MATZAH WITH WHICH ONE IS NOT YOTZEI
Question: Tevel should be forbidden also on account of Chametz!
Answer #1 (Rav Sheshes): The Beraisa is R. Shimon, who says that Ein Isur Chal Al Isur (a second prohibition does not take effect on something that is already forbidden):
(Beraisa - R. Shimon): If one ate a Neveilah on Yom Kippur [b'Shogeg] he is exempt [from a Chatas, since the Isur of eating on Yom Kipur was not Chal on it. Even if it died on Yom Kipur, it was Asur on account of Ever Min ha'Chai or Eino Zavu'ach beforehand, therefore the Isur of Yom Kipur is not Chal on it.]
Answer #2 (Ravina): It is even like Chachamim - one is Yotzei with Matzah that [had it become Chametz] would be forbidden only on account of Chametz, but not with something which is forbidden also on account of Tevel.
Objection: The Beraisa does not say that it is forbidden only on account of Chametz!
Conclusion: We must answer like Rav Sheshes.
(Beraisa - R. Yosi ha'Gelili) Suggestion: Perhaps one is Yotzei with Ma'aser Sheni in Yerushalayim!
Rejection: "Lechem Oni" - it must be permitted to an Onen (one who lost a relative today) - Ma'aser Sheni is forbidden to an Onen ("Lo Achalti v'Oni Mimenu"), it is eaten in joy.
R. Akiva says, "Matzos" includes [Ma'aser Sheni].
Question: If so, what do we learn from "Lechem Oni"?
Answer: It excludes a dough kneaded with wine, oil or honey.
Question: What is R. Akiva's reason?
Answer: "Lechem Oni" is written without a Vov, so we can read it 'Ani' (with a Komatz, a poor person) - had it been written with a Vov, we would have to read it 'Oni'.
R. Yosi ha'Gelili argues, because it is pronounced "Oni," not 'Ani'.
R. Akiva explains the pronunciation like Shmuel:
(Shmuel): "Lechem Oni" - Onim (we recite) many things on account of it (Hallel and Hagadah).
THINGS THAT CAN SPEED CHIMUTZ
Question: R. Akiva allows a dough kneaded with wine, oil or honey!
(Beraisa): During Pesach, one may not knead a dough with wine, oil or honey;
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, if one did so, one must burn it immediately (it becomes Nuksheh very quickly - one cannot prevent this);
Chachamim say, it may be eaten (if it was baked promptly).
R. Akiva says, I once made a dough for R. Eliezer and R. Yehoshua [during Pesach] with wine, oil and honey, and they did not comment.
Even though one may not knead with them, one may smear the dough after it is arranged into loaves;
This is according to the first Tana
Chachamim say, one may smear only with things with which one may knead.
All forbid kneading with lukewarm water (this speeds Chimutz).
Answer: He disqualifies it on the first night [when it is an obligation to eat "Lechem Oni"], and permits on the second day (the rest of Pesach - he is not concerned for Chimutz);
R. Yehoshua (to his children): Do not knead for me with milk on the first day - afterwards, you may do so.
Objection (Beraisa): We may not knead a dough with milk; if this was done, all the bread is forbidden, lest it be eaten with meat.
Answer #1: Rather, he told them not to knead with honey on the first day, but afterwards they may.
Answer #2: Really, he allowed to knead with milk after the first day, like Ravina taught:
Ravina permits the amount of an ox's eye (such a small amount will be finished before people forget that it is dairy) - R. Yehoshua permitted an amount like this.
(Beraisa): All agree that one may not knead with lukewarm water.
Question (Mishnah): All Menachos are kneaded with lukewarm water (Tif'eres Yisrael - this is best for bread, but it speeds up Chimutz); we must guard them from becoming Chametz (standard Menachos may not be Chametz).
Answer: We permit lukewarm water for Menachos, for they are made by Zerizim (zealous people, i.e. Kohanim) - we do not permit [regarding Pesach, which applies to everyone, including] people that are not Zerizim.
Question: If so, Lesisah (soaking wheat before pounding to remove the bran, to make nice Soles) should also be permitted - but Shmuel forbids this for Menachos!
Answer #1: If we would permit Lesisah, it would be done by people (Yisraelim) that are not Zerizim - kneading is done by Zerizim (Kohanim).
Objection: Kneading is not done [exclusively] by Zerizim!
"Va'Yitzok Aleha Shemen...; Ve'Hevi'ah El Benei Aharon ha'Kohanim [v'Komatz]," from Kemitzah and onwards, Kohanim must do the Avodah;
This teaches that anyone may pour the oil and knead it.
Answer #2: Even though kneading is not done by Zerizim, it is done in the place of Zerizim (the Mikdash):
It was taught that a Zar may knead, but if it was kneaded outside the Azarah it is Pasul;
Lesisah is not done by Zerizim, nor in the place of Zerizim.
Question: What is this different than the Omer?
(Beraisa): We Loses [barley for] the Omer and make a pile of it [so the water will drain off].
Answer: A Korban Tzibur is different (Beis Din supervises everything).
MATZAH OF BIKURIM
(Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps one is Yotzei with Bikurim!
Rejection #1 (R. Yosi ha'Gelili): "B'Chol Moshvoseichem Tochlu Matzos" - one is Yotzei only with Matzah which may be eaten anywhere; Bikurim must be eaten in Yerushalayim.
Rejection #2 (R. Akiva): The verse equates Matzah and Maror - just like Maror cannot be from Bikurim (Bikurim applies only to the seven species of Eretz Yisrael, none of which are bitter), also Matzah.
Suggestion: Perhaps Matzah cannot be from wheat and barley, for Bikurim applies to them [but not to Maror]!
Rejection: "Matzos" includes them.
Suggestion: Perhaps Matzos includes even Bikurim!
Conclusion: R. Akiva retracted [and learned like R. Yosi ha'Gelili]:
(Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps one may be Yotzei with Bikurim!
Rejection: "B'Chol Moshvoseichem" - one is Yotzei only with Matzah which may be eaten anywhere - Bikurim must be eaten in Yerushalayim.
Suggestion: Perhaps one is not Yotzei with Ma'aser Sheni [for the same reason]!
Rejection: "Matzos" includes Ma'aser Sheni.
Question: [These verses do not specify what to include or exclude -] why do we include Ma'aser Sheni and exclude Bikurim, and not vice-versa?
Answer: We include Ma'aser because it has a Heter b'Chol Moshvos (anywhere, if it became Tamei and was redeemed), like R. Elazar taught; we exclude Bikurim, for it has no Heter b'Chol Moshvos.
(R. Elazar): Tamei Ma'aser Sheni can be redeemed even in Yerushalayim [since it cannot be eaten] - "Ki Lo Suchal Se'eiso" refers to eating, like it says "Va'Yisa Mas'os me'Es Panav."
This Beraisa is like R. Akiva, who says that one is Yotzei with Ma'aser Sheni, and it excludes Bikurim from "B'Chol Moshvoseichem" - this shows that he retracted.
Question: R. Yosi ha'Gelili should exclude Bikurim from "Lechem Oni" - Matzah that is permitted b'Aninus!
Answer: He holds like R. Shimon:
(Mishnah): Bikurim are forbidden to an Onen;
R. Shimon permits.
Question: What is Chachamim's source?
Answer: "Lo Suchal Le'echol bi'Sh'arecha [Masar...u'Srumas Yadecha]" - "U'Srumas Yadecha" is Bikurim, and they are Hukshu (equated) to Ma'aser [Sheni] - just like Ma'aser is forbidden to an Onen, also Bikurim.
R. Shimon says that they are called Terumah to teach that just like Terumah is permitted to an Onen, also Bikurim.
Question: Granted, R. Shimon does not expound the Hekesh - but the Torah explicitly says that they are eaten in joy - "V'Somachta b'Chol ha'Tov"!
Answer: That teaches that one recites the Parashah ("Arami Oved Avi...") only during the period of joy [over the harvest]:
(Mishnah): From Shavu'os until Sukos, one who brings Bikurim recites the Parashah; from Sukos until Chanukah one may bring, but he does not recite. (One may not bring afterwards, for the fruits are no longer in the field for Chayos.)
BREAD OF POVERTY
(Beraisa): "Lechem Oni" - not [esteemed bread, e.g.] scalded or Ashisha (a big bun);
Suggestion: Perhaps one is Yotzei only with coarse [bran] bread!
Rejection: "Matzos" includes even like Shlomo's [of fine flour].
Question: If so, why does it say "Lechem Oni"?
Answer: This excludes scalded or a big bun.
Question: What is the source that Ashishah denotes esteemed?
Answer: [When David returned the Aron, he gave to everyone] "...V'Eshpar Echad va'Ashishah Echas";
(R. Chanan bar Aba): ESHPaR is Echad of SHishah (a sixth) of a PaR (ox); ASHiSHaH is [a bun the volume of 72 eggs,] Echad of SHiShaH of an Eifah.
R. Chanan argues with Shmuel:
(Shmuel): Ashisha is a barrel of wine - "V'Ohavei Ashishei Anavim."