[87a - 47 lines; 87b - 52 lines]


1)[line 3]הלכה רגל ראשוןHALCHAH REGEL RISHON- (a) when she went [to her father's house] for [Pesach, which turned out to be] the first festival after her wedding (RASHI); (b) [if Pesach is] the first time she went for a festival after her wedding (TOSFOS DH Kan, first explanation)

2)[line 5]יתוםYASOM- an orphan younger than thirteen (YERUSAHLMI, RAMBAM Korban Pesach 2:11)

3)[line 6]אפוטרופסיןAPOTROPSIN- legal guardians


(a)In numerous places in Shas we find arguments among the Tana'im/Amora'im as to whether "Yesh Bereirah" (i.e. Bereirah works) or "Ein Bereirah" (i.e. Bereirah does not work). Bereirah means making the effect of one's action contingent retroactively upon future events. Examples of this are: buying or selling an object on the condition that it rains the following day, or that the object of the sale will remain undefined until it is selected the following day. "Ein Bereirah" means that such a stipulation does not work. An action cannot be contingent on a future event. The Ran (Nedarim 45b) explains this opinion with the following logic: "It is not proper for something to take effect when upon what it will take effect is still in question." (See Insights to Chulin 15:2.) "Yesh Bereirah" means that such a stipulation does work.

(b)When the action is contingent on a past event, there is no question that the action works — even if the people involved in the action are not aware as to whether the past event did or did not take place. For example, if a person makes two Eruvei Techumin before sundown on Erev Shabbos, places them on opposite sides of his city, and declares, "If my Rebbi is presently staying in the village to the east, I would like the eastern Eruv to work; if not, I would like the eestern Eruv to work." The man making the Eruv may not know where his Rebbi is, but when he finds out the Eruv will have taken effect on the side that he stipulated ("Kevar Ba Chacham" — see Chulin 14b).

(c)We find dozens of instances in the Gemara where a person may perform an action "on the condition that..." (b'Tenai). For example, a man may buy/sell an object or divorce his wife on the condition that the other party pays/does whatever the first party specifies. If the condition is not kept in the future, the sale/divorce is annulled. This situation is not called Bereirah — see Insights to Eruvin 36b.

(d)Halachically, most Poskim conclude (based on Beitzah 38a) that in questions regarding d'Oraisa matters, we assume that Bereirah does not work (l'Chumra), but questions regarding d'Rabanan matters, we rely on Bereirah (l'Kula).

5)[line 13]ברדופה לילךREDUFAH LEILECH- anxious to go [(a) to complain; (RASHI); (b) in order to describe how well she is treated in her father-in-law's house (TOSFOS, RAMBAM)]

6a)[line 14]"[אני חומה ושדי כמגדלות] אז הייתי בעיניו כמוצאת שלום""[ANI CHOMAH V'SHADAI KA'MIGDALOS;] AZ HAYISI V'EINAV K'MOTZ'EIS SHALOM"- "[I am a wall and my breasts are like towers;] then (therefore) I am in His eyes as one (a bride) who found peace (who was found to be satisfactory in every way by those in her father-in-law's house)" (Shir ha'Shirim 8:10).

b)[line 15]שנמצאת שלימהSHE'NIMTZEIS SHELEIMAH- who was found to be satisfactory in every way

7)[line 16]ורדופה לילך להגיד שבחהU'REDUFAH LEILECH L'HAGID SHIVCHAH- According to Rashi, this is a description of the Kalah in our Mishnah who is not anxious to go to her father's house.

8)[line 18]אישי/בעליISHI/BA'ALI- (a) my husband following Nisu'in/my husband following Kidushin (MAHARSHAL, RASHI to Kesuvos 71b); (b) my bridegroom/my master or provider (RASHI to Hoshea 2:18)

9)[line 20]אחות לנו קטנהACHOS LANU KETANAH- This is quoted by our Gemara here because it is another interpretation of Rebbi Yochanan of a verse in the same chapter of Shir ha'Shirim. Once on the subject, the Gemara continues to discuss verses which seemingly discuss the beauty of maidens, but actually refer to Yir'as Shamayim (see Rashi DH b'Yemei).

10)[line 21]עילםEILAM- Media (Bereishis Rabah 42:7)

11)[line 27]"אשר בנינו כנטיעים מגודלים בנעוריהם; בנותינו כזויות מחוטבות תבנית היכל""ASHER BANENU KI'NTI'IM MEGUDALIM BI'N'UREIHEM; BENOSEINU CH'ZAVIYOS MECHUTAVOS TAVNIS HEICHAL"- "For our sons are like saplings nurtured from their youth; our daughters are like cornerstones crafted in palatial form" (Tehilim 144:12).

12)[line 31]שאוגדות פתחיהן לבעליהןSHE'OGDOS PISCHEIHEN L'VA'ALEIHEN- (a) that they are faithful to their husbands (lit. they keep themselves bound [to others] for their husbands); (b) alt. SHE'MAGIDOS PISCHEIHEN L'VA'ALEIHEN - that they notify their husbands when they see Dam Nidah (see Background to 90:17)

13)[line 32]"... ומלאו כמזרק כזויות מזבח""U'MAL'U KA'MIZRAK K'ZAVIYOS MIZBE'ACH"- "... and they shall be filled like bowls, and like the corners of the Mizbe'ach" (Zecharyah 9:15) - Rashi explains that even when Jewish wives are filled with passion, they do not consider adultery but remain faithful to their husbands.

14)[line 33]"מזוינו מלאים מפיקים מזן אל זן... צאננו מאליפות מרובבות בחוצותינו""MEZAVEINU MELE'IM, MEFIKIM MI'ZAN EL ZAN; TZONENU MA'ALIFOS MERUBAVOS B'CHUTZOSEINU"- "Our storehouses overflow to their very corners (lit. our corners are full), providing [produce] from harvest to harvest; our sheep increase by the thousands, by the myriads in our open spaces" (Tehilim 144:13) - The metaphor of Mezaveinu (our storehouses) symbolizes a hollow object which may be filled, as in the previous entry (MAHARSHA).

15)[line 36]"דבר ה' אשר היה אל הושע וגו' בימי עוזיהו יותם אחז יחזקיה מלך יהודה ובימי ירבעם בן יואש מלך ישראל""DEVAR HASH-M ASHER HAYAH EL HOSHEA BEN BE'ERI; BI'YEMEI UZIYAH YOSAM ACHAZ YECHIZKIYAH MALCHEI YEHUDAH UVI'YEMEI YERAVAM BEN YO'ASH MELECH YISRAEL" (Hoshea 1:1)- This is quoted by our Gemara here because, again, it is Rebbi Yochanan who interprets a verse from the same book of Hoshea (see also Rashi DH b'Yemei).

16)[line 42]בני חנוניך הםBNEI CHANUNECHA HEM- they are the sons whom you [constantly] favor

17)[last line]"וילך ויקח את גומר בת דבלים""VA'YELECH VA'YIKACH ES GOMER BAS DIVLAYIM"- "And he went and took Gomer the daughter of Divlayim [as a wife]" (Hoshea 1:3).


18)[line 1]דבה רעהDIBAH RA'AH- of ill repute

19)[line 2]כדבלהKI'DEVEILAH- like a fig

20)[line 4]שבקשו לגמר ממונן של ישראלSHE'BIKSHU L'GAMER MAMONAN SHEL YISRAEL- they tried to destroy the possessions of Bnei Yisrael

21)[line 6]"[כי לא השאיר ליהואחז עם כי אם חמשים פרשים ועשרה רכב ועשרת אלפים רגלי] כי אבדם מלך ארם וישמם כעפר לדוש""KI LO HISH'IR LI'YEHO'ACHAZ AM KI IM CHAMISHIM PARASHIM VA'ASARAH RECHEV VA'ASERES ALAFIM RAGLI, KI IBDAM MELECH ARAM VA'YESIMEM KE'AFAR LA'DUSH" - "[For they (the Syrians) left no [armed] people to Yeho'achaz except for fifty horsemen, ten chariots, and ten thousand foot soldiers], because the King of Syria had destroyed them (the rest) and made them like dirt to be trampled upon" (Melachim II 13:7) (YEHO'ACHAZ, SON OF YEHU)

(a)Yeho'achaz ben Yehu reigned over Yisrael during the latter years of Yo'ash ben Achazyahu, king of Yehudah. For seventeen years he ruled in Shomron. He was an evil king who followed the ways of Yeravam ben Nevat. Consequently, HaSh-m delivered him into the hands of Chaza'el, King of Syria.

(b)Yeho'achaz beseeched HaSh-m for help. HaSh-m accepted his prayers, not because he was worthy, but because HaSh-m saw the terrible oppression that Yisrael suffered. The salvation, however, was not destined to come in his days, but in the days of his son Yo'ash, who would defeat Aram three times.

(c)The king's attitude did not change, and he continued to follow the ways of Yeravam. Also, he allowed the Asheirah idol to remain standing in Shomron.

(d)Yeho'achaz died and was buried in Shomron, and his son Yo'ash ascended the throne.

22)[line 7]"ותהר ותלד לו בן. ויאמר ה' אליו קרא שמו יזרעאל כי עוד מעט ופקדתי את דמי יזרעאל על בית יהוא והשבתי ממלכות בית ישראל""... VA'TAHAR VA'TELED LO BEN. VA'YOMER HASH-M ELAV, KERA SHEMO YIZRE'EL KI OD ME'AT U'FAKAD'IT ES DEMEI YIZRE'EL AL BEIS YEHU V'HISHBATI MI'MALCHUS BEIS YISRAEL" - "... and she conceived, and bore him a son. And HaSh-m said to him, 'Call his name Yizre'el, for shortly I shall visit the blood of Yizre'el upon the house of Yehu, and bring the kingdom of the house of Yisrael to an end'" (Hoshea 1:3-4) (PROPHECY OF DOOM FOR THE HOUSE OF YEHU)

(a)Yehu was instructed, by Eliyahu ha'Navi, to kill the family of King Achav, who caused Bnei Yisrael to serve the Avodah Zarah of Ba'al. However, when Yehu's descendants themselves proceeded to serve Ba'al, the murder of Achav and his household was retroactively considered unjustified.

(b)In order to discover the identity of all the adherents of Ba'al, Yehu pretended that he, too, worshipped Ba'al. After inviting all of the worshippers of Ba'al to participate in a public sacrifice to their god in the temple of Ba'al, he announced, "If Achav worshipped Ba'al a little, then Yehu shall worship him a lot!" (This was a tragic mistake. Chazal refer to such a statement as "Pesichas Peh l'Satan," opening one's mouth to the Satan, meaning that the statement later becomes self-fulfilling.) When the temple was full, he ordered his men to slaughter all those present.

(c)Initially, this was considered a great Mitzvah. However, having said that he would serve Ba'al (notwithstanding his good intentions), he went on to do just that, transgressing the very sin for which he had just eliminated virtually the entire family of Achav. For this reason his execution of the family of Achav was branded murder retroactively. Nevertheless, for having initially fulfilled HaSh-m's command in wiping out the house of Achav, he was rewarded with "the sons of four generations sitting on the throne of Yisrael" (Melachim II 10:30). (The line of descendants was Yehu, Yeho'achaz, Yeho'ash, Yeravam (the 2nd), and Zecharyahu.)

23)[line 10]"... כי נשא אשא להם""... KI NASO ESA LAHEM"- "... to forgive them [at all]" (Hoshea 1:6).

24)[line 16]בני בחוניBNEI BECHUNAI- the sons of those whom I tested (my trusted servants)

25)[line 18]"ה' קנני ראשית דרכו קדם מפעליו מאז""HASH-M KANANI REISHIS DARKO, KEDEM MIF'ALAV ME'AZ"- "HaSh-m created me (lit. acquired me) as the beginning of His way, the first of His works of old" (Mishlei 8:22).

26)[line 28]קיפחKIPE'ACH- buried; i.e. outlived

27)[line 33]"וישלח אמציה כהן בית אל אל ירבעם מלך ישראל לאמר קשר עליך עמוס בקרב בית ישראל לא תוכל הארץ להכיל את כל דבריו""VA'YISHLACH AMATZYAH KOHEN BEIS EL EL YARAV'AM MELECH YISRAEL LEIMOR KASHAR ALECHA AMOS B'KEREV BEIS YISRAEL LO SUCHAL HA'ARETZ L'HACHIL ES KOL DEVARAV"- "Then Amatzyah the priest of Beis El sent [a message] to Yerav'am king of Yisrael, saying, 'Amos has conspired against you in the midst of the house of Yisrael; the land is not able to bear all of his words'" (Amos 7:10).

28)[line 33]"כי כה אמר עמוס בחרב ימות ירבעם וישראל גלה יגלה מעל אדמתו""KI CHO AMAR AMOS BA'CHEREV YAMUS YARAV'AM V'YISRAEL GALO YIGLEH ME'AL ADMASO"- "For Amos said, 'Yerav'am shall die by the sword, and Yisrael shall be led away into exile out of their own land'" (Amos 7:11).

29)[line 41]"[מקול מחצצים בין משאבים, שם יְתַנּוּ צדקות ה'] צדקת פרזונו בישראל; [אז ירדו לשערים עם ה']""[MI'KOL MECHATZETZIM BEIN MASH'ABIM, SHAM YESANU TZIDKOS HASH-M,] TZIDKOS PIRZONO B'YISRAEL; [AZ YARDU LASHE'ARIM AM HASH-M]"- "[Louder than the voice of the archers where water is drawn, there let them recite the righteous acts of HaSh-m,] the righteous acts toward the inhabitants of His villages in Yisrael; [when the people of HaSh-m went down to the gates]" (Shoftim 5:11) - By rearranging the letters of the word "Pirzono," the Gemara understands that this verse suggests that Bnei Yisrael will be spread ("Mefuzarim") among the nations.

30)[line 42]איתינכו גבןISINCHU GABAN- you live among us

31)[line 44]תכלינן כולהוTECHALINAN KULHU- if you [intend to] destroy all of them (the Jewish people)

32)[line 44]מלכותא קטיעתאMALCHUSA KETI'ASA- the murderous kingdom

33)[line 45]גפא דרומאיGAPA D'ROMA'EI- by the Gapa (the name of an Avodah Zarah) of the Romans!

34)[line 45]בהא נחתינן ובהא סלקינןB'HA NACHTINAN UV'HA SALKINAN- (lit. with this on our mind we go down and up) we are constantly mulling over this matter

35)[line 50]למטעתןL'MAT'ASAN- to the garden where they were planted; i.e. to their sources