[21a - 41 lines; 21b - 49 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi.
 Rashi 21a DH Teshev l'Zachar ד"ה תשב לזכר:
The words "Yemei Tum'as Shiv'ah" ימי טומאת שבעה
should be "Yemei Tum'ah Shiv'ah" ימי טומאה שבעה
 Rashi DH b'Lo Dam ד"ה בלא דם:
The words "v'Lo Amar Dam Acher" ולא אמר דם אחר
should be "v'Lo Amrinan Dam Acher" ולא אמרינן דם אחר
 Rashi 21b DH d'Tana Kama ד"ה דתנא קמא:
The words "Dam Tahor Hu" דם טהור הוא
should be "Dam Nidah Hu" דם נדה הוא (Rashash, Rav Yitzchak Isaac Chaver)
 Rashi DH Teme'ah ד"ה טמאה:
The words "Dam Nidah Hi Teme'ah" דם נדה היא טמאה
should be "Dam Nidah Hi u'Teme'ah" דם נדה היא וטמאה
1)[line 1]השרוני נידון ככרמלי חי...HA'SHARONI NIDON KA'KARMELI CHAI...- diluted wine from the Sharon has the same color as undiluted wine from the Carmel mountains; (according to the Girsa "KA'SHARONI NIDON HA'KARMELI" - the wine from the Carmel mountains has the same color as the wine from the Sharon)
2)[line 3]כוס טבריא פשוטCHOS TEVERYA PASHUT- a cup from Tiberias, made of very thin glass (O.F. tenves - thin)
3)[line 8]איידי דקלישAIDI D'KALISH- since it is thin
4)[line 8]ידיע ביה טפיYEDI'A BEI TEFEI- the color is more apparent
5)[line 10]המפלתHA'MAPELES (YOLEDES / MAPELES)
(a)In Vayikra 12:1-8, the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. (The same Halachos apply to a woman who miscarries after the fetus has reached a certain stage of development.) After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages:
1.During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is known as a "Tevulas Yom Aroch" (a "long" Tevulas Yom — see Background to Nidah 71:23b), and she is permitted to her husband and to eat Ma'aser Sheni.
2.During the second stage, any bleeding that she experiences does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. This blood is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Terumah, Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.
(b)Any bleeding that the woman experiences after the conclusion of the above two terms is the start of her regular cycle (Dam Nidah).
(c)At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even if she experiences bleeding during the period of Dam Tohar — see Insights to Nidah 25a.)
6)[line 10]חתיכהCHATICHAH- a piece of flesh
7)[line 12]קליפהKELIPAH- a peel
8)[line 13]יבחושיןYAVCHUSHIN- Drosphilia, a small fly whose larvae feed on fruit and decaying plants; fruit fly
9)[line 14]נמוחוNIMOCHU- they dissolve
10)[line 18]תשב לזכר... תשב לנקבהTESHEV L'ZACHAR... TESHEV L'NEKEVAH (YOLEDES)
(a)See above, entry #5.
(b)A woman who does not know whether she gave birth to a male or a female must act in accordance with the stringencies of both. The initial term, during which she has the same status as a Nidah, is kept for two weeks. The second term, when her blood is Dam Tohar, is kept from then until the end of forty days from the time of birth. However, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis Ha'Mikdash until eighty days after the birth.
11)[line 40]אפשר לפתיחת הקבר בלא דםEFSHAR L'PESICHAS HA'KEVER B'LO DAM
(a)Efshar li'Fesichas ha'Kever b'Lo Dam means that it is possible for the womb to open without blood coming out.
(b)When a woman bleeds during childbirth, she usually becomes a Nidah. If no trace of blood is found during the birth, there is a Machlokes as to whether she is Tehorah or not. Tana Kama of our Mishnah rules that it is possible for the womb to open without blood coming out. Rebbi Yehudah rules that this is impossible; the blood must have become lost.
12)[last line]קשתהKASHASAH- if a woman had labor pains (accompanied by bleeding)
13)[line 30]זוגא דמן חדייבZUGA D'MIN CHADYIV- (a) a pair of Torah scholars from Adiabena, a district of Assyria between the rivers Lycus and Caprus (RASHI); (b) according to the Girsa "ZUZA D'MIN CHADYIV" - the name of a scholar from that place
14)[line 33]אגורAGUR- collected together
15)[line 34]לא בשפופרתLO B'SHEFOFERES- that is, the blood must exit through the Prozdor and not through a tube, in order to be Tamei
16)[line 41]יש עמה דםYESH IMAH DAM- that is, if there is blood around the Chatichah, outside of it
17)[line 42]שפירSHEFIR- the outer skin of an embryo before any sinews, bones, or flesh form
18)[line 45]פלי פלוייPALEI PELUYEI- it has crevices on the outside that have blood in them
19)[line 46]שיעאSHI'A- it is smooth [on the outside]