[27a - 50 lines; 27b - 45 lines]

1)[line 1]למעט בעסקוLIMA'ET B'ISKO- (a) to curtail the amount of work that he does (RASHI); (b) to curtail the amount of sales and purchases that he does (RABEINU CHANANEL)

2)[line 2]יגלגל עמהןYEGALGEL IMAHEN- (a) he may work for his daily sustenance along with the people with whom he is traveling, but not by himself (RASHI); (b) he may purchase the bare necessities that he needs for his trip (RABEINU CHANANEL)

3)[line 4]משיסתם הגוללMISHE'YISASEM HA'GOLEL- (a) from when the top of the coffin is closed (RASHI Shabbos 152b); (b) from when the tombstone is erected (TOSFOS ibid)

4)[line 10]מן המנחה ולמעלהMIN HA'MINCHAH UL'MA'ALAH- from Minchah Ketanah until sunset (NIMUKEI YOSEF). Minchah Ketanah begins at nine and one-half Sha'os Zemaniyos of the day. (Sha'os Zemaniyos are Halachic hours, the amount of time between sunrise and sunset divided by 12.)

5)[line 17]דרגשDARGASH- a bed consisting of a leather mattress tied to a frame

6)[line 17]זוקפוZOKFO- one stands it up

7)[line 18]קרביטיוKARBITAV- its straps, thongs

8)[line 18]ערסא דגדאARSA D'GADA- a bed set up for the "spiritual counterparts" of the house, on which no one sits (RABEINU CHANANEL, ARUCH)

9)[line 30]דגילדאיGILDA'EI- harness-makers or dealers in leather

10)[line 30]ערסא דצלאARSA D'TZALA- a bed consisting of a leather mattress tied to a frame

11)[line 31]סירוגו מתוכוSEIRUGO MI'TOCHO- the leather mattress lies within the frame to which it is tied

12)[line 31]סרוגה על גבהSEIRUGAH AL GABAH- the leather mattress lies on top of the frame to which it is tied

13)[line 33]שנקליטיהNAKLITEHA- its Naklitei ha'Mitah, a framework of poles made by putting two vertical poles at the center of the head and foot of a bed, while a third horizontal pole rests on top of them. A sheet hung on the horizontal pole forms two sloping walls that are joined at the top.

14)[line 35]מכבדיןMECHABDIN- it is permitted to sweep

15)[line 35]ומרביציןMARBITZIN- it is permitted to sprinkle water on the (earthen) floors after sweeping them, to make the dust settle

16)[line 36]ומדיחיןMADICHIN- rinse, wash

17a)[line 36]קערותKE'AROS- plates

b)[line 36]וצלוחיותTZELOCHIYOS- bottles with a wide belly and a narrow neck

c)[line 36]וקיתוניותKITONIYOS- flasks

18)[line 37]המוגמרMUGMAR- incense, ground spices burned on coals for fragrance

19)[line 37]הבשמיםBESAMIM- spices, perfumes

20)[line 39]לבית האבלBEIS HA'EVEL- (a) the room in which the corpse lies before burial (spices and perfumes are brought in to alleviate the odors) (RAM HA'LEVI and TOSFOS, cited by the NIMUKEI YOSEF); (b) a room occupied only by mourners (as opposed to those who come to comfort him; no perfumes or other excesses are brought into this room) (other Rishonim cited by the NIMUKEI YOSEF)

21)[line 39]בבית המנחמיןBEIS HA'MENCHAMIN- (a) the room in which the mourners stay for the week of Shiv'ah, where their acquaintances come to comfort them (no perfumes or other excesses are brought into this room) (RAM HA'LEVI and TOSFOS, cited by the NIMUKEI YOSEF); (b) the room designated for the acquaintances of the mourner whom came to comfort him during the week of Shiv'ah. Even though the mourners stay in this room for most of the week of Shiv'ah, perfumes are brought in to alleviate odors for the fastidious, easily disgusted acquaintances (other Rishonim cited by the NIMUKEI YOSEF).

22)[line 40]בטבלאTAVLA- a board

23)[line 40]באסקוטלאISKUTLA- a small tray or flat plate

24)[line 40]בקנוןKANON- a reed basket or pan

25)[line 41]בסליםSALIM- baskets

26)[line 41]ברכת אבליםBIRKAS AVELIM- after burying a dead relative, others would provide the mourners with refreshments or a meal outside (in the street, "Rechavah"), on their way home from the funeral. During the meal, one of those present would recite a blessing, Birkas Rechavah, ending with Baruch...Menachem Aveilim" (Kesuvos 8b).

27)[line 41]בשורהSHURAH

At the cemetery after the burial, the people who came to the funeral stand in rows of not less than ten people and comfort the mourners. The mourners stand to the left of the consolers, and they pass in front of the mourners one by one, giving Tanchumin (Rambam Hilchos Avel 13:1-2).

28)[line 42]ופוטרין את הרביםPOTRIN ES HA'RABIM- the comforters are sent home

29)[line 42]להרגיל את ההספדL'HARGIL ES HA'HESPED- to increase the number of eulogies, since the Mishnah is dealing with Chol ha'Mo'ed, in which only a Talmid Chacham is eulogized normally

30)[line 44]בקלתותKALASOS- a vase-shaped basket

31)[line 44]בסלי נצרים של ערבה קלופהSALEI NETZARIM SHEL ARAVAH KELUFAH- wicker baskets made of peeled willow branches

32a)[line 47]בזכוכית לבנהZECHUCHIS LEVANAH- (lit. white glass) crystal

b)[line 47]בזכוכית צבועהZECHUCHIS TZEVU'AH- colored glass

33)[line 49]בצורתBATZORES- famine


34)[line 1]בכליכהKELIVAH- a stretcher for carrying the dead

35a)[line 7]על גבי נדות מתותAL GABEI NIDOS MESOS- that were touched by women who were Nidos before they died

b)[line 16]נדהNIDAH

(a)By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she immerses in a Mikvah to become Tehorah. (The current practice is to consider all women who have a show of blood to be a Zavah and therefore they must have seven clean days before they go to the Mikvah.)

(b)A Nidah, like a Zav, Zavah, or Yoledes, can cause objects that are under her to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether she touches them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Nidah (or the Tachton of a Nidah.) An object under a Nidah becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon. Earthenware objects (Klei Cheres) cannot become Midras.

(c)A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras or the Nidah herself, along with the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time, get the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah.

(d)Utensils or clothes which lie above the Nidah also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether they touch her or not. These are called the Elyon of a Nidah.

36)[line 10]זביןZAVIN

(a)A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times (see Background to Shabbos 84:1), whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.

(b)A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked" to determine whether or not he becomes a Zav. If the discharge came about b'Ones (due to an external cause), he is Tahor. Some examples of Ones are:

1.eating too much;

2.drinking too much;


4.being sick; etc. (see Zavim 2:2).

(c)A Zav must count seven "clean" days in which he sees no Zov in order to start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).

(d)If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah.

37)[line 12]היתה הוצאת המת קשה לקרוביו יותר ממיתתוHAYESAH HOTZA'AS HA'MES KASHAH LI'KEROVAV YOSER MI'MISASO- burying the dead was more painful for his relatives than his death (because of the great expense)

38)[line 14]בכלי פשתןKLEI PISHTAN- linen shrouds

39)[line 15]בצרדא בר זוזאTZERADA BAR ZUZA- a rough cloth of hemp worth a Zuz

40)[line 18]בפום נהראPUM NAHARA- the name of a place in Bavel, at the mouth of a river (Pum = mouth; Nahara = river)

41)[line 19]הספד על לבHESPED AL LEV- the term Hesped includes the action of beating the chest

42)[line 19]טיפוח בידTIPU'ACH B'YAD- the term Tipu'ach means (a) to clap (as a sign of mourning) (RASHI Beitzah 30a, RAMBAM, ROSH); (b) to beat the heart with the hand (which was done publicly as a sign of mourning) (RASHI Shabbos 148b)

43)[line 20]קילוס ברגלKILUS B'REGEL- the term Kilus means to stamp on the ground with one's foot as a sign of mourning

44)[line 21]שניענע ראשוSHE'NI'ANE'A ROSHO- (a) he shook his head (a sign of self-condolence) (RASHI); (b) he nodded to those present as a sign that he wanted them to leave (ARUCH, see RITVA)

45)[line 27]לדרומתאDARUMASA- a place

46)[line 27]קול שיפורא דשכבאKOL SHOFARA D'SHICHVA- the sound of the Shofar announcing a person's death

47)[line 29]חבורתאCHABURASA- "Chevra Kadisha" organizations

48)[line 30]המתקשהHA'MISKASHEH- who bewails, grieves

49)[line 30]איתתאITESA- woman

50)[line 31]בשיבבותיה דרב הונאB'SHIVEVUSEI D'RAV HUNA- in Rav Huna's neighborhood

51)[line 32]ביתירתאB'YESEIRTA- with excessiveness

52)[line 33]צייתתTZAISAS- you listen

53)[line 33]צבית זוודתא לאידךTZAVIS ZEVADASA L'IDACH- prepare shrouds (lit. pack provisions) for the other [son]

54)[line 34]תימושTIMOSH- prepare

55)[line 34]"אל תבכו...""AL TIVKU..."- "Weep you not for the dead, nor bemoan him; but weep bitterly for him who goes away; for he shall return no more, nor see his native country" (Yirmeyahu 22:10).

56)[line 38]להולך בלא בניםHOLECH B'LO BANIM- a person who dies childless

57)[line 44]בקרן זויתKEREN ZAVIS- the corner of the house