself unstintingly, inspiring all those around her.
PESACHIM 48 (6 Adar) - dedicated by the Feldman family in memory of their father, the Tzadik Harav Yisrael Azriel ben Harav Chaim (Feldman) of Milwaukee.

[48a - 37 lines; 48b - 32 lines]

1)[line 9]חילוק מלאכות לשבתCHILUK MELACHOS L'SHABBOS

(a)For every Melachah Shabbos that a person transgresses, he must bring a separate Korban Chatas. Similarly, if a person forgets that a certain Melachah is Asur and does that Melachah, then remembers that it is prohibited, and again forgets it is prohibited and repeats the act, he must bring two Korbanos. That is, if a person transgresses two (or more) Melachos during the same He'elem (period of forgetfulness) or one Melachah in two (or more) Ha'alemos, he must bring two (or more) Korbenos Chatas.

(b)This is not true of Yom Tov. No matter how many Isurim of Yom Tov a person transgresses, and no matter what the circumstances, he receives Malkus only once for all of them.

2)[line 16]כל חדא וחדא חזיא ליה לדידיהKOL CHADA V'CHADA CHAZYA LEI L'DIDEI- each individual dough that he places in the oven is fit for his own personal use, since it is possible to say about each one, "this one may not be the Matzah that will be designated as Chalah"

3)[line 22]מילתא דקשיא לן ואתיא כמה שניMILSA D'KASHYA LAN V'ASYA KAMAH SHENEI- a matter that we have found difficult for a number of years

4)[line 30]במכילתא אחריתיMECHILTA ACHARISI- another collection of Beraisos

5)[line 32]קביןKABAYIN- two Kav measures

6a)[line 35]בחסיכתאCHASICHASA- poor wheat

b)[line 35]במעלייתאMA'ALYASA- good wheat

7)[last line]קבא מלוגנאהKABA MELOGNA'AH- a Kav of Meloga, a place in Bavel


8)[line 1]חמשת רבעיםCHAMESHES REVA'IM- five Lugin Tziporiyos (a Log is called a Reva, or quarter, since it is equal to one quarter of a Kav) of flour, which equal one Omer (Shemos 16:36), the volume of Man that fell for each Jew in the desert. This is the Shi'ur of flour that requires Chalah to be separated with a Berachah (about 10 1/2 cups or 2.48 liters). Rashi points out that five Lugin Tziporiyos equal six Lugin Yerushalmiyos, which equal seven Lugin and 1.2 Beitzim of the Lugin of the Torah (or "Midbariyos"), or 43.2 Beitzim).

9)[line 4]קפיזא קפיזאKEFIZA KEFIZA- three Lugin at a time

10)[line 10]כעכיןKA'ACHIN- (O.F. kiles) loaves that are long and narrow that do not touch each other when they are baked. Similarly, Matzos are baked in such a way that they do not touch each other.

11)[line 11]לבזבזיןLEVIZBEZIN- raised edges, rims

12)[line 17]תוךTAFACH- if [she feels that] it is starting to rise

13)[line 17]תלטוש בצונןTILTOSH B'TZONEN- she should slap her hand in cold water and rub it on the dough (to prevent leavening)

14a)[line 18]לשה היא מקטפת וחבירתה לשה תחתיהLASHAH, HI MEKATEFES, V'CHAVERTAH LASHAH TACHTEHA- as soon as the first woman finishes kneading and starts to shape (O.F. entorter) her Matzos, the second woman starts to knead her dough

b)[line 18]מקטפת היא אופה וחבירתה מקטפת תחתיה והשלישית לשהMEKATEFES, HI OFAH, V'CHAVERTAH MEKATEFES TACHTEHA, VEHA'SHELISHIS LASHAH- as soon as the first woman finishes shaping her Matzos and starts to bake them, the second woman starts to shape her Matzos, and the third woman starts to knead her dough

15)[line 24]שיאור / סידוקSI'UR / SIDUK - The beginning of the leavening process / cracks in the dough - the completion of the leavening process (CHAMETZ: STAGES OF FERMENTATION)

(a)As dough becomes Chametz it goes through a number of stages:

1.First, it becomes pale like the appearance of a man whose hair stands on end out of fright.

2.It then starts to form thin cracks on its surface, which look like locusts' antennae (Karnei Chagavim).

3.Next, the cracks begin to multiply and run into each other.

(b)The Tana'im argue as to which stage is called "Si'ur," which necessitates that the dough be burned and is Asur b'Hana'ah, and which stage is considered "Siduk," which is not only Asur b'Hana'ah but also punishable with Kares if eaten. Si'ur is considered inedible (Chametz Nuksheh), since the dough has not completed its fermentation, and therefore one who eats it is not punished with Kares.

(c)Rebbi Meir calls stage 1 "Si'ur" and maintains that it is already leavened but since at this point it is not fit to be eaten, one receives Malkus, not Kares, for eating it. He calls stage 2 "Siduk," which is punishable by Kares.

(d)Rebbi Yehudah maintains that stage 1 is still Matzah mid'Oraisa, and is prohibited only mid'Rabanan. He calls stage 2 "Si'ur" and maintains that it must be destroyed before Pesach but if one eats it he is exempt from Kares. Stage 3 is "Siduk," which is punishable by Kares.

16)[line 25]כקרני חגביםKARNEI CHAGAVIM- locusts' antennae

17)[line 27]שהכסיפו פניוSHE'HICHSIFU PANAV- pale like the appearance of a man whose hair stands on end out of fright