[36a - 48 lines; 36b - 41 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 36a [line 36]:
The words "Miltas Nami Latis" מילתת נמי לתית
should be "Lisusei Nami Miltas" ליתותי נמי מלתת (Dikdukei Sofrim #9)
1)[line 1]האוכל נבלה ביום הכפורים פטורHA'OCHEL NEVEILAH B'YOM HA'KIPURIM PATUR- one who [unintentionally] eats an improperly slaughtered animal on Yom Kippur need not [bring a Korban Chatas]. This is because the animal was already a Neveilah from before Yom Kippur, or — if it died on Yom Kippur itself — was already forbidden from before Yom Kippur due to the fact that it was Ever Min ha'Chai. Therefore the Isur of Yom Kippur does not rest upon it.
2)[line 7]במעשר שניMA'ASER SHENI
(a)Once Terumah Gedolah and Ma'aser Rishon have been separated from one's crop, it is time to separate the second tithe. In the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle this tithe is called Ma'aser Ani, and it is given to the poor.
(b)During the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle, the second tithe is called Ma'aser Sheni. Ma'aser Sheni must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity. The various laws of Ma'aser Sheni are learned from the verses which begin, "Aser Te'aser Eis Kol Tevu'as Zar'echa..." (Devarim 13:22-28).
(c)If it is impractical to bring the actual food to Yerushalayim, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed with money. This money receives the status of Ma'aser Sheni, and is then brought to Yerushalayim. In Yerushalayim the money may be used to buy food items only, which in turn receives the Kedushah of Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah in Yerushalayim. Once Ma'aser Sheni enters Yerushalayim, it may no longer be redeemed.
(d)If the owner of the Ma'aser Sheni redeems his own Ma'aser, he must add a fifth of the total value onto the money used; if someone else redeems it, he may do so with money equal to the value of the Ma'aser.
(e)One may not eat Ma'aser Sheni when he is in a state of mourning for one of the seven relatives upon whose death one sits Shiv'ah, as the verse clearly states, "Lo Achalti b'Oni Mimenu" (Devarim 26:14).
3)[line 7]תלמוד לומר לחם עוניTALMUD LOMAR LECHEM ONI, (MAH) MI SHE'NE'ECHAL B'ANINUS- the verse [refers to Matzah as] "bread of affliction," that which may be eaten while in mourning. The 22 letters of the Alef-Beis are produced from five distinct parts of the oral cavity. Letters produced from the same area are sometimes interchanged for one another. Therefore, although "Oni" is spelled with an Ayin and Aninus with an Alef, the Gemara learns one from the other, since Alef and Ayin both emanate from the Garon (throat).
4)[line 16]שעונין עליו דברים הרבהSHE'ONIN ALAV DEVARIM HARBEH- that one answers on it (that is, at the time that it is eaten) many things (i.e. full Hallel and the Pesach Hagadah)
5)[line 17]אין לשין...EIN LASHIN...- Flour mixed with wine, oil, or honey becomes Chametz more quickly than flour mixed with water. The Machlokes between Raban Gamliel and the Chachamim is whether we may assume that one is able to be sure to bake such a dough before it becomes Chametz or not.
6)[line 20]שבתי היתה אצלSHABATI HAYESAH ETZEL- (lit. my rest was at) I spent Pesach at [the house of]
7)[line 23]מקטפין בוMEKATFIN BO- one may smear the top of the dough with it
8)[line 26]בפושריןPOSHRIN- warm water (which speeds up the fermentation process)
9a)[line 27]ביום טוב ראשוןYOM TOV RISHON- the first night of Pesach [when there is a specific Mitzvah to eat Matzah]
b)[line 27]ביום טוב שניYOM TOV SHENI- any time after the first night of Pesach (when there is no specific Mitzvah to eat Matzah, but there is a prohibition against eating Chametz)
10)[line 29]בחלבאCHELBA- milk
11)[line 31]מפני הרגל עבירהMIPNEI HERGEL AVEIRAH- because it leads to sin (one may come to eat it with meat)
12)[line 34]כעין תוראK'EIN TORA- (a) [an amount of dough as small] as the eye of a bull (since it will be eaten immediately — RASHI); (b) [dough baked in a unique shape, such as round] like the eye of a bull (since this will serve as a reminder that it is dairy — RIF, RASHBA)
13)[line 35]ממנחותMENACHOS (MINCHAS NIDVAS YACHID)
(a)Korbenos Minchah are offerings that contain flour. In all private Menachos, a Kometz of the offering is burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. The remainder of the Minchah (the Sheyarei ha'Minchah) is eaten by male Kohanim in the Azarah, since the Korban Minchah is in the category of Korbanos known as Kodshei Kodashim (see Background to Zevachim 104:29).
(b)A Kometz is defined as that which can be held between the middle three fingers and the palm. The Kohen places his hand in the mixture and removes one handful. He then wipes away the excess extending beyond his three middle fingers using his thumb and pinky until only the Kometz remains.
(c)Kemitzah is only performed when a Minchah is brought by a non-Kohen. A Minchah offered by a Kohen is entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.
(d)A Kometz of Levonah (frankincense or oliban, a gum resin that comes from trees found in present-day Arabia and India) is placed on top of most Menachos and is later offered upon the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.
(e)All Korbanos may be offered jointly by more than one person, with the exception of the Korbenos Minchah. This is due to the verse which states, "v'Nefesh Ki Sakriv Korban Minchah..." - "And when a soul (singular) will offer a flour offering..." (Vayikra 2:1; Menachos 104b).
(a)The Torah records five types of Minchas Nedavah, voluntary flour offerings (Vayikra 2:1-13). They are: Minchas Soles, Minchas Chalos, Minchas Rekikin, Minchas Machavas and Minchas Marcheshes.
(b)All of these Menachos require an amount of flour no less than an Isaron, one Log of olive oil for every Isaron, and a Kometz of Levonah. The oil is used in the kneading and the baking of the flour. The five types of Menachos differ as follows:
1.The MINCHAS SOLES is the only Minchah in which the Kometz is removed before the Minchah is baked (hence the Minchah is still in the state of Soles — fine flour — from which this Minchah receives its name). The oil and flour are mixed, Levonah is placed on one side of the mixture, and then the Kohen performs HAGASHAH, KEMITZAH and HAKTARAH. In Hagashah, the owner brings the Minchah to a Kohen who touches the utensil containing the Minchah to the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach. In Kemitzah, the Kohen removes a Kometz from the Minchah, places it into another utensil and places the Kometz of Levonah upon it. In Haktarah, the Kohen walks up to the top of the Mizbe'ach, salts the Kometz and burns it on the bonfire. The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 2:1).
2.The MINCHAS CHALOS is one type of Minchas Ma'afeh Tanur — Menachos that are baked directly upon the floor of a metal oven. A dough of flour and oil is kneaded with lukewarm water; this is referred to as Lishah (TOSFOS to Menachos 57a DH Minchas, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 12:21, CHAZON ISH Menachos 34:1). It is then divided into ten Chalos (which may not become Chametz) and baked. Next, the Chalos are folded and broken into pieces (Pesisah). Oil is added to the pieces, and this oil is thoroughly mixed together with the pieces (Belilah). The remainder of the oil is then poured on top of the dough (Yetzikah). Levonah is added, and Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed, as above. The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 2:4).
3.The MINCHAS REKIKIN is the other type of Minchas Ma'afeh Tanur. It differs from the Minchas Chalos in that the Rekikin are smeared with oil after the baking, before the Pesisah. Otherwise, its preparation is exactly like the Minchas Chalos (Vayikra 2:4).
4.The MINCHAS MACHAVAS consists of ten Matzos baked in a pan called a Machavas, which has ten raised sections. The portions of dough are placed upon the elevated parts of the pan so that most of the olive oil drains off, causing the dough to bake into brittle Matzos. Levonah is added, and Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed, as above. The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 2:5).
5.The MINCHAS MARCHESHES consists of ten Matzos baked in an oven in a pan called a Marcheshes, which has ten deep sections filled with olive oil. The portions of dough lie in the deep parts of the pan and are baked in the olive oil, causing the dough to bake into soft Matzos. Levonah is added, and Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed, as above. The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 2:7).
14)[line 36]?אם אמרו בזריזין יאמרו בשאין זריזיןIM AMRU B'ZERIZIN, YOMERU BISHE'EIN ZERIZIM?- if they said about (i.e. this is allowed for) those who are very meticulous and can be relied upon (Kohanim), will they say it about those who are not so meticulous? (RASHI is Gores in place of these words, "KOHANIM ZERIZIM HEN")
15)[line 36](מילתת נמי לתית) [לתותי נמי מילתת](MILTAS NAMI LATIS) [LISUSEI NAMI MILTAS]- let them soak [and pound the grain somewhat in order to remove its coarse bran] as well
16)[line 38]לתיתה ליתא בזריזיןLESISAH LEISA B'ZERIZIN- soaking [etc.] is not done by the Kohanim (since he who offers the Korban Minchah brings flour with him)
17)[line 43]ממנחת העומרMINCHAS HA'OMER
It is a Mitzvah to bring the Korban ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall following the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.2, 2.5 or 4.3 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is then kneaded and offered as a Korban Minchah on the 16th of Nisan. (This Korban is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim — Vayikra 2:14-16.)
18)[line 43]וצוברין אותהV'TZOVRIN OSAH- and pile it in a heap (in order that the water should drain)
19)[line 43]ציבור שאניTZIBUR SHA'ANI- a public [Minchah offering] is different (since Beis Din will see to it that all of the processes will be performed meticulously)
(a)The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing those fruits which were the first to emerge in one's field at the beginning of the season to the Beis ha'Mikdash. After arriving in the Beis ha'Mikdash, while the basket is still on his shoulder, the owner of the fruit recites specific verses from Devarim (26:3, 5-10) which thank HaSh-m for taking us out of Egypt and giving us the land of Yisrael. He then places his basket of fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 3:12) and bows down before HaSh-m. Afterwards, he gives the Bikurim to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1).
(b)The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the land of Eretz Yisrael is blessed (Devarim 8:8) — wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2). (Although many other types of produce now grow in Eretz Yisrael, these are the only species of produce truly indigenous to Eretz Yisrael. Other "immigrant" species may be destroyed by drought or harsh weather, but these seven will always grow in the land. -Heard from a leading botanist. (M. KORNFELD))
(c)In certain instances, one does not recite any verses when bringing Bikurim (Mevi v'Eino Korei). For example, if one brings Bikurim between Sukos and Chanukah, he does not recite any verses (see 36b and Rashi there).
(d)Kohanim must eat their Bikurim within the walls of Yerushalayim. Our Gemara discusses a Kohen who wishes to bake wheat or barley that he received as Bikurim into Matzos with which to fulfill the Mitzvah of eating Matzah on the first night of Pesach.
21)[line 47]מצה ומרורMATZAH U'MAROR- These two Mitzvos are connected through a Hekesh, as the Torah states, "Al Matzos u'Merorim Yocheluhu."
22)[line 8]מעשר שניMA'ASER SHENI- see above, entry #2
23)[line 14]"כי לא תוכל שאתו""KI LO SUCHAL SE'ESO"- "[And if the distance is too far for you,] for you are not able to carry it..." (Devarim 14:24). This is the verse which permits one to redeem his Ma'aser Sheni.
24)[line 15]"וישא משאת מאת פניו""VAYISA MAS'OS ME'ES PANAV"- "And he took portions from in front of him..." (Bereishis 43:34). This verse gives the account of Yosef serving his brothers food in Egypt.
25)[line 23]"לא תוכל לאכול בשעריך""LO SUCHAL LE'ECHOL BI'SH'ARECHA"- "You may not eat within your gates the Ma'aser of your grain, wine, and oil; the firstborn of your cattle and sheep; any voluntary Korban; or the Terumah of your hand" (Devarim 12:17). This verse list a number of things which must be consumed only in Yerushalayim. Our Gemara explains that "Terumah of your hand" refers to Bikurim, which are carried by hand to Yerushalayim (see above, entry #20).
26)[line 31]לזמן שמחהZMAN SIMCHAH- (lit. the time of rejoicing) harvest time
27)[line 33]לחלוטCHALUT- bread made from a dough formed through pouring boiling water over flour. (Bread made in this way is considered to be of higher quality.)
28)[line 34]ולאשישהASHISHAH- a very large Matzah
29)[line 35]בפת הדראהPAS HADRA'AH- (a) black (whole wheat) Matzah (RASHI); (b) thick Matzah (ARUCH Erech Rad)
30)[line 36]כמצות של שלמהMATZOS SHEL SHLOMO- the Matzos of King Solomon (who could easily afford bread made with fine white flour - RASHI; who had his bread baked thinly - ARUCH)
31)[line 40]גרבא דחמראGARBA D'CHAMRA- an Eifah of wine