ERCHIN 4 (17 Sivan) - Today's Dafyomi studyֲ is dedicated to the memory of Moshe Grun (Moshe Shlomo ben Michael Z"L), by his good friends in Los Angeles, New York, and Jerusalem.


A DECLARATION OF HEFKER TO SAVE THE SWINDLERS (Yerushalmi Maaser Sheni Perek 5 Halachah 1 Daf 29a)

[דף כט עמוד א] ויציין


Question: (The Mishnah taught that (in those other years) the meticulous people would put down money and say, "Any produce gathered from here should be redeemed onto this money".) Why not just label it (without the need to put down money)?

אם מצויין הוא היאך נקרא הוא צנוע.


Answer: They were acting beyond the letter of the law, to save even the willful sinners from eating it.

אמר רבי יוחנן אתיא דרבי שמעון בן גמליאל כמאן דאמר לעיתותי ערב.


(R. Yochanan): Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel follows the opinion that they put down money and make their declaration at the end of the day.

דתני רבי דוסא אומר כל מה שילקטו העניים בין העומרים הבקר הרי הוא הבקר.


Proof (Tosefta) (R. Dosa): A field owner should declare each morning that anything gathered by the poor unlawfully should be Hefker. (This thereby exempts those crops from Maaser. He is relying on the concept of Bereirah (retroactive selection) - that whatever they eventually take unlawfully will be Hefker in advance.)

רבי יודה אומר לעיתותי ערב.


(R. Yehuda): He declares it towards the end of the day.

וחכמים אומרים אין הבקר אנסין הבקר שאין אנו אחראין לרמאין.


(Chachamim): Hekfer because of thieves is not Hekfer, as we are not responsible for swindlers.

ברם כמ"ד בשחרית לא אתיא ויש אדם (מבקר)[פודה] במחובר לקרקע.


The opinion (R. Dosa) that he declares in the morning cannot fit with our Mishnah, as the meticulous people must redeem it after it is collected, since a person cannot redeem something attached to the ground...?

אמר רבי ירמיה אפילו כמאן דאמר בשחרית אתיא הוא. ולאו רבן שמעון בן גמליאל היא. ועוד (הוא)[הא] אית ליה משיכתו של מעשר שני הוא פדיונו.


Rebuttal (R. Yirmiyah): It could even be according to R. Dosa. Wasn't that law taught by Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, who holds that (rather than when the money is paid), it's the taking of the Maaser Sheni that effects the redemption (which only takes place later on, when they actually collect the produce from the ground).

אמר רבי יוסי והיינו וקם לו. אלו ראה ככר מתגלגל בנהר ואמר ככר זה הקדש שמא כלום אמר.


Question (R. Yosi against R. Yirmiyah): Does this fulfill the pasuk 'and he will redeem his field'? (Can the redemption take effect when the produce is already in the possession of the thieves?) If a person saw a Hefker loaf floating down the river and he declared it to be Hekdesh, has he said anything?

אמר רבי ירמיה עד דאת מקשי לי [למ"ד] בשחרית קשייתה [למ"ד] לעיתותי ערב.


Rebuttal (R. Yirmiyah): Before you question me according to the one who said that he declares in the morning, ask on the one who says to declare towards evening?! (The produce is certainly no longer in his possession at that point!)

אמר ליה מאן דאית ליה לעתותי ערב לית ליה לאילין קשייתא:


(R. Yosi to R. Yirmiyah): That opinion (that he declares towards evening) clearly wasn't troubled by these questions (as he must reason that a person may redeem property not in his possession).