[17a - 36 lines; 17b - 40 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon Kodashim and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Mishnah 17a [line 2]:

"Dam ha'Sheretz veha'Basar" דם השרץ והבשר

Rashi's Girsa is "Dam ha'Sheretz u'Vesaro" דם השרץ ובשרו (this is also the Girsa of the Shitah Mekubetzes #2; see below, entry #1)

[2] Gemara 17a [line 7]:

The words "Amar Rav Chanin Amar Rav Ze'ira, v'Chen" אמר רב חנין אמר רב זעירא וכן

should be "Amar Rav Chanin Amar Rav Ze'ira, u'Vo" (or "v'Odah Bo") אמר רב חנין אמר רב זעירא ובו (ועודה בו); see Girsa of Rashi according to Tzon Kodashim, Tosfos DH Amar, Rabeinu Gershom, Rabeinu Nisim Ga'on in Tosfos DH v'Ha, Shitah Mekubetzes #4, and Rash in Ohalos 3:3) (see below entry #1)

[3] Rashi 17a DH ha'Teme'im ד"ה הטמאים:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #17

[4] Gemara 17b [line 7]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #2

[5] Gemara [line 14]:

"Ben Temalyon" בן תמליון

Rashi to Yoma 57a and Peirush Kadmon #2 of Rav Sofer have the Girsa

"Ben Telamyon" בן תלמיון

[6] Gemara [line 37]:

The words "uch'Melo Lugma" וכמלא ליגמא

should be "uch'Melo Lugmav" וכמלא לוגמיו (as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #8; this is also the way it appears in Yoma 73b; see Yoma 80a and Tosfos to Pesachim 107a DH Im)

[7] Gilyon ha'Shas 17b [at the end]:

The words "Mishnah Achas Esrei" משנה אחת עשרה

should be "Mishnah Asarah" משנה עשרה


1)[line 6]אמר רב חנין אמר רב זעירא וכןAMAR RAV CHANIN AMAR RAV ZE'IRA, V'KEN- (a) Blood combines only with the flesh of the Sheretz from which it came, in order to make others Tamei. (This explanation is supported by the wording of our Mishnah, according to those who have the Girsa "Dam ha'Sheretz u'Vesaro — see Girsa Section #1) (RASHI, RABEINU NISIM GA'ON); (b) Blood only combines with the flesh of a Sheretz that is the same species as that from which the blood came (PEIRUSH KADMON #1 of Rav Sofer); (c) Blood can combine only with the flesh of the Sheretz while the blood is still in the Sheretz (i.e. not in the veins of the Sheretz, but on the surface of the Sheretz, after the Sheretz has bled, -M. KORNFELD) (RASH to Ohalos 3:3, TOSFOS DH Amar Rav Chanin, 1st explanation, RAMBAM Hilchos She'ar Avos ha'Tum'ah 4:7). (Those who suggest this explanation have the Girsa "v'Od Bo" (or "v'Odo/v'Odah Bo") in the Gemara, see Girsa Section #2)

2)[line 10]כאן בכולו כאן במקצתוKAN B'CHULO, KAN B'MIKTZASO- see Insights

3)[line 12]קטפרסKATAFRAS- a slope

4)[line 15]שהגיסSHE'HEGIS- that one stirred

5)[line 25]סיפר קומיSIPER KOMI- he cut the hair of his forehead in the Nochri fashion of cutting and wearing the hair, in order to appear like a Roman

6)[line 28]טבית אמר; ובטלוה!TAVIS AMAR; U'BATLUHA!- "He said well; the decree is annulled!"


7)[line 8]מסתפינאMISTEFINA- I am afraid

8)[line 11]עקם פיוAKAM PIV- (a) he said in a low voice; he whispered (RASHI); (b) he hastened to answer (TOSFOS)

9)[line 14]בן תמליוןBEN TEMALYON- (a) a demon (Dibuk) (RASHI); (b) according to some, the correct Girsa is BAR TELAMYON (Bartholomew) (see Girsa Section #5)

10)[line 23]ההוא איגראHA'HU IGRA- that letter, edict

11)[line 24]ראיתיה בעיר רומיRE'ISIHA B'IR ROMI- I saw it [the Paroches] in the city of Rome

12)[line 30]טומאת הידיםTUM'AS HA'YADAYIM (TUM'AS PIGUL / TUM'AS NOSAR)

The Chachamim decreed (Pesachim 85a) that a k'Beitzah of meat that is Pigul (see Background to Me'ilah 2:4a) or Nosar (see Background to Me'ilah 6:1) is Metamei the hands of anyone who touches them. They made the decree with regard to Pigul to prevent Kohanim from invalidating Korbanos (with thoughts of Pigul) in order to cause a loss to the owner of the Korban. They made the decree with regard to Nosar to prompt the Kohanim to eat the Korbanos within the required amount of time so that no meat of the Korbanos becomes Nosar.


(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei

(b)All sources of Tum'ah are called 'Av ha'Tum'ah' (a father of Tum'ah), except for a corpse, which can generate more Tum'ah than any other object and is therefore referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah." All levels of Tum'ah below Av ha'Tum'ah are referred to as Vlad ha'Tum'ah (a 'child' of Tum'ah)

(c)When one object makes another object Tamei, the second object has a weaker Tum'ah than the first. If something becomes Tamei from an Av, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah. A Rishon makes a Sheni l'Tum'ah.

1.Liquids are an exception to this rule. The Chachamim decreed that liquids should always be a Rishon, even if touched by a Sheni.)

2.Another case in which the object touched can retain the same level of Tum'ah as that which touched it is Cherev Harei Hu k'Chalal (see Insights to Pesachim 14b).

(d)A Sheni l'Tum'ah cannot make Chulin Tamei. Terumah, however, can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah. (If someone guarded his Chulin from Tum'ah as one normally guards Terumah, it is called "Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Terumah," and can become a Shelishi.)

(e)Terumah that is a Shelishi l'Tum'ah cannot make other Terumah Tamei. However, it may not be eaten. For this reason, it is referred to as "Pasul" (invalid) rather than "Tamei." Kodesh (objects associated with the sacrifices) that is touched by a Shelishi l'Tum'ah can become a Revi'i. A Revi'i of Kodesh is "Pasul" and may not be eaten.

(f)Utensils, foods, and Jewish people, can become Tamei, as follows. (Other animate or inanimate objects cannot become Tamei.)

1.Utensils made from the metals listed in the Torah (Bamidbar 31:22), or from wood, leather, fibers produced from hair or plants, bone, and earthenware (Cheres), can become Tamei. All but earthenware can be either an Av ha'Tum'ah or a Rishon l'Tum'ah; earthenware can only be a Rishon l'Tum'ah (RASHI Eruvin 104b DH Lo).

2.Foods can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or lower.

3.Jewish people can become Avos ha'Tum'ah (by touching a corpse), an Av ha'Tum'ah, or a Rishon. Chazal decreed that a person's hands can become Sheni l'Tum'ah; see Background to Gitin 15:26. Chazal also decreed that a person can become a Sheni l'Tum'ah or Shelishi l'Tum'ah by eating foods that are Tamei (see Shabbos 13b).

(g)A person or utensil that is Tamei can become Tahor again through immersion in a Mikvah and waiting until nightfall. After immersion in a Mikvah but before nightfall, the person or utensil is known as a Tevul Yom. A Tevul Yom is deemed the equivalent of a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and can make Terumah or Kodesh into a Shelishi. It is more lenient, however, than a normal Sheni l'Tum'ah and cannot make liquids into a Rishon (see above, c:1).


The Chachamim decreed that a person who eats a half-Peras (see next entry) of food that is Tamei may not eat Terumah. He makes Terumah Pasul if he touches it.

15)[line 35]חצי פרסCHATZI PERAS- a half-loaf of wheat bread; this is three (according to Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah) or four (according to Rebbi Shimon — Eruvin 82b) Beitzim of bread

16)[line 35]מזון שתי סעודות לעירובMAZON SHTEI SE'UDOS L'ERUV - food for two meals for an Eruv [Techumin] (ERUVEI TECHUMIN: SHI'URO)

(a)A person is allowed to walk only a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from his city (or dwelling place if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin.

(b)This is accomplished by placing an amount of any food that would be used for two meals nearly 2000 Amos away from his present location, in the direction in which he wishes to walk. The location where his food is placed is considered his new dwelling or place of Shevisah for that Shabbos or Yom Tov, and he may walk 2000 Amos in any direction from there.

17)[line 36]כביצה לטמא טומאת אוכליןBEITZAH L'TAMEI TUM'AS OCHLIN (TUM'AS OCHLIN: K'BEITZAH)

(a)See above, entry #13.

(b)All foods become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only after they first become wet. From then on, even after they dry, they can still become Tamei. Seven liquids can enable foods to become Tamei: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and bee's honey. The minimum amount of food that can become Tamei is a k'Beitzah (RASHI). The modern equivalent of a Beitzah is 0.05, 0.0576 or 0.1 liter, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

(c)In order for something edible to receive Tum'as Ochlin, it has to be considered food. A person's intention to eat the item and treat it as a food gives it the status of a food and it can receive Tum'as Ochlin. Once food becomes Tamei, it cannot become Tahor by immersing it in a Mikvah.

18)[line 35]כגרוגרת להוצאת שבתGROGERES L'HOTZA'AS SHABBOS (HOTZA'AH: SHI'URO)

(a)HOTZA'AH - Hotza'ah is the general term for the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either: 1. Hotza'ah, transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) to a Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain); 2. Hachnasah, transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid; 3. Ma'avir Arba Amos b'Reshus ha'Rabim, carrying an object from one place in Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos; 4. Moshit, passing an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah in Shabbos 96a, see Background to Shabbos 96:3). These are all biblical prohibitions.

(b)AKIRAH & HANACHAH - In order to transgress the biblical prohibition of Hotza'ah, certain conditions must be met. The sinner must perform both an Akirah (initiation of movement) and a Hanachah (setting down the object to rest). If one person does the Akirah and another does the Hanachah, only a Rabbinic prohibition is involved, as the Gemara states in Shabbos 3a.

(c)The amount of produce transferred that will create a Chiyuv depends on the purpose for which the produce is transferred. If it is transferred for eating, the person is Chayav when he transfers a Grogeres of foods and a Revi'is of liquids (Mishnah Shabbos 76b). (A Grogeres is a measure of volume the size of a dried fig. The Rishonim differ in its relationship to a k'Beitzah, the Halachic volume of a chicken egg. The RAMBAM (Hilchos Shabbos 8:5) rules that it is equal to one third of a Beitzah; the TUR (Orach Chayim 409) rules that it is equal to four ninths of a Beitzah; the TOSFOS (to Eruvin 80b and to Yoma 80a) rules that it is bigger than one half of a Beitzah. The modern equivalent of a Beitzah is 0.05, 0.0576 or 0.1 liter, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.) Transferring for other purposes, such as for animal fodder or for kindling wood requires the amount that will be useful in each circumstance (Shabbos ibid. et seq.).

19)[line 36]כותבת ביום הכפוריםKOSEVES B'YOM HA'KIPURIM

The amount of solid food for which a person is liable for eating on Yom ha'Kipurim is the size of a fat date. The size of a Koseves is estimated at slightly less than a Beitzah (Yoma 79b; see Midos v'Shi'urei Torah 15:8-10 by Chaim P. Beinish, Keser Torah Radomsk, Bnei Brak, 5760).

20)[line 37]מלא לוגמאMELO (LUGMA) [LUGMAV]- the quantity of liquid that fills two cheeks

21)[last line]בני חדא ביקתא אינוןBNEI CHADA BIKSA INUN- they are of the same category (lit. valley, rural community)