MENACHOS 46 (20 Nisan) - Dedicated by Mr. Martin Fogel of Carlsbad, California, in memory of his father, Yaakov ben Shlomo Fogel, on the day of his Yahrzeit.

[46a - 33 lines; 46b - 47 lines]

1)[line 1]אם הוזקקו זה לזהIM HUZKEKU ZEH LA'ZEH- if they become "bound" to each other

2)[line 2]זיקהZIKAH- the bond that connects the Shtei ha'Lechem (see Background to Menachos 45:25) and the Kivsei Atzeres (see Background to Menachos 45:26)

3)[line 2]בעו במערבאBA'U B'MA'ARAVA- they asked a question in Eretz Yisrael (lit. in the west)

4)[line 3]תנופהTENUFAH

Waving portions of certain Korbanos and meal-offerings is called Tenufah; the Kohen, together with the owner of the Korban (when it is not a Korban Tzibur), waves them in all four directions and up and down (RASHI to Menachos 62a DH Molich. TOSFOS to Sukah 37b DH Kedei, ponders whether all Tenufos were done in this fashion, or whether some Tenufos only required lifting and lowering).

5)[line 6]מיפשט פשיטא ליה לרבי יוחנןMIFSHAT PESHITAH LEI L'REBBI YOCHANAN- is it plainly obvious to Rabbi Yochanan

6)[line 13]ולא בתר שחיטהV'LO BASAR SHECHITAH?- and not after Shechitah? (that is, it certainly does not become the portion of the Kohen until after the slaughter, also - RASHI)

7)[line 14]מעיקרא קאיME'IKARA KAI- is referring to before [slaughtering]

8)[line 15]דבר שסופו לכהןDAVAR SHE'SOFO LA'KOHEN- a thing that will eventually become the portion of the Kohen

9)[line 17]נפרס לחמהNIFRAS LACHMAH- its bread (i.e. one of the loaves of the Lachmei Todah - see Background to Menachos 27:18) crumbled

10)[line 19]נזרק הדםNIZRAK HA'DAM- the blood was cast on the Mizbe'ach (before the bread crumbled - RASHI)

11)[line 19]תורםTOREM- he gives to the Kohen the portion of the Lachmei Todah normally given to the Kohen (see Background to Menachos 27:18)

12)[line 20]יצאYATZA- one (or all) of the loaves was taken out of the city walls of Yerushalayim

13)[line 23]שבפניםSHE'BIFNIM- those loaves that remained inside the walls of Yerushalayim

14)[line 26]שהציץ מרצה על הטמאSHEHA'TZITZ MERATZEH AL HA'TAMEI - since the Tzitz validates (lit. causes the Korban he offers to find favor, fulfilling his obligation) things that are Tamei (RITZUY TZITZ)

(a)Tum'ah renders Korbanos unfit for being offered. Therefore, if the blood of a Korban becomes Tamei before it is cast on the Mizbe'ach (Zerikas ha'Dam), it becomes prohibited to do Zerikas ha'Dam with this blood. Similarly, Rebbi Yehoshua rules that if all of the meat and Chelev of a Korban becomes Tamei before Zerikas ha'Dam, it becomes prohibited to do Zerikas ha'Dam (Pesachim 77b). In addition, if the Eimurim (the parts of a Korban that are to be offered on the Mizbe'ach) become Teme'im even after Zerikas ha'Dam, it becomes prohibited to offer them afterwards. This Halachah also disqualifies the loaves of bread that accompany certain Korbanos that become Teme'im.

(b)However, all of these laws apply only l'Chatchilah. B'Di'eved, if the Kohen did Zerikas ha'Dam b'Tum'ah and the Kohen Gadol was wearing the Tzitz at the time, the Tzitz validates the Kohen's Avodah. The Korban may be eaten and the owner has fulfilled his obligation. This Halachah is learned from the verse, "... l'Ratzon Lahem Lifnei HaSh-m" (Shemos 28:38). (If, however, the meat or loaves became Teme'im, the Tzitz does not render them fit to be eaten.)

(c)Korbenos Tzibur (public sacrifices) do not require the Tzitz to render them acceptable. If they become Teme'im through one of the above-mentioned Tum'os, they may be offered l'Chatchilah. Also, if all of the Kohanim are Teme'im, they may offer Korbanos l'Chatchilah. These Korbanos, however, even though they were offered b'Tum'ah, may not be eaten (with the exception of the Korban Pesach, which is a Korban Tzibur that may be offered b'Tum'ah and also eaten b'Tum'ah).

(d)The Tzitz was the thin gold plate on which was written "Kodesh la'Sh-m," worn on the forehead of the Kohen Gadol (Shemos 28:36-38; see Charts to Shabbos 63b).


15)[line 19]ליקדשו הני והניLIKADSHU HANEI V'HANEI- let these (the Shenei Kevasim) and those (the bull, two rams and seven sheep) consecrate the Shtei ha'Lechem

16)[line 21]שלמים הוא דמקדשיSHELAMIM HU D'MEKADSHEI- it is the Shelamim (the Shlamei Nazir) that consecrates [the Rekikei Nazir loaves]

17)[line 21]מידי אחרינא לאMIDI ACHARINA LO- (lit. anything else does not) none of the other Korbanos of the Nazir consecrate the Rekikei Nazir loaves

18)[line 25]תעובר צורתןTE'UBAR TZURASAN - we let their appearance become disfigured (by beginning to decay), i.e. we wait for the night to pass so that they will become invalidated as "Nosar" (NOSAR)

(a)If any meat of a Korban remains after the time that was allotted for it to be eaten, it must be burned, as the Torah states, "b'Yom Zivchachem Ye'achel umi'Macharas, veha'Nosar Ad Yom ha'Shelishi ba'Esh Yisaref." - "It shall be eaten the same day that you slaughter it and on the next day, and anything that remains until the third day shall be burned in fire" (Vayikra 19:6; see Background to Shevuos 3:11). The same Halachah applies to the Shtei ha'Lechem, that if they are left until the morning after Shavu'os, they become invalidated and must be burned.

(b)If a person eats a k'Zayis of Nosar b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes); the Lav for eating Nosar is learned from the verse of the Milu'im, "v'Im Yivaser mi'Besar ha'Milu'im u'Min ha'Lechem Ad ha'Boker, v'Sarafta Es ha'Nosar ba'Esh, Lo Ye'achel Ki Kodesh Hu." - "And if any flesh or bread of the Milu'im sacrifices is left over until the (following) morning, you shall burn the remnants in fire, it shall not be eaten since it is holy" (Shemos 29:34). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #215).

19)[line 25]ויצאו לבית השריפהV'YETZ'U L'VEIS HA'SEREIFAH- and they shall be burned in the Beis ha'Sereifah

20)[line 26]מה נפשך?MAH NAFSHACH?- (lit. what is it your desire [to say]?) Which position would you like to adopt?

21)[line 26]אי לאכילה אתייןIY L'ACHILAH ASYAN- if they are permitted to be eaten [without the Matir of the Kivsei Atzeres]

22)[line 26]ליכלינהוLEICHLINHU- let the Kohanim eat them

23)[line 26]לשרפינהו לאלתרLISREFINHU L'ALTAR- let them burn them at once (that is, after nightfall of the day of Shavu'os, since it is prohibited to burn Kodshim Pesulim on Yom Tov - SHITAH MEKUBETZES citing TOSFOS ACHEIROS)

24)[line 27]יזדמנו להן כבשיםYIZDAMNU LAHEM KEVASIM- sheep will become available to them

25)[line 28]אשתקדESHTAKAD- last year

26)[line 29]אינהו שריין נפשייהוINHU SHARYAN NAFSHAIHU- they permitted themselves to be eaten (i.e. the Tenufah of the Shtei ha'Lechem that were brought when there were no Kivsei Atzeres permitted them to be eaten by the Kohanim)

27)[line 31]העיד בן בוכרי ביבנהHE'ID BEN BUCHRI B'YAVNEH- the sage named Ben Buchri testified in Yavneh (Yavnah was the seat of the Sanhedrin after the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash. Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai was granted three requests by Vespesian (Gitin 56b), one of them being "Give me Yavneh and its scholars")

28a)[line 31]כל כהן ששוקל אינו חוטאKOL KOHEN SHE'SHOKEL EINO CHOTEI - any Kohen who contributes the half-Shekel towards the Korbanos of the Beis ha'Mikdash does not transgress any prohibition (SHEKALIM)

(a)Every year, one half Shekel was collected from every Jew to fund the Korbenos Tzibur that were offered in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Beis Din placed the money that was collected in a room in the Mikdash reserved for that purpose (see Background to Bava Metzia 57:16).

(b)The half Shekalim were collected before Rosh Chodesh Nisan so that the Korbanos of the new year (which starts with the month of Nisan) would be offered from the money that was collected for the new year. On the first of Adar, Beis Din announced that the Shekalim should be collected, in order to ensure that all of the Shekalim would be collected before Rosh Chodesh Nisan (see Insights to Shekalim 2a). Some commentaries contend that a portion of the Shekalim would not arrive until after Rosh Chodesh Nisan, while others claim that all of the Shekalim arrived by Rosh Chodesh Nisan, since the Shekalim were collected from the regions further from Yerushalayim earlier in the year. (This latter opinion appears to be the conclusion of the Yerushalmi, Shekalim 2a - see Mishnas Eliyahu ibid. 2b.)

(c)The amount that was collected from each Jew was not fixed at half a Shekel. Rather, the amount given was always half of the "Matbe'a ha'Yotzei" (the primary coin in use at the time), provided that it was not less than the value of half a Shekel.

(d)The word "Shekel," as used in the phrase "Machatzis ha'Shekel," refers to the Shekel that was in use at the time of Moshe Rabeinu, which was equivalent to the "Sela" of the times of the Gemara. Machatzis ha'Shekel is half of a Sela, or two Dinarim. People became accustomed to calling the coin that was valued at half of a Sela, "Shekel," since it was "paid out" ("Shoklim" Oso) in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of Machatzis ha'Shekel each year (RAMBAN to Shemos 30:13).

(e)At three times during the year (before each of the three festivals), Beis Din filled three boxes, each of which held three Se'in (approximately 21.6, 25 or 43.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) with Shekalim from that room. The portion that was set aside in the boxes was called the "Terumas ha'Lishkah," while the remainder of the Shekalim were called "Sheyarei ha'Lishkah" (Shekalim 7b, 8a). (See Insights to Shekalim 9:2)

(f)There is a difference of opinion as to why the Terumas ha'Lishkah was done three times a year rather than just once. One opinion states that the reason was only to publicize the Terumas ha'Lishkah (Shekalim 2b, see Insights there). According to others, Beis Din was concerned that the Terumas ha'Lishkah should also be collected from the Shekalim that arrived later in the year (this opinion is also mentioned in the Yerushalmi, ibid.).

(g)The Shekalim from the Terumas ha'Lishkah were used to purchase the animals needed for public sacrifices and for the wages of certain laborers and appointees of Hekdesh (as described in our Gemara). The Shekalim from the Sheyarei ha'Lishkah were used to buy other goods necessary for the upkeep of the Mikdash and the entire city of Yerushalayim (Shekalim 4a-b).

b)[line 32]כל כהן שאינו שוקל חוטאKOL KOHEN SHE'EINO SHOKEL CHOTEI- any Kohen who does not contribute the half-Shekel towards the Korbanos of the Beis ha'Mikdash transgresses a prohibition

29)[line 34]היאך נאכלין?HEI'ACH NE'ECHALIN?- Why are they eaten (when all Menachos of the Kohanim are burned, as it states in the verse, Vayikra 6:16)?

30)[line 38]לחמי תודה לא איקרו מנחהLACHMEI TODAH LO IKRU MINCHAH- the Lachmei Todah are not called "Minchah" [in the verses, and furthermore, they are eaten within the walls of Yerushalayim, as opposed to most Menachos, which are only eaten within the walls of the Azarah]

31)[line 40]אין שורפין קדשים ביו''טEIN SORFIN KODASHIM B'YOM TOV

(a)Kodshim and Terumah that become Teme'im must be burned, as the Torah states, "ba'Esh Yisaref" (Vayikra 7:19). However, it is prohibited to burn them on Yom Tov. The Gemara (Shabbos 24b) brings four ways to learn this from the verses.

(b)Burning for the sake of preparing food (l'Tzorech Ochel Nefesh) is permitted on Yom Tov, as long as an existing fire is used. The Gemara (Beitzah 12b) teaches that since it is permitted l'Tzorech, burning in general (she'Lo l'Tzorech) is also permitted. However, there must be at least some benefit (Tzorech ha'Yom Ketzas) that is derived from it on that day of Yom Tov.

(c) Since burning Kodshim Teme'im is a Mitzvah, if a person burns them on Yom Tov, the benefit that he derives is considered subordinate to the Mitzvah he performs. There was no Tzorech ha'Yom at all. Therefore burning Kodshim is prohibited mid'Oraisa (TOSFOS to Shabbos 24b DH Lefi)

32)[line 44](צורת) [כל זמן] הקרבתם(TZURAS) [KOL ZEMAN] HAKRAVASAM- they are left over until the time for the offering of the Kivsei Atzeres has passed, i.e. until the offering of the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim (the afternoon Tamid sacrifice, the last Korban of the day)