MOED KATAN 28 (8 Adar Alef 5782) - dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit of Sarah bas Baruch Hersh Rosenbaum, who passed away on 8 Adar 5776, by her husband Zev Dov Rosenbaum.

[28a - 51 lines; 28b - 45 lines]

1)[line 1]חיהCHAYAH- a woman who died while giving birth or a short time afterward

2)[line 8]מה פרה אדומה מכפרת, אף...MAH PARAH ADUMAH MECHAPERES, AF...- (a) just as the Parah Adumah (see Background to Sukah 13:11:I) atones for the sin of the Egel ha'Zahav (Golden Calf), so, too... (TOSFOS); (b) just as the Parah Adumah serves to be Metaher those who are Tamei and is called a "Chatas" (the Korban brought to atone for certain sins), so, too... (RABEINU CHANANEL)

3)[line 12]מיתה דחופהMISAH DECHUFAH- an impelled or hastened death

4)[line 14]גערהGE'ARAH- (a) rebuke; (b) destruction (MALBIM in Sefer ha'Karmel)

5)[line 15]נזיפהNEZIFAH- rebuke

6)[line 19]"תבא בכלח אלי קבר...""TAVO V'CHELACH ELEI KAVER..."- "You shall come to your grave with a rich harvest, [like a full sheaf of grain that comes up in its season]" (Iyov 5:26).

7)[line 25]קא דייגי רבנןKA DAIGEI RABANAN- the Chachamim were troubled (over his sudden death)

8)[line 25]זוגא דמהדייבZUGA DEME'HADYEIV- a pair of Torah scholars from Adiabena, a district of Assyria between the rivers Lycus and Caprus; (alt., ZUZA DEME'HADYEIV - the name of an Amora)

9)[line 30]שיתין הלוליSHITIN HILULEI- sixty weddings

10)[line 30]שיתין תיכליSHITIN TICHLEI- sixty bereavements

11)[line 30]סמידא לכלבי ולא מתבעיSEMIDA L'CHALBEI, V'LO MISBA'I- very fine wheat flour was used for the dogs, and it was not sought (because it was abundant)

12)[line 31]נהמא דשערי לאינשי ולא משתכחNAHAMA D'SA'AREI L'INSEHI, V'LO MISHTAKACH- bread made from barley flour was eaten by people, and there was none to be found

13)[line 34]דהוה קא מנמנםHAVAH KA MENAMNEM- he was dying (lit. dozing)

14)[line 35]לימא ליה מר דלא לצערןLEIMA LEI MAR D'LO L'TZA'ARAN- tell the Angel of Death not to cause me pain

15)[line 35]שושביניהSHUSHVINEI- close friend

16)[line 35]כיון דאימסר מזלא לא אשגח ביKEIVAN D'IMSAR MAZALA, LO ASHGACH BI- since my end is near (lit. my luck is shaky), he no longer pays any attention to me

17)[line 37]כי ריבדא דכוסילתאKI RIVDA D'CHOSILTA- like the incision made by the blood-letting tool

18)[line 39]מאן ספין?MAN SAFIN?- (a) who is worthy of having anyone fear him [or listen to his words at this time]? (RASHI to the EIN YAKOV); (b) who is important [at this time]? (ARUCH, TOSFOS)

19)[line 39]מאן רקיע?MAN RAKI'A?- (a) who is perfected to the extent that he may make such requests of the Angel of Death [at this time]? (RASHI, TOSFOS); (b) who is lofty [in the eyes of the Angel of Death]? (ARUCH)

20)[line 40]כמישחל בניתא מחלבאK'MISHCHAL BINISA ME'CHALVA- like pulling a hair out of milk

21)[line 40]כד הויתKAD HAVIS- as I was in my lifetime (and die again)

22)[line 41]דנפיש בעיתותיהD'NAFISH BI'ASUSEI- the fear [of the Angel of Death] is very great

23)[line 42]חלפא ליה שעתאCHALFA LEI SHA'ATA- the hour passed [and his life was not taken in that incident]

24)[line 43]בשוקא כבהמה?!B'SHUKAH K'VEHEMAH?!- [do you want to take my life] in the market like [the way] an animal [is killed]?!

25)[line 43]איתא לגבי ביתאISA L'GABEI VEISA- come to my house!

26)[line 44]איתרח לי תלתין יומיןISRACH LI TELASIN YOMIN- wait thirty days for me

27)[line 46]מאי כולי האיMAI KULEI HAI- (a) Why all the effort? Why are you trying so hard?; (b) Why did you not come after thirty days? (RASHI MANUSCRIPT)

28)[line 46]קא דחקא רגליה דבר נתןKA DACHAKA RAGLEI D'VAR NASAN- you are pushing off the feet of Huna bar Nasan, i.e. his time to become Nasi has arrived

29)[line 48]פקע ארזאPAKA ARZA- (a) the cedar tree broke, blew up; (b) a cedar pillar located near the Beis Midrash of Rav cracked

30)[line 49]טריף אבבאTARIF A'BAVA- he knocked at the gate

31)[last line]גלי ליהGALI LEI- the Angel of Death revealed himself to him

32)[last line]אחוי ליה שוטא דנוראACHAVI LEI SHOTA D'NURA- he showed him a rod of fire

33)[last line]אמצי ליה נפשיהIMTZI LEI NAFSHEI- he let him take out his soul


34a)[line 1]מענותME'ANOS- to lament for the deceased in unison by saying the same words at the same time

b)[line 2]מטפחותMETAPCHOS- (a) to beat the heart (which was done publicly as a sign of mourning) (RASHI to Megilah 3b and to Shabbos 148b); (b) to clap (as a sign of mourning) (RASHI Beitzah 30a, RAMBAM Peirush ha'Mishnayos ibid., ROSH ibid.)

35)[line 4]מקוננותMEKONENOS- to lament for the deceased responsively where one woman leads and all the other women repeat her words

36)[line 11]ויי לאזלא ויי לחבילאVAI L'AZALA, VAI L'CHAVILA- (a) "Woe for the one who died (lit. who is going to his world - based on Koheles 12:5); woe for the one who is carried like a package" (Chavilah) (RASHI to the EIN YAKOV); (b) "Woe for the one who died; woe for the one who must return the pledge (the soul)" (RABEINU CHANANEL); (c) "Woe for the one who died with debts; woe for his heirs who must assume his debts and give collateral (Chavolah) for them" (TOSFOS HA'ROSH)

37)[line 11]דשכנציבSHECHANTZIV- a place in Bavel

38a)[line 12]גוד גרמא מככאGUD GARMA MI'KAKA- for someone who lost a favorite child, they would say, "A tooth was uprooted from the gums; take water to boil in the small section of the Antichi (see next entry) to wash him (i.e. unfortunately, only a small amount is necessary)" (TOSFOS HA'ROSH)

b)[line 13]לאנטיכיANTICHI- there is an argument between two Amora'im as to what this is (Shabbos 41a): (a) an earthenware stove that has two sections, one for water and one for coals; (b) a copper caldron with two bottoms, that holds coals between the two bottoms (TOSFOS HA'ROSH)

39)[line 13]עטוף וכסו טורי דבר רמי ובר רברבי הואATOF V'CHASU TUREI, D'VAR RAMEI U'VAR RAVREVEI HU- for a rich person who died, they would say, "Cloak and cover yourselves, you mountains, because the person who is to be buried on you is the son of noble and great people"; alt. (said to those present) "Cloak yourselves, and stand upon and cover the mountains, because the person who is to be buried is the son of noble and great people" (RABEINU CHANANEL)

40)[line 14]שייול אצטלא דמלתא לבר חורין דשלימו זוודיהSHEYUL ITZTELA D'MILSA L'VAR CHORIN D'SHILIMU ZEVADEI- for a poor person who died who came from a wealthy family they would say, "Borrow shrouds made of fine wool for him, since his living expenses have terminated [and will no longer be a burden on his family]" (TOSFOS HA'ROSH)

41)[line 15]רהיט ונפיל אמעברא ויזופתא יזיףRAHIT V'NAFIL [BAR AMUDA'I (Girsa of the ROSH)] A'MA'ABRA V'YEZUFASA YAZIF- for a unsuccessful merchant who died after spending his life in constant exertion they would say, "The industrious diver for coral still needed to borrow money to pay the toll at the river crossing" (TOSFOS HA'ROSH)

42)[line 16]אחנא תגרי אזבזגי מיבדקוACHANA TAGAREI A'ZAVZEGEI MIVDEKU- for a reliable merchant they would say, (a) "Our brothers, the merchants, are judged at their nests, i.e. at their places of business" (ARUCH); (b) based upon the Girsa of the ROSH, ACHANA TIGRA A'ZEVINEI MIVDIK - "Our brother, the merchant, is judged based upon his business transactions" (TOSFOS HA'ROSH)

43)[line 17]מותא כי מותא ומרעין חיבוליאMOSA KI MOSA U'MAR'IN CHIBULAYA- for a person who died after a long illness, they would say, "His death was like the death of others; the suffering that he went through beforehand, however, was usury" (RASHI to the EIN YAKOV, RABEINU CHANANEL, TOSFOS HA'ROSH)

44)[line 19]דיטען יטענוניהD'YIT'AN YIT'ANUNEI- the one who carries the dead shall be carried by others

45)[line 19]דידל ידלוניהD'YADEL YIDLUNEI- the one who raises his voice to eulogize shall be eulogized in a raised voice by others

46)[line 20]דלא ידל ידלוניהD'LO YADAL YIDLUNEI- the one who does not raise his voice to eulogize shall [die early and] be eulogized in a raised voice by others

47a)[line 22]אל יכנס אחד מכם לתוך דברי חבירוAL YIKANES ECHAD MIKEM L'SOCH DIVREI CHAVEIRO- (a) No two of you should speak about the same topic (RAN); (b) Do not delve into the words spoken by your colleagues; since Rebbi Yishmael is an outstanding Torah scholar in the field of Agados, he will also be drawn into the discussion, which is prohibited, since he is a mourner and is prohibited from learning Torah (MAHARSHA)

b)[line 23]אמר רבי עקיבא ואני אחרוןAMAR REBBI AKIVA, VA'ANI ACHARON- (a) Rebbi Akiva said that he would speak last and would be sure not to speak about a topic that was mentioned beforehand (RAN); (b) Rebbi Akiva said that he would speak last out of his great modesty (MAHARSHA)

48)[line 24]נענה רבי טרפוןNA'ANEH REBBI TARFON- Rebbi Tarfon raised his voice to speak

49)[line 26]"וספדו לו כל ישראל וקברו אתו כי זה לבדו יבא לירבעם אל קבר יען נמצא בו דבר טוב אל ה' א-לקי ישראל בבית ירבעם""V'SAFDU LO CHOL YISRAEL... KI ZEH LEVADO YAVO LI'YARAV'AM EL KAVER..." - "And as for you [the wife of Yarav'am], get up and return home; the moment your feet enter the city, the lad will die. And all Yisrael will mourn for him and bury him, for he alone [of all Yarav'am's family] will be brought to burial, because there was found on him one good thing to HaSh-m, the G-d of Yisrael, in the house of Yarav'am" (Melachim I 14:13) (THE DEATH OF AVIYAH, SON OF YARAV'AM)

(a)Aviyah had fallen ill, and Yarav'am (see next entry) sent his wife to Shiloh to consult with Achiyah ha'Shiloni (the Navi who had anointed him king over the Ten Tribes). He ordered her to disguise herself so that the people would not know who she was, and ask the Navi what would happen to their son.

(b)The Navi, whom HaSh-m forewarned that the queen was on her way, had merely to hear her footsteps, and he greeted her with the words, "Enter, wife of Yarav'am! Why do you come in disguise, and I am sent by HaSh-m to give you bad news!" He told her to remind her husband of all the evil that he had perpetrated. HaSh-m elevated him to the status of king of the Ten Tribes, tearing away the kingdom from the House of David and giving it to him. Yet he did not follow the path of Torah and Mitzvos that David had trodden; on the contrary, he made for himself other gods and images to anger HaSh-m, "casting HaSh-m after his own body."

(c)Consequently, HaSh-m would destroy every member of his family to the point that "those who would die in the city would be eaten by the dogs, and those who would die in the fields, by vultures." The exception to this punishment was Aviyah. It appears that of all of the members of Yarav'am's family, he was only the only one to have performed a single Mitzvah!

(d)Finally, the Navi informed the wife of Yarav'am that HaSh-m would appoint a faithful king over Yisrael who would utterly destroy the house of Yarav'am, and that due to the sins of her husband, who sinned and caused the whole of Yisrael (the Ten Tribes) to sin, He would send them into exile.

50)[line 29]פרדסאותPERDESA'OS- guards

51)[line 29]ירבעםYARAV'AM

Yarav'am ben Nevat of the tribe of Efrayim was the first king of the Ten Tribes of Yisrael after their secession from the kingdom of the Davidic dynasty (subsequently known as Yehudah), as recorded in Melachim I 11:26-12:20. Upon the death of Shlomo ha'Melech, Rechav'am, his son, took the counsel of his young advisors to increase the high tax and hard labor that Shlomo had instituted (Melachim I 12:14). As a result, the people rebelled under the leadership of Yarav'am ben Nevat. In order to prevent the people of the ten tribes from returning to the leadership of the Davidic kings, Yarav'am outlawed the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel (traveling to the Beis ha'Mikdash for Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos). Instead, he set up two golden calves (ibid. I 12:28), one in Beis El and one in Dan, and proclaimed that they should be served.

52)[line 30]ובמשרפותMISREFOS- (a) the practice at the time of Tzidkiyahu ha'Melech was to burn the bed and personal belongings of kings upon their death (RASHI to Yirmeyahu 34:5); (b) the practice of burning incense in the room where a body lies before burial (RADAK ibid.)

53)[line 30]"אך שמע דבר ה' צדקיהו מלך יהודה כה אמר ה' עליך לא תמות בחרב. בשלום תמות וכמשרפות אבותיך המלכים הראשנים אשר היו לפניך כן ישרפו לך והוי אדון יספדו לך כי דבר אני דברתי נאם ה'""ACH SHEMA DVAR HASH-M, TZIDKIYAHU MELECH YEHUDAH..." - "Only listen to the word of HaSh-m, Tzidkiyahu, king of Yehudah; so says HaSh-m about you: You will not die by the sword! You will die in peace, and just as they burned the king's belongings when he died, so they will burn yours; and they will eulogize you with the words, 'Woe master,' because I have spoken, says HaSh-m" (Yirmeyahu 34:4-5) (TZIDKIYAHU RECEIVES COMFORTING NEWS)

(a)HaSh-m informed Tzidkiyahu ha'Melech that Yerushalayim was about to fall to Nevuchadnetzar, king of Bavel, and that he would be captured and handed over to Nevuchadnetzar as well. HaSh-m told Tzidkiyahu that he would see Nevuchadnetzar and speak to him, but he would never see Bavel (because Nevuchadnetzar would blind him).

(b)The comforting news, though, was that he would not be killed by the sword, and that he would outlive the king of Bavel. In fact, the day after Nevuchadnetzar died, his son Evil Merodach set Tzidkiyahu free, and the next day he died a natural death.

54)[line 32]"ביום ההוא יגדל המספד בירושלם כמספד הדדרימון בבקעת מגידון""BA'YOM HA'HU YIGDAL HA'MISPED B'YERUSHALAYIM K'MISPED HADADRIMON B'VIK'AS MEGIDON"- "On that day the mourning will become intense in Yerushalayim, like the mourning of Hadadrimmon [and the mourning] at the Valley of Megido" (Zecharyah 12:11).

55)[line 32]בבקעתBIK'AS MEGIDO- the valley of Megido (Armageddon)

56)[line 35]פרעה חגיראPAR'OH CHAGIRA- (lit. Pharaoh the Lame, also known as Pharaoh Nechoh) King of Egypt at the time of Yoshiyahu ha' Melech, who wanted to pass through Eretz Yisrael on his way to war against Ashur (Melachim II 23:29-35, Divrei ha'Yamim II 35:20-36:4). His archers killed Yoshiyahu, who did not want to let the Egyptian army pass through the land. He is called "the Lame" because he tried to sit on the miraculous throne of Shlomo ha'Melech and was hit by one of the mechanical golden lions, which crippled him (Vayikra Rabah 20:1, Targum Sheni, beginning of Megilas Esther).

57)[line 36]"... והמלך היה מָעֳמָד במרכבה""VEHA'MELECH HAYAH MA'OMAD BA'MERKAVAH..." - "[And the battle intensified that day;] and the king was propped up in his chariot against Aram, [and he died at evening; and the blood ran from the wound into the midst of the chariot]" (Melachim I 22:35) (ACHAV'S DEATH)

(a)The prophet Michaihu ben Yimlah warned Achav that he alone was destined to die should he choose to go to war against the Assyrians (Aram), in what would turn out to be the strangest of circumstances. Nevertheless, encouraged by false prophets (who themselves were tricked by the spirit of Navos, whom Achav murdered for his vineyard), Achav went forth into battle.

(b)The king of Assyria ordered his generals not to attack any of the enemy, only to go for the king, who was disguised as an ordinary soldier. Spying Yehoshafat, king of Yehudah (Achav's brother-in-law), who accompanied Achav to the battlefield, they began to chase him, but stopped the moment they realized their mistake.

(c)Meanwhile, a soldier (Na'aman, who would later be appointed commander-in-chief of the Assyrian army for this act) casually pulled his bow-string and shot an arrow in the direction of the camp of Yisrael. The arrow pierced a spot between the links in Achav's armor and entered his body. Feigning illness, he ordered his driver to retreat (without mentioning the fact that he had been pierced by an arrow). Even though Achav was mortally wounded, he had himself propped up in his chariot for the duration of the battle that day so that his soldiers would not be demoralized, should they find out about his condition. He feared that they would take flight and be slain while retreating (RASHI to the EIN YAKOV). In the evening, he died, just as Michaihu ha'Navi had predicted. Subsequently, the two camps dispersed and returned home.

(d)Achav was buried in Shomron, but much of his blood dripped into the chariot, which the driver took to be washed in the pool of Shomron (which coincided with the spot where Achav had murdered Navos). There the dogs lapped up his blood and the prostitutes bathed in the blood that had mixed with the water in the pool, as a punishment for having murdered Navos, just as Eliyahu ha'Navi had predicted.

58)[line 37]"ואת עיני צדקיהו עור ויאסרהו בנחשתים לביא אתו בבלה""V'ES EINEI TZIDKIYAHU IVER, VA'YA'ASREIHU BA'NECHUSHTAYIM LAVI OSO BAVELAH" - "And the eyes of Tzidkiyahu he (Nevuchadnetzar) blinded, and he bound him in fetters to bring him to Bavel" (Yirmeyahu 39:7) (THE CAPTURE OF TZIDKIYAHU)

(a)Following the breaching of the walls of Yerushalayim (on the ninth of Tamuz in the eleventh year of King Tzidkiyahu's reign), the generals of Nevuchadnetzar's army gathered at the middle gate. When they saw this, Tzidkiyahu - with his family and the remnant of the army - fled in the middle of the night via the secret cave next to the king's garden, which led all the way to the Plains of Yericho, a distance of some forty kilometers. By "coincidence" a deer "happened" to appear on the ground above the secret cave. It was spotted by a group of Babylonian soldiers who gave chase. The fleeing deer led the soldiers along the exact same path that Tzidkiyahu was taking underground, and it passed the exit to the cave just as Tzidkiyahu and his entourage emerged.

(b)The contingent of soldiers escaped, but the Babylonian soldiers took Tzidkiyahu and his family captive and led them to Nevuchadnetzar in Rivlah. There the king reminded him of the oath that he had made to the king of Bavel (to be loyal to him) and that he had promptly violated. It is for this that the king of Bavel now made him pay dearly. Tzidkiyahu pleaded with Nevuchadnetzar to kill him first so that he should not see the death of his ten children, but the latter ignored his request. He chose instead to fulfill the request of Tzidkiyahu's children, who asked him to kill them first so that they should not witness the blood of their father being spilled.

(c)The Midrash relates that after gouging out Tzidkiyahu's eyes, Nevuchadnetzar threw his children into the oven and took Tzidkiyahu in chains to Bavel. On the way, Tzidkiyahu cried out bitterly and said, "Come and see everybody, how Yirmeyahu prophesied that [if I did not surrender to the Babylonians] I would go to Bavel and die in Bavel, but I would never see Bavel. I ignored his warning, and now I am going to Bavel, but my eyes will not see it."

59)[line 38]"לכן הנני אספך על אבתיך ונאספת אל קברתיך בשלום ולא תראינה עיניך בכל הרעה אשר אני מביא על המקום הזה וישיבו את המלך דבר""LACHEN HINENI OSIFCHA AL AVOSECHA..." - "Therefore, I will gather you (Yoshiyah ha'Melech) to your fathers; you will be gathered to their graves in peace, and your eyes will not behold all the evil that I will bring upon this place. And they returned the king word." (Melachim II 22:20) (HASH-M'S REPLY TO KING YOSHIYAHU)

(a)This verse is HaSh-m's reply to the delegation sent by Yoshiyahu ha'Melech to Chuldah ha'Nevi'ah.

(b)Chuldah ha'Nevi'ah also informed them that HaSh-m's reason for this act of Divine grace was due to the fact that, upon discovering the Sefer Torah and its ominous message, Yoshiyahu humbled himself, rent his garments and wept at the bad news. That was why, although the decree of the Churban had already been sealed, Yoshiyahu ha'Melech would be spared the agony of seeing it happen.

60)[line 39]ככברהKI'CHEVARAH- [with many holes] like a sieve

61)[line 43]"... וסר מרזח סרוחים""V'SAR MIRZACH SERUCHIM"- "[Therefore, now they shall go into exile at the head of the exiles,] and the revelry of those who stretched themselves [out on their beds (a reference to Amos 6:4)] shall pass away" (Amos 6:7) - Chazal make a play on the word "v'Sar" ("and it shall pass away"), rendering it as if it were written with the letter Sin ("v'Sar," "and he will be a minister"). The second half of this verse is thus translated as, "and the Mirzach (the mourner who was Nizach bi'Mrirus - shaken by bitterness) will be a minister over Seruchim (those who are left over among the living)."