MATERIALS USED TO WRITE A MEGILAH
'Diftera' is a hide that has been salted and soaked, but not treated with gallnuts (it is invalid).
'Neyar' is herbs that were glued together.
(Mishnah): It must be written Ashuris.
This is learned from "Ki'Chsavam".
(Mishnah): It must be written in a Sefer, in ink.
We learn from a Gezerah Shavah "Kesivah-Kesivah" from "Va'Ani Kosev Al ha'Sefer bi'Dyo."
SOMEONE IN A DIFFERENT PLACE ON PURIM
(Mishnah): If a Ben Ir (resident of an open city) went to a Kerach (walled city), or vice-versa:
If he will return to his place, he reads like in his place. If not, he reads where he is.
Question: How much of the Megilah must one read to be Yotzei?
Answer #1 (R. Meir): He must read the entire Megilah.
Answer #2 (R. Yehudah): He must read from "Ish Yehudi."
Answer #3 (R. Yosi): He must read from "After these matters."
(Gemara - Rava): The Mishnah says that he (a Ben Kerach) reads like in his place if he will return, i.e. before dawn of the 14th. If not, he reads with them (where he is).
We learn this from "Ha'Prazim ha'Yoshvim b'Arei ha'Prazos". The repetition teaches that one who dwells in an Ir for one day is called a Ben Ir.
Logic dictates that similarly, a Ben Kerach for one day is called a Ben Kerach. (Therefore, if a Ben Ir will not return before dawn of the 15th, he waits to read with the Kerach on the 15th).
(Rava): If a villager went to a city he reads with them, whether or not he will return.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: Really, he should read like a Ben Ir. Chachamim were lenient regarding villagers, because they supply food and water to the cities. The leniency does not apply if he is in the city on the 14th.
Question (Abaye - Beraisa): If a Ben Kerach went to an Ir, in any case reads like his place.
Objection: The Mishnah says that it depends on whether or not he will return!
Correction: Rather, the Beraisa should say 'if a villager went to an Ir (in any case he reads like his place. This is unlike Rava!)
Answer: The Beraisa must be corrected in any case. We can correct it to say that he reads with them.
HOW MUCH OF THE MEGILAH MUST BE READ
(Mishnah) Question: How much of the Megilah must one read to be Yotzei?
(Beraisa -R. Shimon): One must read from "On that night."
(R. Yochanan): R. Shimon and the Tana'im of the Mishnah all learn from "Va'Tichtov... Kol Tokef":
R. Meir requires reading the entire Megilah, i.e. the Tokef (might) of Achashverosh.
R. Yehudah requires from "Ish Yehudi", i.e. the Tokef of Mordechai.
R. Yosi requires from "After these matters", i.e. the Tokef of Haman.
R. Shimon requires from "On that night", i.e. the Tokef of the miracle.
(Rav Huna): They all learn from "Why did they act as they did? Because they saw this; and this is what happened to them";
The one who requires reading the entire Megilah explains 'Why did Achashverosh use the Kelim of the Beis ha'Mikdash? Because he saw that Yisrael were not redeemed after 70 years. This is what happened to him, i.e. he killed Vashti.'
The one who requires reading from "Ish Yehudi" explains 'Why did Mordechai provoke Haman? Because Haman made himself an idolatry. This is what happened, i.e. a miracle was done.
The one who requires from "After these things" explains 'Why did Haman envy all the Yisraelim? Because Mordechai wouldn't bow to him. This is what happened to him, i.e. he and his sons were hung.
The one who requires from "On that night" explains 'Why did Achashverosh ask to bring the chronicles? Because Esther invited Haman with him (like Rava, 15b). This is what happened, i.e. a miracle.
(R. Chelbo): The Halachah follows the opinion that requires reading the entire Megilah. Even the opinion that requires only from "Ish Yehudi" requires that he read from a complete Megilah.
(R. Chelbo): The Megilah is called "Sefer" and it is called "Igeres" (a letter);
"Sefer" disqualifies a Megilah sewn with flax (such a Sefer Torah is Pasul);
' Igeres' teaches that three stitches of a sinew suffice.
(Rav Nachman): The stitches must be evenly spaced.
(Rav Yehudah): One who reads a Megilah written amidst Kesuvim is not Yotzei.
(Rava): If the Megilah was larger or smaller than the other parchments, there is no problem.
Rav Yehudah once rebuked Levi bar Shmuel for reading a Megilah written amidst Kesuvim.
(R. Chiya bar Aba): One who reads a Megilah written amidst Kesuvim is not Yotzei.
He hit on his head (to show that he retracts), and said 'this only applies b'Tzibur (but an individual is Yotzei).'
(R. Chiya bar Aba): We have a tradition from Sinai that one should not entirely sew together the parchments of a Sefer Torah (he should leave some of the top and bottom unsewn);
He hit on his head (for it is not really from Sinai). This is only so it should not tear.
(R. Chiya bar Aba): Had there been a crack in the cave where Moshe and Eliyahu were when Hash-m's glory passed over, they could not have survived the light - "Man cannot see Me and live."
(R. Chiya bar Aba): "... And on them (the Luchos) like everything that Hash-m spoke with you in the mountain" - on Sinai Hash-m showed to Moshe all the Dikdukim (e.g. Ribuyim and Mi'utim) in the Torah and in Divrei Chachamim, and what Chachamim will add, i.e. Keri'as ha'Megilah.
WHO MAY READ THE MEGILAH
(Mishnah): All may read the Megilah, except for a child, lunatic or Cheresh (deaf person);
R. Yehudah permits a child.
(Gemara) Question: Who is the Tana of our Mishnah, who says that one who hears from a Cheresh is not Yotzei?
Answer (Rav Masnah): It is R. Yosi:
(Mishnah): One who reads Keri'as Shema inaudibly to his own ears is Yotzei;
R. Yosi says that he was not Yotzei.
Suggestion: Perhaps our Mishnah is R. Yehudah (the first Tana), and the Cheresh may not read l'Chatchilah, but b'Di'eved one is Yotzei!
Rejection #1: A Cheresh is taught together with a lunatic and child. This shows that their law is the same, i.e. even b'Di'eved one is not Yotzei.
Rebuttal (of rejection): Perhaps their laws are not the same!
Rejection #2: Since R. Yehudah taught the Seifa, he did not teach the Reisha.
Question: Perhaps the entire Mishnah is R. Yehudah!
Answer: This cannot be. The Reisha says that a child may not read, but the end permits!
Rebuttal: Perhaps the Reisha discusses a child below the age of Chinuch (training in Mitzvos), and the Seifa discusses a child that reached Chinuch!
Rejection #3: You cannot say that R. Yehudah says that b'Di'eved one is Yotzei if he read inaudibly!
(Beraisa #1 - R. Yehudah brei d'R. Shimon ben Pazi): A Cheresh who can speak but not hear may tithe l'Chatchilah (even though he cannot hear his own Berachah)!
This is unlike R. Yosi, who says that even b'Di'eved one is not Yotzei. If R. Yehudah forbids l'Chatchilah, this is not like either Tana!
Counter-question: You cannot say that R. Yehudah permits l'Chatchilah!
(Beraisa #2): One should not bless silently after a meal. If he did, he was Yotzei.
This is unlike R. Yosi, who says that even b'Di'eved he is not Yotzei. If R. Yehudah permits l'Chatchilah, this is not like either Tana!