1)

(a)We just learned that, according to Rabah, when the Noder says 'Had I known that my father was among them, I would have said 'Kulchem Asurim Chutz m'Aba'! even Beis Hillel concede that 'Neder she'Hutar Miktzaso, Lo Hutar Kulo', and that they argue with Beis Shamai when he said 'Peloni u'Peloni Asurin v'Aba Mutar'. What does Rava say about this? In which case do Beis Shamai argue with Beis Hillel according to him?

(b)Seeing as Beis Shamai also hold 'Neder she'Hutar Miktzaso, Hutar Kulo', on what basis do they argue?

(c)Although Beis Shamai follow the opinion of Rebbi Meir, the cases are not exactly similar (and it may well even be that Rebbi Meir will disagree with Beis Shamai). What is the basic difference between the two cases?

(d)Beis Hillel, on the other hand, hold like Rebbi Yosi. What does Rebbi Yosi say?

1)

(a)We just learned that, according to Rabah, when the Noder says 'Had I known that my father was among them, I would have said 'Kulchem Asurim Chutz m'Aba!' even Beis Hillel concede that 'Neder she'Hutar Miktzaso, Lo Hutar Kulo', and that they argue with Beis Shamai when he said 'Peloni u'Peloni Asurin v'Aba Mutar'. In Rava's opinion - in the former case, it is Beis Shamai who agree with Beis Hillel (that 'Neder she'Hutar Miktzaso, Hutar Kulo'), and they argue with them in a case of 'Kulchem Asurim Chutz m'Aba'.

(b)Despite the fact that Beis Shamai also hold 'Neder she'Hutar Miktzaso Hutar Kulo', they argue - because they follow the opinion of Rebbi Meir, who holds 'Tefos Lashon Rishon' (when two Leshonos clash - such as 'Harei Zu Temuras Olah, Harei Zu Temuras Shelamim', we adopt the first Lashon). Here too, seeing as he retains the original Lashon of 'Kulchem' (which includes his father and his brother), we ignore his second Lashon of 'Chutz m'Avi ... ', which precludes them.

(c)Although Beis Shamai follows the opinion of Rebbi Meir, the cases are not exactly similar (and it may well even be that Rebbi Meir disagrees with Beis Shamai, as we shall see later). The basic difference between the two cases is - that whereas in the case of Rebbi Meir, the second statement clashes directly with the first, in Beis Shamai's case, the second statement renders the first one to have been an error.

(d)Beis Hillel, on the other hand, hold like Rebbi Yosi - who maintains that when two statements clash, it is the latter one that we follow (and not the first ['bi'Gemar Devarav Adam Nitfas']).

2)

(a)The Tana in the Mishnah in 'Rebbi Eliezer', defining 'Neder she'Hutar Miktzaso, Hutar Kulo' of Rebbi Akiva', differentiates between 'she'Eini Neheneh l'Kulchem' ('Hutar ha'Rishon, Hutru Kulam') and 'she'Eini Neheneh la'Zeh v'la'Zeh' ('Hutar ha'Rishon, Hutru Kulam'). What does he say in the latter case if it was 'Hutar ha'Acharon'?

(b)Assuming that we temporarily ignore the final case (of 'Hutar ha'Acharon' - see Rosh), what does Rav Papa mean when he says there is no problem with the Mishnah? How will Rabah learn the Reisha and the Seifa?

(c)What problem does Rav Papa have with the Seifa of the Mishnah according to Rava?

(d)Why can we not answer that 'la'Zeh v'la'Zeh' of the Seifa refers to the original Neder, but when he retracted he said 'Kulchem (in which case the Tana will be teaching us that irrespective of what he first said, Rebbi Akiva holds that even if he concludes with 'Kulchem', the Neder is void)?

2)

(a)The Tana in the Mishnah in 'Rebbi Eliezer', defining the 'Neder she'Hutar Miktzaso, Hutar Kulo' of Rebbi Akiva, differentiates between 'she'Eini Neheneh l'Kulchem' ('Hutar ha'Rishon, Hutru Kulam') and 'she'Eini Neheneh la'Zeh v'la'Zeh' ('Hutar ha'Rishon, Hutru Kulam'). In the latter case - he says 'Hutar ha'Acharon, ha'Acharon Mutar v'Chulan Asurin'.

(b)Assuming that we temporarily ignore the final case (of 'Hutar ha'Acharon' - see Rosh), when Rav Papa says there is no problem with the Mishnah - he means that both speak when the Noder changed the contents as well as the Lashon: in the Reisha, he originally said 'la'Zeh v'la'Zeh', and later claimed that he would have said 'Kulchem, whereas in the Seifa, he speaks in the reverse (or vice-versa).

(c)The problem that Rav Papa has with the Seifa of the Mishnah is - that, according to Rava, seeing as the Noder changed to 'la'Zeh v'la'Zeh', why is this cited in the name of Rebbi Akiva, implying that the Rabanan disagree, when Rava just explained that, in such a case, they agree with him.

(d)We cannot answer that 'la'Zeh v'la'Zeh' of the Seifa refers to the original Neder, but when he retracted he said 'Kulchem' (in which case the Tana will be teaching us that irrespective of what he first said, Rebbi Akiva holds that even if he concludes with 'Kulchem', the Neder is void) - because, since according to Rava, everything hinges around what he said when he retracted, why would the Tana speak about what he said originally (as he does according to Rabah)?

26b----------------------------------------26b

3)

(a)Rava retorts that, even according to Rabah, the Seifa d'Seifa requires interpretation. What is the problem with the Seifa d'Seifa?

(b)How does Rava therefore learn the entire Seifa differently, to accommodate both the Reisha d'Seifa and the Seifa d'Seifa?

(c)What does the Mishnah in 'Rebbi Eliezer' say about the Seifa d'Seifa, if the man in the middle turned out to be his father?

(d)How does this prove Rava's explanation to be correct?

3)

(a)Rava retorts that, even according to Rabah, the Seifa d'Seifa requires interpretation - because if, as it appears from the way we just interpreted it, the Tana is speaking in a case of 'Kulchem', then who is 'Rishon' and who is 'Acharon' referring to?

(b)Rava therefore learns the entire Seifa differently to accommodate both the Reisha d'Seifa and the Seifa d'Seifa - by establishing it when he connected each of those partaking of his figs, by saying 'Peloni is like Peloni and Peloni like Peloni, until each person is connected to the person before him. That is why the Tana says 'Hutar ha'Rishon Hutru Kulam' (meaning that if the first person that he mentioned turned out to be his father, then they are all permitted); but 'Hutar Acharon, ha'Acharon Mutar v'Chulam Asurim'.

(c)The Mishnah in 'Rebbi Eliezer' concludes that should the man in the middle turn out to be his father - then those before his father remain forbidden, whereas those that come after him are permitted.

(d)This goes to prove - that the Tana is indeed speaking where the Noder connected each of those partaking with the one before him (like Rava explains).

4)

(a)How does Rava's explanation dispense with Rav Papa's Kashya? Why is the Mishnah now unconnected to the Machlokes between Beis Shamai and Rebbi Akiva (see Rosh DH 'v'Seifa')?

4)

(a)Rava's explanation dispenses with Rav Papa's Kashya - because it now transpires that each Neder is an independent one (in which case, the terms 'Miktzaso' and 'Kulo' would be inappropriate). In other words, the Mishnah has nothing to do with the Machlokes between Rebbi Akiva and Beis Shamai.

5)

(a)What does Rebbi Meir in the same Mishnah in 'Rebbi Eliezer' say about someone who declares a Konam on onions because they are bad for the heart, and they tell him that Kofri onions are good for the heart?

(b)How does Rav Ada bar Ahavah interpret Rebbi Meir's statement to query Rava?

(c)He asks on Rava because it is Rava who brought Rebbi Meir into the picture (by establishing Beis Shamai like him). Why could he have asked an even stronger Kashya on Rabah?

(d)Rava replies that Rebbi Meir is speaking where the Noder said 'Ilu Hayisi Yode'a ... Hayisi Omer, Batzel Peloni u'Peloni Asurin, v'Kofri Mutar'. We could also have answered that although Beis Shamai holds like Rebbi Meir, Rebbi Meir does not hold like Beis Shamai. Why is that?

5)

(a)In the same Mishnah in 'Rebbi Eliezer', Rebbi Meir rules - that someone who declares a Konam on onions because they are bad for the heart, and they tell him that Kofri onions are good for the heart, is permitted to eat all onions (because of 'Neder she'Hutar Miktzaso ... ').

(b)Rav Ada bar Ahavah queries Rava by interpreting Rebbi Meir's statement - where the Noder changed to 'Kol ha'Betzalim Asurim, v'Kofri Mutar' (which in the opinion of Rava, is the equivalent case to that of 'Kulchem', where Beis Shamai follow the opinion of Rebbi Meir).

(c)He asks on Rava because it is Rava who brought Rebbi Meir into the picture (by establishing Beis Shamai like him). He could have asked an even stronger Kashya on Rabah - in whose opinion even Beis Hillel agree that in the case of 'Kulchem', we do not apply 'Neder she'Hutar Miktzaso, Hutar Kulo'.

(d)Rava replies that Rebbi Meir is speaking when the Noder said 'Ilu Hayisi Yode'a ... Hayisi Omer, Batzel Peloni u'Peloni Asurin, v'Kofri Mutar'. We could also have answered that although Beis Shamai holds like Rebbi Meir, Rebbi Meir does not hold like Beis Shamai - because, as we explained above, Rebbi Meir may well go after a person's opening statement, only when it clashes with his second one (but not necessarily when the second statement renders the first one an error, like it does in this case).

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